Europe at Sea (2017 documentary)

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Europe at Sea (2017 documentary)

in 2017 the world was more volatile than at any time since the second world war the strategic picture has changed dramatically threats are becoming more complex the dividing line between war and peace is blurred around the world millions of people are fleeing for their lives in the greatest movement of people ever seen we have entered a period of liquid modernity where constant change is the only permanence the concept well defines the new international insecurity be it terrorism migration crisis cyber warfare climate change the distinction between internal and external threats is no longer clear in this new world disorder the european union must also become more that’s the fluid for federica mogherini as the eu’s chief diplomat she has come up with a radically new plan the global strategy problem is very few have heard about it she has powerful allies but also many enemies outside and within her own ship will she succeed on setting europe on a safer course it’s like a puzzle we have to tell people the truth and the truth of our times is do you really believe any single european country alone from the smallest to the biggest has the size and the power to make a difference for its citizens in the global sale none of your countries alone in this world of today is a big one syrian and russian bombings on the rebel-held area of aleppo have ravaged entire neighborhoods schools hospitals wounding and killing scores of civilians many of them children libya is still in a state of chaos record numbers are trying to leave libya’s shores to make the deadly crossing to europe says women and children suffer sexual violence and abuse as they try to travel across the mediterranean africa is projected to have more people than china or india by mid-century the russian invasion of ukraine this year our nuclear forces will receive more than 40 intercontinental ballistic missiles in response to russia’s aggressive actions on nato battalion and lithuania led by the germans we can’t continue to be the policeman of the world [Applause] a third major attack in three months the united kingdom is still in shock turkey’s most powerful political figure president richard taya bertone called on citizens to take to the streets north korea test fired a ballistic missile from a region north of the capital pyongyang the europeans need to take responsibility when it comes to their own defense you can be strong and human it’s a matter of political will the european integration project just turned 60 60 years of stability have lulled europeans into taking security for granted

now they are slowly waking up to the new threats which are interconnected the majority of citizens wants europe to do more to protect them but then that same sense of insecurity is pulling them towards the easy answers of nationalists and anti-immigrant parties yet closing down borders and minds is not what can make us safer the new big picture is a complicated puzzle mogherini’s today europe looks as if it was surrounded by a ring of fire to the east two increasingly authoritarian hostile powers russia and turkey conflict in eastern europe tumult in the balkans to the south the mediterranean is now the epicenter of regional turmoil wars terrorism climate change poverty all fueling a massive flow of people into europe can europeans get their acts together if you were wants security is going to have to think in a more focused and more forceful way and is simply going to have to be prepared to roll up its collective sleeves and get its hands dirty by direct engagement in in some of the areas from which security challenges will otherwise migrate to europe it’s a challenge there is not necessarily a shared idea between european member states on what kind of role the eu geopolitically should take whether we should just be the recipients of conflicts or or whether we should actively engage and this is something that mogherini been trying to deal with for the last couple of years the global strategy is global strategies italian foreign minister federica mogherini has been chosen as the new foreign policy chief mogherini is set to become the new face of eu foreign affairs will take on the role of high representative for foreign policy and we also greatly agreed on this decision experience she is young but she already has experience she’s the minister of foreign affairs in her country and deals with unfortunately the same crises that we’re facing all over the world is federica mogherini the right person to lead europe’s diplomacy the eu has decided not to put in uh influential or highly influential people for a purpose which is to make sure that their impact can be controlled fundamentally the european union had a security strategy back in 2003

but in 2003 the world was a completely different one the last european strategy was written 14 years ago by javier solana back then it was assumed 500 million europeans could depend on 300 million americans forever since then catastrophic mistakes were made in iraq afghanistan libya and most tragically in syria so as soon as i entered in office here i realized that we needed to have common reflection the global strategy for the first time ever aims at making the european union an actor in itself on defense also building some capabilities of our own you need someone of the status of a well-respected prime minister or president to have any hope of really knocking these european heads together to act in a timely manner it is a political fight and i do it every single day there is a dilemma for a high representative and foreign policy and as much as the you know the the populous of europe has not yet grasped the fact that there need to be common solutions so that’s the scale of the dilemma that faces anybody who wants to produce a comprehensive foreign policy for 28 individual truculent self-assertive nation states president so we can choose to do nothing and be a spectator of the crisis unfolding around us or we can use the crisis as an opportunity for change and this is what i want to do

