NASA in Silicon Valley Live – Air Taxis and the Future of Flight

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NASA in Silicon Valley Live – Air Taxis and the Future of Flight

>> SO ABBY, BEFORE WE GET INTO THE SHOW, HOW ABOUT WE REMIND OUR AUDIENCE ABOUT OUR REALLY COOL CLOCK HERE >> FOR SURE IF THIS IS OUR “MOON COUNTDOWN CLOCK,” OR WE ARE COUNTING DOWN THE NEXT FIVE YEARS TO 2024 WHEN RE PLANNING TO SEND HUMANS TO THE MOON AS PART OF THE ARTEMIS PROGRAM SO THIS CLOCK IS COUNTING DOWN THE DAYS, HOURS, MINUTES, AND SECONDS TO 2024, WHEN THE FIRST WOMAN AND THE NEXT MAN WILL WALK ON THE MOON’S SOUTH POLE SO EXACTLY, GET EXCITED FOR THAT YOU CAN GO TONT TO LEARN MORE, NASA.GOV/ARTEMIS BUT FOR NOW, LET’S GET INTO THE TOPIC OF THE DAY, RIGHT? >> YEAH >> CAN YOU GUYS START OFF BY TELLING US HOW IS NASA REIMAGINING URBAN TRANSPORTATION? >> YEAH, SO THERE’S THIS NEW CONCEPT THAT’S COME ABOUT AND IT’S CALLED URBAN AIR MOBILITY YOU MIGHT HEAR US CALL ITAM SO WHAT IS UAM, RIGHT? ONE CAN IMAGINE ABOVE THEM IN AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM THAT HAS EVERYTHING FROM SMALL DELIVERY DRONES TO PASSENGER-CARRYING AIR TAXIS FLYING SAFELY AND EFFICIENTLY ABOVE URBAN CENTERS OR, YOU KNOW, ALMOST ABOVE ANYWHERE ALMOST EVERY DAY AND THAT’S THAT VISION THAT WE ARE REALLY TR TO ENABLE WHERE WE HAVE NEW AIRCRAFT, NEW ENTRANTS, MAKING OUR LIVES EASIER BY PROVIDING FUNCTIONS THAT WE ALL REALLY NEED >> OKAY, AMAZING SO HOW DID WE GET HERE? LIKE WHAT LED TO THIS MOMENT WHERE WE ARE WORKING ON THIS NOW? >> YEAH, SO INDUSTRY HAS REALLY BEEN PUSHING THINGS FORWARD FOLKS KNOW, RIGHT, WE HAVE AUTOMOBILES AND AS AUTOMOBILES HAVE BEEN MOVING A DEVELOPING, YOU HAVE THIS NEW ADVENT OF ELECTRIC CARS, RIGHT? SO THAT SAME TECHNOLOGY CAN NOW ACTUALLY ALSO BE APPLIED TO AIRCRAFT SO WE HAVE ELECTRIC PROPULSION FOR AIRCRAFT SO JUST LIKE YOU HAVE THIS NEW CLEAN AND EFFICIENT WAY OF PROVIDING TRANSPORT FOR VEHICLES, THIS NEW CLEAN ELECTRIC TRANSPORT CAN BE APPLIED FOR AIRCRAFT, SO WE HAVE NEW AUTOMATION ALSO THAT’S COMING INTO PLAY, SO NEW CONTROL SYSTEMS THAT ARE ON BOARD VEHICLES AND IT’S REALLY THAT COMBINATION OF THOSE TWO THINGS ELECTRIC PROPULSION TECHNOLOGY PLUS AUTOMATION HAS REALLY LED US TOWARDS THIS NEW KIND OF MODE OF TRANSPORTATION THAT WE’RE REALLY EED ABOUT >> OKAY, AWESOME SO THESE AIR TAXIS YOU’VE BEEN DESCRIBING, I THINK YOU CAME WITH AN IMAGE, AN EXAMPLE? >> YEAH >> LET’S BRING THAT UP AND WE CAN TALK ABOUT WHAT WE ARE SEEING >> COOL! >> SO THIS IS A CONCEPT VEHICLE THIS IS WHAT WE CALL AN ELECTRIC VERTICAL TAKEOFF AND LANDING VEHICLE YOU CAN SEE AS FOUR ROTORS, ON EACH SIDE SO WHAT IS A ROTOR? A ROTOR ARE BLADES THAT SPIN TO HELP GENERATE LIFT, KIND OF LIKE A HELICOPTER SO A HELICOPTER YOU TYPICALLY HAVE ONE ROTOR ABOVE AND THEN YOU HAVE A TAIL ROTOR BEHIND AND SO WHAT THESE ROTORS DO IS THEY PROVIDE LIFT THIS IS JUST ONE CONFIGURATION OF A POTENTIAL URBAN AIR MOBILITY VEHICLE THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT CONFIGURATIONS CAN ALSO SEE HERE THAT THAT VEHICLE ALSO HAS A WING SO HOW WOULD THESE VEHICLES KIND OF FLY? YOU CAN IMAGINE THAT THEY WOULD TAKE OFF VERTICALLY AND THEN SHIFT TO FORWARD FLIGHT, LEVERAGING THEIR WINGS TO HAVE THE PERFORMANCE >> A CROSS BETWEEN A HELICOPTER’S TAKE OFF IN A FLYING FORWARD ALL RIGHT, SWEET >> WE HAVE A COUPLE QUESTIONS HERE ALREADY BIG BADOM WHO SAYS “DON’T WE HAVE AIR TAXIS, BETTER KNOWN AS A PLANE? “>> GOOD QUESTION >> SO COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT, CURRENT DAY AIRCRAFT THAT WE ALL FLYING TODAY, THOSE ARE FOR LONGER FLIGHTS, TYPICALLY SO YOU MIGHT FLY FROM SEPARATIST GO TO L.A. OR WASHINGTON TO NEW YORK OR WHEREVER YOU ARE INTERESTE FLYING THOSE ARE OVER LONGER TRIPS, FOR YOUR COVERING LOTS OF MILES AND ALSO THOSE AIRCRAFT USE FUEL, SO JET FUEL THESE NEW AIR TAXIS OR URBAN AIR MOBILITY VEHICLES ARE ELECTRIC PROPULSION VEHICLES, SO YOU’RE NO LONGER RELYING ON JET FUEL AND TYPICALLY THEY ARE FLYING SHORTER MISSIONS THIS KIND OF A WIDE RANGE OF THEIR MISSION TYPES, BUT YOU’RE TYPICALLY FLYING SHORTER MISSIONS AND YOU’RE USING A DIFFERENT MODE OF FUEL >> WITHIN A CITY OR A COUPLE CITIES >> THERE ARE ALSO SMALLER >> SMALLER >> OR BETWEEN CITIES YOU WOULDN’T NORMALLY BOOK A FLIGHT FROM SAN JOSE TO SANFORD CISCO, RIGHT? THAT’S THE CONCEPT — >> BUT WE ALL WISH WITH THE TRAFFIC >> THAT’S EXACTLY WHAT WE’RE LOOKING AT BECAUSE TAKING US OFF THE ROADS >> SO HAVE A CAT HERE SAYS WILL THERE BE LIKE LARGE MULTI-COPTER, BATTERY-POWERED, WHAT KIND OF RANGE ARE WE TALKING ABOUT? >> SO THERE’S A WHOLE HOST OF CONFIGURATIONS SOME HAVE FOUR ROTORS LIKE WE SAW IN THAT IMAGE, SOME HAVE TWO, SOME HAVE MANY AND THEY ALSO HAVE SOITH WING CONFIGURATI TYPICALLYBOUT 4-8 PASSENGERS CARRYING IN TERMS OF THE SIZE AND MANY OF THEM ARE ELECTRICALLY POWERED, SO YES,

BATTERY-POWERED IS WHERE MANY OF THEM ARE GOING >> TALKING ABOUT PASSENGERS, BUT ACTUALLY CARGO COULD BE ONE OF THE FIRST THINGS THAT REALLY TESTS THE CONCEPT OUT >> OKAY, MAKES SENSE PASSENGER VEHICLE, CARGO DELIVERY, ARE THERE OTHER APPLICATIONS THAT YOU SEE IS REALLY IMPORTANT? YEAH, SO ONE OF THE MAJOR APPLICATIONS WE CAN SEE COMING FORWARD HIS EMERGENCY SERVICES SO ONE CAN IMAGINE IF YOU HAVE CURRENT DAY HELICOPTERS BEING USED TO PROVIDE AMBULANCE SUPPORT SERVICES, THESE VEHICLES COULD BE FLOWN IN AREAS THAT MIGHT BE DANGEROUS OR DIFFICULT TO GET TO AND PROVIDE THOSE SAME EMERGENCY-TYPE SERVICES SO THERE’S A WHOLE HOST OF APPLICATIONS >> AWESOME THAT’S EASY TO SEE HOW WE ARE GOING TO USE THEM, HOW IT’S GOING TO BE HELPFUL THERE MUST BE CHALLENGES FOR PEOPLE LIKE YOU TO DEVELOP THESE SYSTEMS ARE THERE FEW THAT YOU WOULD HIGHLIGHT? >> YEAH, SO I WOULD ACTUALLY TAKE A PHRASE THAT IS USED BY THE FAA >> FEDERAL AVIATION MINISTRIES >> RIGHT, WE ARE WORKING VERY CLOSELY WITH THEM TO SEE IF WE CAN MAKE URBAN AIR MOBILITY A REALITY ONE OF THE PHRASES AS THEY LIKE TO FOCUS ON AIRCRAFT, THE AIR MAN OR AIR WOMAN, AND THE AIRSPACE SO WHAT DOES THAT MEAN? THESE VEHICLES, THEY’RE NEW SO THESE AIRCRAFT HAVE TO BE CERTIFIED THERE ARE GOING TO BE INTERESTING CHALLENGES ON HOW WE CERTIFY THESE VEHICLES AS THEY HAVE DIFFERENT PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS WE MENTIONED THAT THEY’RE GOING TO BATTERY-POWERED OR ELECTRIC VEHICLES THAT HASN’T LOCATIONS ON THE CERTIFICATION >> CERTIFYING THEM AS SAFE TO FLY THE BRAND-NEW, WHERE WE ARE GOING TO DECLARE THEM SAFE FOR THE SKIES AND OUR CITIES >> AND THEN YOU TALK ABOUT THE AIR MAN OR THE AIR WOMAN PART, OR AIR PERSON, THAT IMPLIES WE ALAVE TO THINK ABOUT WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE PILOT AND HOW TO THE INTERFACE WITH POTENTIALLY NEW CONTROLS? IF THEY HAVE DIFFERENT WAY OF TRAINING >> WHOLE NEW TRAINING, POTENTIALLY A POOL OF PILOTS THAT MAY NOT HAVE THE SAME TRAINING THAT OUR CURRENT PILOTS TODAY HAVE BUT HOW DID ACTUALLY FLY THESE VEHICLES? THAT’S ALSO REALLY IMPORTANT QUESTION THAT WE HAVE IN THE LAST PIECE, WHICH I THINK IS ALSO REALLY IMPORTANT IS HOW TO INTEGRATE THESE VEHICLES? IT’S NOT JUST ONE OR TWO OF THESE VEHICLES THAT MAY BE FLYING IN THE FUTURE YOU CAN IMAGINE HUNDREDS OR THOUSANDS OF THEM AND IF THAT’S THE CASE, HOW DO WE INTEGRATE THEM SAFELY AND EFFICIENTLY INTO OUR AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM, INTO OUR NATIONAL AIRSPACE? >> AN INTERESTING PART OF THE RESEARCH IF YOU LOOK AT THE THREE, THE AIRCRAFT, THE AIR MAN OR WOMAN, AND THE AIRSPACE, SOME OF THE THINGS THAT ARE DONE IN THE AIRSPACE NOW FOR THE CURRENT TRAFFIC MAY BE BETTER HANDLED BY ONE OF THOSE OTHER BUCKETS SOME OF THE THINGS THAT A PILOT TAKES CARE OF NO MAY BE CAN BE BETTER HANDLED BY THE AIRFRAME ITSELF UNDERSTANDING WHERE THESE THINGS SHOULD GET HANDLED IN THIS NEW WAY OF TRAVEL IS AN IMPORTANT AREA OF RESEARS WELL >> A GOOD QUESTION HERE FROM SPACE WALLACE HE SAYS ARE WE GOING TO HAVE AIR TRAFFIC LIGHTS? IS THERE GOING TO BE A DIRECT PATH THEY FOLLOW, MANNERISM, THINGS LIKE THAT THAT CAN HELP WITH NAVIGATING TO MEXICO THIS IS ACTUALLY AN ACCENT IN PART TALKED EARLIER ABOUT THE ADVANCES IN VEHICLES ALLOWING US TO GET TO THIS POINT IN TIME BUT ACTUALLY THE ADVANCES IN AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT ARE REALLY IMPORTANT AS WELL AND THESE TWO THINGS ARE CONVERGING SO THERE