is europa foreign so okay please in the second boat we had a lot of children i think we had about eight nine children that was under one years old i find that really hard because they were really scared i just took a child on my arm and just sang a song what my mum used to sing to me like twinkle twinkle little stuff and she the baby looked at me and he was smiling a bit and i was like ah responsibility italy has received more than half a million people in the past three years before sophia it was alone as europe looked the other way sophia is one important piece of the puzzle but there are too many others missing stepping up external security combining all the eu forces civilian military humanitarian aid does make a difference but it can’t work unless the internal policies are in place

too there need to be legal channels of migration better asylum systems and a comprehensive plan for resettlement of refugees but so far all of these have been met by stiff resistance by eu member states especially in eastern europe we have so far given to the italian tradition system almost 100 suspect traffickers which is a drop in the ocean if you think of the dimensions of the phenomenon but we have to start from somewhere a drop in the ocean indeed when you realize that people trafficking is a fast growing business a gold rush on human suffering worth 30 billion euros a year worldwide the failure to tackle this collectively is not only a moral tragedy it’s also a security disaster migrants are fleeing crime terrorism radicalization and poverty and yet that is exactly what they encounter when they finally reach europe and it’s a two-way street border insecurity allows home-grown terrorists to train in jihadist camps south of the med a link between internal and external security was obvious in recent terrorist attacks on europe cities we see that very clearly no single national intelligence agency no single police authority had all the parts of the jigsaw puzzle i’ve likened it in the past to putting together a 1 000 piece jigsaw puzzle at high speed in poor lighting without having any idea of what the end result is meant to look like it is a situation which demands better integration of effort between different nations security and intelligence agencies better data sharing a more proactive approach to i want to stress very clearly is that the focus of our mission is to fight against the smugglers so no mistakes are accepted the flow of migrants will increase dramatically in the next weeks and we have to be prepared to support the european flag at best libya became an open door into europe after the 2011 franco-british-led military campaign following a familiar pattern the west intervened and then left the country to collapse into chaos and civil war sophia was meant to bring the fight against traffickers into libyan waters but there was no government in libya

strong enough to implement as deaths and crime kept rising near the coast sophia was given the task of training the controversial libyan coast guard suspected of colluding with smugglers working with local forces who have questionable legal and human rights standards presents a moral conundrum but europe needs libya’s help to manage the migrant flows and libya needs europe’s help to rebuild a fully functioning state the improved coast guard successfully slowed the flow into the medicine foreign foreign today we turn the page marking the beginning of a new era between the european union and libya count on us as we count on you we will continue to work together [Applause] but this resulted in more people being trapped in hellish libyan detention camps after severe criticism mogherini significantly increased aid to protect migrants and refugees there but much more needs to be done there is no silver bullet libya has become a battleground between international and regional players including russia and eu countries with conflicting interests the mediterranean has been the focus for europeans but to influence what happens there you have to go south deeper south the african piece of the puzzle is europe’s greatest challenge yes we have to save people in the mediterranean but in the meantime the world of today has problems that need to be tackled at the roots on her first trip to africa mogherini went to niger and learnt an important lesson the migration security and development are all inextricably linked even if the libyan door is closed millions of people are expected to try other routes in the next decade mogherini’s strategy is to fight crime while trying to provide a legal economic alternative is one of the poorest countries in the world with skyrocketing birth rates it’s surrounded by an arc of instability with expanding jihadist networks interacting with conflicts crime and climate change all this exacerbates flows of migrants and refugees there was a time when we felt that