ACTUALLY WILL BE STOPLIGHTS, THEY WILL BE DIGITAL THEY WON’T ACTUALLY BE FLOATING AND HOVERING UP THERE >> RED, YELLOW, GREEN >> THERE WOULD BE A SET OF PROCEDURES AND POLICIES AND RULES AND PEOPLE THAT ARE OPERATING IN THIS AIRSPACE WOULD NEED TO FOLLOW IN ORDER TO HAVE THE WHOLE THING STILL WORK SAFELY AND EFFICIENTLY SO FIGURINL OF THAT OUT IS A BIG AREA OF RESEARCH AND WE DO COLLABORATE WITH THE FAA TO FIGURE OUT WHAT IS A GOOD PATH FORWARD >> AND YOU SAID THIS IS ABOUT HELPING THESE NEW VEHICLES GET INTO THE NATIONAL AIRSPACE, RIGHT? CAN YOU DEFINE FOR EVERYBODY WHAT THAT MEANS? SPEAK OF NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM IS WHAT ENABLES US TO HAVE AIR TRAFFIC AND AIR TRANSPORT IN THE U.S. TODAY THAT MAKES THAT HAPPEN.ERYTHING SO IT’S THE RUN YOU CAN THINK OF, THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWERS, THE AIRPORTS, THE RADARS IT’S ACTUALLY THE VEHICLES AS WELL AND THE PEOPLE THAT TAKE CARE OF ALL THESE THINGS AND ACTUALLY RUN THEM DAY-TO-DAY, BUT IT’S ALSO THINGS YOU CAN’T TOUCH IT’S THINGS LIKE RULES AND PROCEDURES AND FREQUENCIES, ALL OF THAT STUFF TOGETHER MAKES UP THE AT NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM SO HOW DO YOU INTRODUCE NEW THINGS INTO THAT? IT’S A DELICATE DANCE TO MAKE SU YOU DON’T HARM WHAT’S WORKING WELL NOW AND ENABLE NEW WAYS OF TRAVEL >> YOU GUYS OF THE CHOREOGRAPHERS OF URBAN AIR MOBILITY >> I LIKE THAT AS HER JOB TITLE >> CAN WE CHANGE OUR JOB TITLE? [LAUGHTER] >> I DON’T THINK THIS IS A QUESTION ON THE LIST, BUT I’M SURE THE PEOPLE ARE ASKING THEMSELVES, WHY DOES NASA WORK ON THIS? DO YOUS HAVE A GOOD ANSWER FOR THAT? >> YEAH I’LL JUMP IN THE THING PEOPLE FORGET IS THAT FIRST DAY IN NASA STANDS FOR AERONAUTICS AND WE DO A LOT OF AERONAUTICS RESEARCH AND PEOPLE THAT DO OR MEMBER THAT AERONAUTICS IS PART OF WHAT WE DO, THEY MAY BE FORGET THAT AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT IS ACTUALLY A MAJOR PART OF AERONAUTICS HOW DO YOU ACTUALLY ALLOW THOSE VEHICLES TO GET UP IN THE AIR AND FLY AROUNDD DO WHAT THEY DO? AND WE HAVE A PRETTY GOOD

HISTORY HERE AT NASA AMES AND NASA AS A WHOLE DOING THAT KIND OF RESEARCH, SO IT’S REALLY NATURAL THAT THIS IDEA OF THIS NEW AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT CONCEPT KIND OF ORIGINATED WITH US >> AND I WOULD SAY WE’VE ALSO BEEN COLLABORATING WITH THE FAA FOR A NUMBER OF YEARS, SO AS OUR RESEARCH HAS BEEN DEVELOPING, WE’VE BEEN COLLABORATING WITH THE FAA TRANSFER TECHNOLOGIES AND NEW RESEARCH GIVE ABILITY TO REALLY MAKE OUR AIRSPACE MUCH MORE EFFICIENT, OUR AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT, REALLY IMPROVE EFFICIENCIES AS MUCH AS WE CAN >> I KNOW YOU GUYS WORK CLOSELY AND IN ALL THAT ARE AERONAUTICS RESEARCH GOES WAY, WAY BACK HERE AT AMES AT THE CENTER HERE, AMES RESEARCH CENTER, WE STARTED AS A AERONAUTIC COLLABORATION 1989, DECEMBER 20TH 1939 WHICH MAKES TOMORROW OUR BIRTHDAY! [APPLAUSE] >> HAPPY BIRTHDAY, AMES! >> IT’S OUR 80TH ANNIVERSARY TOMORROW WE ARE GLAD YOU COULD BE HERE AND HELP US CELEBRATE SO DO YOU HAVE ANY FAVORITES ABOUT THAT AIR TRAFFIC NAGEMENT RESEARCH THAT SO IMPO >> FIRST OF ALL WAS TOLD THERE WOULD BE CAKE ANYWAY WE HAVE DONE A LOT OF RESEARCH AND AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AND A LOT OF THE TOOLS ARE BEHIND THE SCENES THERE THINGS THAT PEOPLE WON’T SEE EVERY DAY BUT THEY’RE THE KINDS OF THINGS THAT SAVE PEOPLE 5 MINUTES AIR, 10 MINUTES THERE ON YOUR WAY TO SOMEWHERE EVERYONE HAS LANDED AT AN AIT AND HAS KIND OF WAITED TO GET A GATE HOW DO YOU OPTIMIZE THAT AND MAKE PEOPLE GET TO THEIR GATE FASTER? HOWDY LET PEOPLE ROUTE AROUND BAD WEATHER QUICKLY AND EFFICIENTLY IN SAY 5 MINUTES AND A SMOOTHER RIDE TO GET TO WHERE YOU’RE GOING TO MAKE AND THESE ARE TIME SAVINGS FOR US AS PASSENGERS BUT THAT TRANSLATES ALSO TO MONEY SAVINGS FOR THE AIRLINES AND THESE THINGS ADD THERE OVER COUE OF YEARMINUTES ACROSS ALL AIRLINES, THESE SAVINGALLY ADD UP AND THESE ARE A LOT OF THE THINGS THAT WE’VE ORIGINALLY RESEARCHED HERE AT NASA AMES >> I THINK SOME OF THESE EFFICIENCIES HAVE COME FROM FLYING IN THE AIR, SOME OF THEM HAVE ACTUALLY COME FROM