our strength was based on the weakness of others in today’s words if my neighbor has a problem i have a problem it’s like a puzzle you have to act at sea you have to act at the source before people start to create opportunities for jobs and education so that the system of trafficking is dismantled from within it takes time but it is effective and we’re doing this all together what you need to do is to support those local civil society groups that are trying in their areas to establish legitimate forms of authority federica mogherini’s global strategy is really an important breakthrough what the european union should have is a human security force it’s civilian-led and it’s composed both of military and civilians we might not eventually even call them military because that what they would engage in is law enforcement what they would do is much more like policing than like war fighting civilian crisis management missions are expert missions you can do wonderous stuff with couple of good experts who know exactly what to do in order to enhance the capacity of nigerian forces assistance foreign security foreign me activity illegal the european union has turned the page and for us africa today is first of all a partner a partner on security to prevent radicalization a partner in economic development and we are working as neighbors as friends whether it’s a migration crisis or the rise of russia uh the arab springs your the consequent effects none of these things have got a single nation solution but the problem is that their populations their electorates have not yet grasped that issue the most extreme example of that is the brexit debate in the united kingdom where people sort of said we’ll just we’ll opt out as if they could opt out of the neighborhood as if they could opt out of the of the security problems that face every country in europe including the united kingdom british homeland security is bound up with european security brexit risks weakening both post-brexit britain will leave

15 eu missions such as sofia it will lose any voice on the new eu defense plan will not qualify for the new large european defense fund which aims to boost security integration and innovation the british people have woken up to the knowledge that a political earthquake has taken place with the united kingdom voting to leave the european union how do we get out of here small could be beautiful but it’s not effective are british people now better off it’s playing with fire only a month after the brexit vote mogherini secured a significant step forward for her defense plan in warsaw at the most important summit since the end of the cold war nato agreed to step up troops to deter russian war games in the baltics notwithstanding eu tough sanctions moscow kept misbehaving the 29 members of which 22 are eu members also agreed to tighten eu nato cooperation competitive alternatives the world needs us but the european union has instruments that nato doesn’t have when it comes to cyber attacks when it comes to hybrid threats european union has assets that do not belong to a military alliance i really welcome the global strategy of the european union together we can achieve a lot and therefore we also believe very much in building local capacity enabling local forces to stabilize their own countries and in the long run we believe that’s a much more viable solution than we deploying a large number of our own combat troops it was very striking the contrast between the u.s and the uk on the one side and angela merkel and mogherini herself on the other side angela merkel said of course we need to spend two percent of our gdps on security but security isn’t all about military spending if that kind of alternative understanding which is implicit in the global strategy can be got across to national leaders that could be very important in the future we will now start the signing ceremony for the joint declaration europe needs to be strong in the world it’s not a matter of talking or dreaming about european armies there are plenty of things that we can do we need to hard power rapid reaction forces headquarters in buses donald tusk and president jean-claude juncker and i have just signed the declaration to give new substance and new impetus to the partnership between nato and the european union

i look forward to working with federica on implementing what we have decided so once again thank you uh is the eu was often described as an economic giant a political dwarf a military worm in 2016 a series of events were about to change that the brexit vote removed the traditional uk veto on eu defense germany made a historic shift towards self-confidence and less reliance on the us russian belligerents tensions with nato ally turkey and rising confrontations between muslim powers all pushed europeans to wake up to the need for an autonomous european defense strategy the saudi arabians have just hired a pakistani general to turn to develop something they call colloquially a muslim nato in a way the eu is sort of going in the right direction because you know will nato last forever uh probably not this is european union better group but my goodness me it’s going to cost a lot of money involve a lot of political commitment and a lot of compromise in a very varied organization where they can’t now it would appear agree on really much simpler things in september the un adopted the new york declaration reaffirming the world’s responsibilities towards global mass migrations this was a success for mogherini’s goal of comprehensive partnerships even though there was no serious commitment to relocation of refugees and migrants we have first of all an unprecedented series of simultaneous complex and protracted crises and disasters they will continue to push people onto migratory routes we need an innovative new idea what we’re presenting is an external investment plan of the european union we are doing more than anybody else in the world in africa and in our region but this is not enough it is completely necessary for us to face the truth we need migration but we want a need to manage migration together the glass was half full but the celebrations were short-lived once again russian intervention in syria was about to send shock sweet waves is me and now to an attack on an aid convoy in syria