TRYING TO MAKE THE SURFACE OPERATIONS MUCH MORE EFFICIENT SO REALLY LIKE JOEY WAS SAYING, IT’S ALL ABOUT TIME THAT’S OUR MOST VALUABLE COMMODITY ANO HOW DO WE SAVE OUR TIME AND THAT’S WHERE WE DEVELOP ALGORITHMS, TOOLS, WORK REALLY CLOSELY WITH AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS TO GIVE THEM TOOLS TO MAKE THEIR JOBS EASIER SO THAT IS SOMETHING THAT WE’VE BEEN DOING RESEARCH ON FUNDAMENTALLY FOR THE LAST 30 YEARS >> THAT’S GOING BACK >> NOT JUST RESEARCH, TRANSFERRING INTO THE FAA TO MAKE THEM REAL >> RIGHT, THEY ACT INTO USE, RIGHT? >> TOOLS IN OUR AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWERS COME ALMOST EVERY AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER TODAY HAS SOME TECHNOLOGY THAT WE HAVE WORKED ON HERE AT NASA >> THAT’S SO AWESOME, I DON’T THINK PEOPLE KNOW THAT >> WE HAVE A QUESTION HERE FROM JUST ME ON MY LAPTOP, WHAT PART OF AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT D.C CONTROLLED? >> I THINK IF WE THINK ABOUT HOW MANY OF THESE OPERATIONS THERE ARE GOING TO BE IN THE FUTURE, PEOPLE’S MINDS RACE A LITTLE BIT AND YOU THINK ABOUT HOW MUCH — HOW MANY NEW FLIGHTS THERE WILL BE THE CURRENT SYSTEM ISN’T SET UP TO HANDLE THAT MANY MORE FLIGHTS THAT QUICKLY SO ACTUALLY A LOT OF THE FUNCTION IS TO ENABLE THESE NEW ENTRANTS ARE GOING TO NEED TO BE AUTOMATED AS WELL AS SOME OF THE PROCESSES ON THE EXISTING SIDE IN ORDER FOR THEM TO KNOW HOW TO INTEGRATE AND MANAGE THIS NEW TRAFFIC AS WELL BUT WE’RE NOT GOING TO HAVE ENOUGH CONTROLLERS THAT CAN TALK TO ALL OF THESE AIRCRAFT TO DO ALL OF THESE THINGS ALL THE TIME LIKE THEY DO WITH THE AIRCRAFT TODAY, SO A LOT OF THOSE FUNCTIONS ARE GOING TO BE AUTOMATED, SO THERE WILL BE A LOT OF AUTOMATION TO ENABLE THIS TO HAPPEN >> DO YOU WANT TO TAKE ANYMORE RIGHT NOW? >> THERE’S PLENTY THE CHAT IS REALLY BLOWING UP, PEOPLE ARE VERY INTERESTED IN THIS TOPIC THERE IS SOME QUESTION ABOUT HOW DO WE — SO HOPS 555 SAYS HOW DO PREVENT MIDAIR COLLISIONS WITH AIR TRAFFIC? WITH AIR TAXIS? >> SO LIKE JOEY WAS MENTIONING, THERE’S GOING TO BE NEW AUTOMATION THAT’S GOING TO COM ON BOARD THEICLE POTENTIALLY AS WELL AS TOOLS FOR AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SERVICES SO WHAT ARE THE INTERSECTION OF TOOLS THAT ARE ON BOARD THE VEHICLE AS WELL AS SERVICES THAT MIGHT BE PROVIDED FROM POTENTIAL AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS OR OTHER ENTITIES TO MIKE AND THAT’S KIND OF WHAT WE ARE INVESTIGATING >> AND THEN WHERE DOES AUTOMATION HELP ENSURE THAT WE REDUCE ANY ISSUES IN TERMS OF SAFETY IMPACT SO SAFETY IS KIND OF THE NUMBER ONE GOAL HOW DO YOU ENSURE SAFE OPERATIONS? >> YEAH >> THE TOOLS WE DEVELOP, THEY DO LOOK AT A FEW DIFFERENT LAYERS OF HOW THIS HAPPENS IF THE AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT LAYER, THAT’S USUALLY A STRATEGIC LAYER HOW DO WE NOT PUT TOO MANY VEHICLES IN ONE SPOT SO THAT IT’S REALLY HARD FOR THEM TO AVOID EACH OTHER? SO STRATEGICALLY A KIND OF KEEP THEM APART TO THIS GROUND AUTOMATION AND HAVINGHEM SHARE WHAT THEY’RE GOING TO DO WITH EACH OTHER, THEN MORE TACTICALLY, A LOT OF THAT ONBOARD CAPABILITY TO KEEP THEM SEPARATED >> SO ALL THESE TOOLS THAT YOU GUYS ARE TALKING ABOUT, A LOT OF THAT WORK IS DONE AT AMES HERE BUT ALSO ALL OTHER NASA CENTERS ACROSS THE COUNTRY, RIGHT? SO YOU GUYS HAVE A LOT OF PARTNERS >> DEFINITELY NASA ARMSTRONG LANGLEY, GLENN ALMOST ALL THE NASA CENTERS THAT

ARE FOCUSED ON AERONAUTICS ARE CREATURE BIDDING TO MAKING URBAN AIR MOBILITY A REALITY PRETTY EXCITING >> OF A COLLABORATIVE EFFORT WHEN DID ALL OF THIS BEGIN FOR URBAN AIR MOBILITY? WHAT’S GOING ON TODAY? THE WORK THAT’S HAPPENING NOW >> SO ONE OF THE AREAS WHERE THIS KIND OF FIRST STARTED IN TERMS OF NASA INVOLVEMENT IS WHAT WE CALL THE GRAND CHALLENGE >> THE GRAND CHALLENGE SOUNDS KIND OF EXCITING IF THE GRAND CHALLENGES AND ACTIVITY IN WHICH WE ARE WORKING COLLABORATIVELY WITH THE FAA AS WELL AS INDUSTRY PARTNERS, BOTH VEHICLE INDUSTRY PARTNERS AND AEROSPACE INDUSTRY PARTNERS TO KIND OF DEVELOP AN ECOSYSTEM SO WE CAN REALLY BEGIN TESTING OUT SOME OF THESE CONCEPTS VEHICLE?S IT MEAN TO FLY A AT KIND OF DATA DO