the convoy was carrying aid for 78 000 people it killed dozens of civilians and the director of the syrian red crescent sub-branch moscow concedes it was tracking the convoy with a drone at the exact moment it was hit we hold the russian government responsible are you concerned that the us and russia basically monopolize the peace process one of the most striking things about european security is the fact that russia is now a much more important player than any of the capitals of the european union and that’s not just true of what happens in eastern europe it’s true of what happens in syria and increasingly libya where russia is becoming the indispensable power is is i think the russians have actually taken seriously the idea of new wars and have understood that they can create new wars so what russia is doing is causing huge destruction which could well influence us here in western europe you know we shouldn’t be complacent that there won’t ever be another war and it could be a kind of new war it’s through so-called hybrid operations you’re using um the disruption of society from within as in your armory is much more than just military it’s diplomatic and non-military uh means of of influencing events as well as the military european leaders can wring their hands but the fact is for five or six years their indecision and lack of action has led to the situation which can now be exploited in the way it is by russia russia is doing what russia does foreign syria has turned into a proxy war the fighting in syria has allowed vladimir putin to show off russia’s capabilities tactics and technology russia has decided to take this risk in syria it has really paid off we could have defeated assad back in 2012 2013 we didn’t do enough it was more than quite the market would bear russia has done so with the initiative and decisiveness that we should have been doing or showing four or five years ago the tragedy about the situation we’re confronted by now isis and other look-alike organizations is that it it is a problem of our own creation back in 2011 2012 isis didn’t exist if everyone was united would have rolled through them in no time at all russia’s entry into the fight in syria has exacerbated the problem together russia and the assad regime are deliberately weaponizing migration in an attempt to overwhelm european structures and break

european resolve in the last 50 years there have been 75 occasions when governments have actually encouraged people to flee from their countries as a way of increasing their political power the price of our failure in um to get it right in libya has already been huge and is potentially going to be much greater the migrant crisis is just one dimension uh to it and uh that has hit certain countries particularly italy uh very hard indeed but it’s led to political disruption throughout europe they call it non-linear war and they say nowadays the way to make war is through a combination of what they call political technology cyber interference special forces information and it’s very easy quickly to destabilize a country i certainly think there were there was russian involvement in brexit but you know don’t let’s run away with russian influence we know there was influence in trump we know they have this strategy but we also know these shortcomings what led to brexit and what led to trump were intrinsic in the united states and the uk so we’ve got plenty plenty of instruments for the last war and for the last enemy and yet one man with a car and two knives can actually inflict huge damage little green men without insignia in their uniform can take over part of a a sovereign nation state cyber warfare is something that we are simply not grasps and the answer to that kind of interference can’t be an old war response can’t be building up hard defenses old-fashioned military forces the answer is once again to really try to establish legitimate political authorities that can resist that kind of interference we will make america great again because i’ve just received a call from secretary clinton she congratulated us it’s about us on our victory rolling black today we now have a president-elect who said very clearly he would put america’s interests first well from a european perspective it’s very clear that european interest and american interest in many fields are coincide federica mogherini welcome to the program thank you don’t you depend on the united states to lead the european position is not determined by uh the american position is okay

we are currently witnessing the biggest arms race since the end of the cold war the eu is at the bottom if the eu implemented mogherini’s defense plan it would have the world’s second largest army whilst reducing its taxpayers defense bill by 30 percent her plan aims to refocus defense spending on peace building in a rules-based international system eu countries would be able to strengthen their own defense under the so-called pesco articles but all of this is dependent on eu citizens understanding why this piece of the puzzle could help make the world safer the title of this conference asks whether we are living a revolution or an evolution of european defense and let me tell you very clearly i believe the revolution we need is simply to make things work so no theoretical debates but very concrete action no excuses you just need to do it and to do it now this is the world we’re living in and we better wake up to this new reality the biggest enemy that we face today is ourselves we are our own worst enemy because we are not facing up collectively or individually to the kind of challenges that face us today and will shape the world in the future the real issue is a lack of statecraft and statesmanship in the west where is the church or where is the roosevelt i don’t see them president macron has been hailed as europe’s savior he is kick-starting a new franco-german alliance but there are well-founded doubts europeans um and unless we’re waking up to that and unless we put in place the the kind of structures that previous generations did for us then it’s a very bleak future that we’re going to leave to the next generation federica mogherini has got to take the bully pulpit and make it clear what it is is going to be required to deal with these challenges in the future aroma event restaurant

for the european union it can be an opportunity to realize what we have work on things that have to be changed and we launched projects with more collective awareness of what is at stake you don’t realize what you have until you’ve lost so you