WE NEED TO COLLECT TO HELP WITH THE CERTIFICATION PROCESS, UNDERSTAND THE PERFORMANCE OF THESE VEHICLES? AND THEN ALSO START UNDERSTANDING WHAT DOES IT MEAN, WHAT KIND OF TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES, WHAT KIND OF SOFTWARE DO WE NEED TO BUILD TO ACTUALLY HAVE SOME KIND OF AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THESE VEHICLES AS MANY OF THEM START COMING UP AND BECOMING A REALITY SO THE GRAND CHAENGE IS A SERIES OF FLIGHT DEMONSTRATIONS AND SIMULATION ACTIVITY WHERE WE REALLY HOPE TO EXPLORE ALL THE SAFETY CASES AS WELL AS COLLECT DATA TO HELP US MOVE THE INDUSTRY FORWARD >> MAKE SURE YOU GET AS MANY MINDS AS POSSIBLE THINKING ABOUT IT, PREDICTING WHAT YOU HAVE TO WORK OUT NOW AND DOING THE WORK MARRIED >> DEFINITELY IT’S DEFINITELY A VERY COLLABORATIVE EFFORT >> AWESOME, GREAT >> A LEGIT TWITCH CHANNEL ASKED WILL THERE BE MINIATURE AIRPORTS FOR PLACES TO PICK UP AND DROP OFF? THAT WOULD BE COOL >> YEAH SO SOME OF THE CONCEPTS THAT ARE COMING UP IN TERMS OF INFRASTRUCTURE, WHICH IS ACTUALLY REALLY IMPORTANT CONCEPT IS A CONCEPT OF VIRGO PORT OR VERT OF, SKY PORTS AND SKYPE OUTS, HOWEVER YOU WISH TO CALL IT YOU CANIND OF IMAGINE LIKE A HELICOPTER PAD THESE COULD BE ON THE GROUND OR ON ACTUALLY THE TOP OF A BUILDING SO THESE COULD BE LOCATIONS WHERE THESE AIRCRAFT COULD TAKE OFF BECAUSE WERE MEMBER, THEY CAN TAKE OFF VERTICALLY AND LAND VERTICALLY, SO THEY DON’T NEED A RUNWAY THEY DON’T NEED A RUNWAY LIKE A NORMAL AIRCRAFT TODAY, SO THAT IS WHAT’S GOING TO ALLOW OPERATIONS IN AN URBAN CENTER, GHT? >> COO IS THIS GOING TO MEAN THE END OF TRADITIONAL FLIGHT? OR IS THIS REALLY JUST COMPLEMENT TERRY TO EVERYTHING WE USE TODAY? >> SO IT’S DEFINITELY NOT TO AN END TO CURRENT DAY AVIATION IN FACT, YOU CAN THINK OF IT AS A COMPLIMENT TO HELP YOU ACTUALLY USE CURRENT AVIATION EVEN MORE SO ONE CAN IMAGINE THAT YOU MIGHT WANT TO GET FROM WHERE EVER YOU’RE LOCATED, THE SUBURB, TO YOUR NEAREST AIRPORT AND NORMALLY WE WOULD HAVE TO SIT IN TRAFFIC, DRIVE MAYBE HALF AN HOUR, 40 MINUTES TO GET THERE SO DEPENDING ON WHERE YOU’RE LOCATED NOW WHAT IF YOU CAN TAKE ONE OF THESE AIR TAXIS OR AIR SHUTTLES TO GET TO YOUR AIRPORT? NOW IT’S ACTUALLY MUCH EASIER TO USE COMMERCIAL AVIATION LIKE WE DO TODAY SO THESE ARE JUST ANOTHER FORM OF TRANSPORTATION TO HELP US USE CURRENT DAY AVIATION >> I SEE ABOUT AIR TAXIS OR AIR SHUTTLES, YOU JUST KIND OF MADE A DISTINCTION THERE TO THINK THAT THESE ARE GOING TO BE TAXIS THAT I CALL UP AND SAY I PERSONALLY WANT TO GO TO MY SPECIFIC FRIEND’S HOUSE OR IS IT GOING TO BE LIKE A SUBWAY OR A CITY BUS THAT HAS A ROOT? >> MOST LIKELY INDUSTRY DEVELOPS, INITIALLY PROBABLY BE MORE LIKE AN AIR SHUTTLE OR AN AIR METRO, WHERE YOU HAVE A SERIES OF DESIGNATED LOCATIONS WHERE YOU HAVE PICKUPS AND DROP OFFS AT SCHEDULED TIMES IT’S MOSTLY TO HELP US UNDERSTAND WHAT THE FEASIBILITY IN THE BEGINNING OF THIS TYPE OF TRANSPORTATION BUT ON LOCN AND MOBY AS WELL AS INDUSTRY LOCATION — WE ARE RESEARCHING AND INVESTIGATING HOW TO ENABLE IT SO WE ARE ACTUALLY LOOKING AT BOTH HOW DO WE HAVE AN AIR METRO OR AIR SHUTTLE AS WELL AS ON-DEMAND URBAN AIR MOTILITY? >> OKAY STAY TUNED >> PRETTY COOL, RIGHT? >> WITH A QUESTIONNAIRE FROM AGAIN SPACE WALRUS WHAT ELEVATION WILL THEY BE FLYING AT? WHAT IF YOU’RE IN THE CITY, DO WE WEAHROUGH SKYSCRAPERS? >> GOOD QUESTION GOOD QUESTION >> WHAT ARE WE PICTURE HERE? >> SINCE THESE VEHICLES HAVE KIND OF A WIDE RANGE OF CONFIGURATIONS, THEY HAVE DIFFERENT CRUISING ALTITUDES THAT THEY COULD FLY IT YOU COULD EXPECT A RANGE OF TYPICALLY SUMMERLIKE A THOUSAND TO 4,000 FEET, ON AVERAGE THAT TYPICAL RANGE OF THESE VEHICLES AT THE URBANR MOBILITY VEHICLES THAT A LITTLE BIT LARGER THAN SOME OF THE DRONES THAT HAVE BEEN FLYING BELOW 400 FEET AND THEY ARE KIND OF SMALLER THAN YOUR TRADITIONAL AIRCRAFT BECAUSE THEY ONLY HAVE ABOUT 4-8 PASSENGERS TYPICALLY THAT’S THE ALTITUDE THEY WOULD BE FLYING OUT IN TERMS OF WEEDING BETWEEN SKYSCRAPERS, I THINK WE’RE LOOKING AT PROCEDURES AS WELL AS WAYS FOR THESE AIRCRAFT TO FLY SAFELY AND THAT INCLUDES SAFETY OF THE PASSENGERS ON BOARD, AS WELL AS THE SAFETY OF THE PEOPLE ON THE GROUND >> RIGHT, OF COURSE BECAUSE YOUR QUESTION HERE FOR THE BOTH OF YOU SERIOUSLY GAMING ASKS WHAT ARE SHIVANJLI AND JOEY’S THOUGHTS ON NOISE POLLUTION FROM THESE AND WHAT OTHER THOUGHTS ON POTENTIAL OBJECTS FALLING TO EARTH? >> YEAH IT DEFTLY WANT TO AVOIE

OBJECTS ING TO EARTH AND IN GENERAL, NOISE POLLUTION SPEAKS TO A LARGER ISSUE OF KIND OF PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE OF THESE KIND OF OPERATIONS SO WE CAN SOLVE A LOT OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND MAKE SURE THINGS STAY SAFE AND EFFICIENT IN THE AIRSPACE BUT THE PUBLIC IS NOT READY TO ACCEPT THESE KINDS OF OPERATIONS FOR WHATEVER REASON, WHETHER IT’S ENVIRONMENT ON, NOISE, OR SOMETHING ELSE, THEN THIS WON’T EVER TAKE OFF, SO TO SPEAK SO PART OF THE RESEARCH WHEN WE DO OUR TESTING IS ACTUALLY MAKING SURE WE ARE STARTING TO ASK THOSE QUESTIONS AND COLLECT SOME INITIAL DATA ON PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE SO WE CAN SEE SOME OF THCONVERSATIONS TO SEE WHAT KIND OF BARRIERS MIGHT BE THERE TO KIND OF ADD PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE QUESTIONS NOISE IS AN ISSUE AND I THINK YOU’LL SEE A LOT OF THE MANUFACTURERS OF THESE VEHICLES, DESIGNERS OF THESEICLES AND THEY ARE SPACE PROCEDURES ARE KIND OF COGNIZANT OF THAT THEY WANT TO BE AWARE TO KIND OF MINIMIZE THE IMPACT OR EXCEPT THE ABILITY OF THESE OPERATIONS IT IS SOMETHING THAT’S CONSIDERED IN THE DESIGN OF ALL THE PIECES OF THE SYSTEM >> GOOD TO HEAR >> WHAT’S ANOTHER QUESTION WE HAVE HERE? WOULD THERE BE WHETHER RESTRICTIONS ON AIR TAXIS? >> SO JUST LIKE TODAY COMMERCIAL AVIATION TODAY, HOW IT PLAYS A BIG ROLE AND HOW AVIATION GOES ON TODAY AND SIMILARLY, IT WILL PLAY A ROLE FOR THESE NEW VEHICLES, FOR THESE URBAN AIR MOBILITY VEHICLES ONE OF THE THINGS THAT WE ARE TRYING TO UNDERSTAND IS WHEN WE PERFORM TESTS AS PART OF THE GRAND CHALLENGES, UNDERSTAND WHAT IS YOUR PERFORMANCE, WHEN CAN YOU FLY, AT WHAT GUSTS OF WINDS ARE THE LIMITATIONS ON YOUR PERFORMANCE AND THOSE ARE SOME THINGS WERE REALLY TRYING TO INVESTIGATE SO WE CAN ANSWER THE QUESTION IN A BETTER FASHION ONCE WE HAVE DATA ON HOW THESE VEHICLES ACTUALLY PERFORM UNDER DIFFERENT WIND LEVELS AS WELL AS DIFFERENT TYPES OF PRECIPITATION >> YEAH, YEAH >> OVERLY SPECIFIC STUFF >> REALLY INTERESTING KIND OF RELATED TO THAT, UNDERSTANDING THE PERFORMANCE OF THE VEHICLE SO IT KNOWS WHAT IT CAN HANDLE AND WHAT THE SITUATIONS THAT CAN HANDLE BUT THEN ACTUALLY ON THE WEATHER SIDE, ACTUALLY DOING THE RESEARCH TO MAKE SURE THAT THAT INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE TO THOSE OPERATORS BECAUSE THE WEATHER WE USE TODAY FOR AVIATION’S REALLY FO ON AIRPORND THE END RO ENVIRONMENT AND THERE’S SOME SPECIALIZED STUFF FOR HELICOPTERS IN THE CITIES BUT THAT WILL NEED TO SCALE UP QUITE A BIT IN ORDER TO PROVIDE THE RIGHT INFORMATION TO OPERATORS SO THEY CAN FLY SAFELY WITHIN THE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VEHICLE A LOT OF CITIES ARE OUTFITTED FOR THAT LEVEL OF GRANULARITY OF WEATHER SO HOW DO YOU GET THOSE WEATHER SERVICES AND WHETHER REQUIREMENTS DEVELOPED SO THAT YOU CAN ACTUALLY ENABLE THESE OPERATIONS SAFELY THAT’S SOMETHING WE POKE INTO AND ALSO TRY TO ENCOURAGE INDUSTRY AND OTHER FOLKS TO COME ALONG WITH US ON THAT RESEARCH >> KIND OF ALONG THOSE LINES, WEATHER IS ACTUALLY VERY INTERESTING IN AN URBAN CENTER SO AS YOU HAVE WIND FLOW BETWEEN BUILDINGS AS YOU HAVE KIND OF DIFFERENT TYF THEM ROUND OFF OF BUILDING TO BUILDING SERVICES, YOU HAVE INTERESTING EFFECTS THAT CAN OCCUR, SO THAT’S REALLY IMPORTANT FOR US TO HAVE SOME KNOWLEDGE ABOUT AND UNDERSTAND SUCH THAT WE CAN HAVE SAFE PERFORMANCE OF THESE VEHICLES >> THAT’S ACTUALLY REALLY BIG PART, WHAT JOEY IS REFERRING TO >> I FELT THAT IN CITIES, WALKING BETWEEN TWO SKYSCRAPERS IN THE WIND IS JUST LIKE GUSTING BY OD TO KNOW YOU’RE THINKING ABOUT IT LET’S SEE WHAT OTHER QUESTIONS WE GOT WILL WE ONE DAY SEE A RETURN OF AIRSHIPS OR ZEPPELINS? WHO KNOWS? >> YEAH, SO AIRSHIPS, THE DIRIGIBLES HAVE BEEN AROUND FOR QUITE SOME TIME AND HAVE BEEN USED, OBVIOUSLY IN THE PAST AND NOW WE SEE THE GOODYEAR BLIMP ONCE IN A WHILE SO AIRSHIPS DO HAVE SOME PURPOSE AND ARE USED FOR SOME USE CASES BUT HOW THEY’RE GOING TO BE INTEGRATED IN AIRSPACE, A SIMILAR QUESTION JUST LIKE A LOT OF THESE NEW ENTRANTS WHAT’S YOUR PERFORMANCE LIKE? WHAT’S YOUR PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS? BASED ON THAT HOW DO WE INTEGRATE YOU SAFELY INTO OUR SPACE? THE SAME TYPES OF QUESTIO APPLY REGARDLESS OF WHAT TYPE OF VEHICLE YOU MAY BE >> THE VEHICLES YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT ARE MUCH SMALLER 4-8 PASSENGERS >> SMALLER AND A LITTLE BIT FASTER [LAUGHTER] >> JUST A TAD >> DO YOU HAVE ANY IDEA HOW MUCH ENERGY IT TAKES TO LIFT THE PASSENGERS, A NUMBER OF EIGHT PASSENGERS, BUT JUST IN GENERAL >> ARE TYPICALLY WHAT IS DESIRED AS YOU WANT TO HAVE VERTICAL LIFT UP ABOVE 50 FEET SUCH THAT YOU ARE CLIMBING AT A RATE OF ABOUT 100 FEET PER MINUTE, SO THE ENERGY THAT’S REQUIRED I WAS ON THE WEIGHT OF THAT INDIVIDUAL AIRFRAME PLUS THE NUMBER OF PASSENGERS OR CARGHAT YOU MIGHT HAVE O BOARD SO I WOULD SAY IT ACTUALLY DOES VARY DEPENDING ON YOUR CONFIGURATION OF YOUR VEHICLE BUT WHAT IS NEEDED IS THE FACT THAT THERE’S BEEN QUITE A BIT OF DEVELOPMENT AND DISTRIBUTE IT ELECTRICAL PROPULSION, WHICH MEANS YOU CAN USE THESE ELECTRICALLY POWERED ROTORS, HAVE THEM DISTRIBUTED ACROSS THE AIRFRAME SUCH THAT IT’S ACTUALLY MUCH EASIER TO LIFT — PROVIDE

LIFT FOR AIRCRAFT >> THAT’S THE NEW TECHNOLOGY >> LIKE WE SAW IN THAT VEHICLE CONCEPT, IT HAD THE ROTORS ALONG THE WING I SEE, COOL AND THE AIRFRAME, WHEN YOU SAY THAT, THAT JUST MEANS THE STRUCTURE OF THE AIRCRAFT? >> CORRECT, JUST HOW THE AIRCRAFT IS CONFIGURED TWO ROTORS, FOUR ROTORS, WINGS, WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE >> OKAY COMICAL WE PROBABLY HAVE TIME FOR A FEW RE QUESTIONS >> AVE A QUESTION HERE FROM DACULA WEREWOLF WHAT CAR DENSITIES WOULD BE REQUIRED TO MAKE LONG-RANGE, HIGH-CAPACITY FLIGHT POSSIBLE USING BATTERY-POWERED? >> POWER IS A BIG ISSUE, ISN’T IT? >> SO THE MANNER IN WHICH A BATTERY TECHNOLOGY IS DEVELOPING IS SOMETHING THAT INDUSTRY IS MOVING FORWARD WITH HINGS THAT THEY ARE CONCERNED ABOUT IS THEIR CHARGE AND DISCHARGE RATES AND THEN ALSO HOW QUICKLY CAN YOU RECHARGE YOUR ACTUAL BATTERY ON BOARD SO THAT YOU CAN FLY ANOTHER MISSION OR GO ON ANOTHER TRIP, RIGHT? AND SO THERE IS QUITE A RANGE OF ENERGY DENSITY THAT’S REQUIRED, AGAIN, DEPENDING ON YOUR CONFIGURATION AND DEPENDING ON YOUR MISSION PROFILE I MIGHT FIND 50 MILES OR AM I FLYING 40 MILES, RIGHT? SO DEPENDING ON THE MISSION YOU WISH TO ACHIEVE YOU DO SEE KIND OF A RANGE IN TERMS OF THE BATTERY OR POWER REQUIREMENTS BUT THAT BEING >> AND JUST BRING IT BACK TO THE QUESTION OF THE REPORT, KIND OF DESIGNING THE SYSTEM AND THE POWER REQUIREMENTS YOU MAY WANT YOUR VERTAPORTS TO RECHARGE QUICKLY ALL OF THESE THINGS ARE DEFINITELY INTERRELATED >> YEAH, YOU SORT OF TOUCHED ON THIS ALREADY BUT MAYBE SUMMIT UP, CAN YOU COMMENT ON THE POSSIBLE INFRASTRUCTURE THAT MIGHT BE NEED FOR THE SHORTER RANGE TRIPS? EXISTING AIRPORTS OR COMBINATION OF EXISTING AND NEW? TALK ABOUT ROOFTOPS, BUT HOW WOULD YOU SUM THAT UP? >> YEAH.R] I THINK THAT IF WE ARE TALKING ABOUT A NEW MODE OF TRANSPORTATION WITH NEW USE CASES, THIS PROBABLY GOING TO BE NEW INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDED, AND THAT’S WHEN WE TALK ABOUT THESE VERTAPORTS AND CHARGING STATIONS AND ALL OF THESE THINGS THAT DON’T EXIST AS WELL AS THINGS LIKE SURVEILLANCE, AS WELL AS WEATHER MONITORING WE TALKED ABOUT EARLIER >> SURVEILLANCE LIKE KEEPING AN EYE ON — >> LIKE KNOWING WHERE E VEHICLES ARE NOT SO MUCH HOW THEY GET USED, BUT JUST WHERE THE VEHICLES ARE RIGHT NOW WE HAVE RADARS AND THEY CAN SEE ALL THE BIG AIRPLANES, THAT INFRASTRUCTURE DOESN’T NECESSARILY LEAD US HAVE FULL VISIBILITY WHERE THE DON’T MAKE THESE THINGS BE FINE SO ALL OF THAT IS INFRASTRUCTURE THAT DEFTLY HAS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN DESIGNING THE SYSTEM >> I WOULD SAY INFRASTRUCTURE IS ACTUALLY A BIG PART OF IT AND THE FAA IS, AS WELL AS NASA AND AS WELL AS INDUSTRY AND OTHER RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS, THEY ARE LOOKING TO UNDERSTAND WHAT ARE THE INFRASTRUCTURE REQUIREMENTS AND THERE ARE SENSOR REQUIREMENTS, BUT ALSO THINGS SUCH AS LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS, RIGHT? WHAT KIND OF PROCEDURES NEED TO BE DEVELOPED FOR THAT TYPE OF INFRASTRUCTURE, SO THERE’S A WHOLE HOST OF INFORMATION THAT WOULD COME ALONG WITH THE INFRASTRUCTURE THAT WILL BE NEEDED FOR THESE VEHICLES TO LAND OR TAKE OFF FROM LOCATIONS NEAR US THERE’S LOTS OF INTERESTING RESEARCH THERE >> YEAH >> THE RESEARCH KIND OF LEADS THE WAY TO THOSE ANSWERS PICOULT DISCOVERS THE QUESTIONS AND THEN LEADS US TO THE ANSWERS, THAT’S INTERESTING MAYBE ONE MORE, AND QUESTION CAME IN A WHILE AGO, SO MAYBE IT’S BEEN ANSWERED, BUT I WANT TO KNOW, IS THIS LIKE FLYING CARS IS THE QUESTION? CAN WE CALL THESE FLYING CARS OR IS THIS SOMETHING ELSE? >> SO IF YOU WANT TO CALL THEM FLYING CARS, TECHNICALLY YOU CAN SOME OF THESE VEHICLE CONFIGURATIONS DO HAVE WILLS SOME DO, SOME DON’T SO IF YOU HAVE WHEELS AND YOU CAN ACTUALLY DO TAXING AND, I GUESS TECHNICALLY YOU CAN BE CALLED A FLYING CAR PEOPLE DO CALL THEM URBAN AIR MOW VEHICLES IT HAVE SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT OPERATIONS THAN WHAT WE’RE USED TO TODAY SO THE TERMS YOU USE CAN CHANGE, BUT ESSENTIALLY IT’S LIKE AN AIR TAXI, A FLYING CAR, KIND OF WHATEVER YOU WISH TO CALL IT >> THE CAR IMPLIES A LOT OF FREEDOM, ON-DEMAND MOBILITY WE WERE MENTIONING EARLIER, SO MOST OF THESE INITIAL VEHICLES ARE PROBABLY MORE LIKELY AIR METRO AS SHIVANJLI WAS MENTIONING EARLIER, KIND OF DESIGNATED WEATHER GOING TO GO IF YOU WANTED TO CALL THAT A CAR, SURE, YOU COULD, BUT IN GENERAL IT’S MORE LIKE A SUBWAY IT’S GOING W IT’S GOING TO GO AND IT CAN HELP YOU GET THERE QUICKLY >> TO START US OFF OKAY COMICAL LET’S MOVE ON TO OUR NEXT TOPIC WE’RE GOING TO COME BACK TO MORE QUESTIONS LATER SO I KNOW THAT NASA HAS ALREADY DONE A BUNCH OF RESEARCH FOR SEVERAL YEARS THAT REALLY HELPED LAY THE GROUNDWORK FOR THIS URBAN AIR MOTILITY WORK THAT YOU’RE DOING, SO JOEY, YOU WERE A BIG PART OF THAT CAN YOU TELL US ABOUT SYSTEM HE WORKED ON? >> FOR THE PAST FIVE YEARS OR SHOW WE HAVE BEEN WORKING ON HOW DO YOU MANAGE SMALL DRONES AT LOW ALTITUDE AT KIND OF A BIG SCALE? THOUSANDS OF SMALL DRONES FLYING OVER THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA TAKING CARE OF THINGS SO AGAIN, THE CURRENT AIR

TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM WAS NOT GNED TO HANDLE THAT KIND OF TRAFFIC, SO HOW DO WE ENABLE THOSE CASES AND THOSE BUSINESS CASES TO OCCUR WITHOUT OVERLOADING THE CURRENT SYSTEM AND KEEPING EVERY THING AS SAFE AS POSSIBLE? SO THAT’S WHAT CAME ABOUT OUR RESEARCH WAS CALLED UTM, UA AS TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT, HOW DO YOU MANAGE DRONES? >> SO THE YOU A S IS THE DRONE >> WE LOVE AKRON M0 >> AN ACRONYM WITHIN AN ACRONYM >> WE GET BONUS POINTS FOR COMPOUNDING THEM >> WELL DONE >> WE WERE FOCUSED ON SMALL DRONES, 55 POUNDS AND UNDER AND WHERE TALK ABOUT LOW ALTITUDE, 400 FEET AND UNDER, BUT YOU CAN ACCOMPLISH A LOT OF THINGS JUST IN THAT AIRSPACE WITH THESE KINDS OF VEHICLES AND IT MADE US ASK CERTAIN QUESTIONS AND DEVELOP CERTAIN SYSTEMS AND TEST CERTAIN THINGS WITH PARTNERS AND THE FAA THAT LAYS THE GROUNDWORK FOR SOME OF THE STILL-OPEN QUESTIONS FOR URBAN AIR MOTILITY THAT WE HAVE BEEN TALKING ABOUT >> THAT SOUNDS FAMILIAR KIND OF WORK YOU’RE DOING YOU MENTIONED LOTS OF APPLICATIONS, WHAT ARE SOME EXAMPLES FOR SMALL DRONES? >> THERE ARE A LOT USUALLY YOU CAN ACTUALLY CLASSIFY THEM INTOME OF TH MORE INTERESTING ONES INTO THE 3D, DIRTY, DANGEROUS, AND DULL JOBS THERE’S A LOT OF JOBS YOU CAN DO WITH THESE DRONES THAT CAN ACTUALLY KEEP PEOPLE SAFER THAT ARE DOING THEM INFRASTRUCTURE INSPECTION FOR EXAMPLE, LOOKING AT A CELL TOWER, TAKING PICTURES, MAKING SURE IT’S WORKING CORRECTLY PEOPLE DIE CLIMBING THOSE TOWERS EVERY YEAR AND OTHER KINDS OF THESE JOBS AREN’T ALWAYS THE SAFE THEM SAFER BY USING DRONES AND THINGS LIKE AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS AS WELL, TAKING PICTURES OF YOUR FIELD AND DOING ANALYSIS ON THAT AS WELL AS PUBLIC SAFETY THINGS, FIRE AND POLICE AGENCIES, YOU CAN USE A LOT MORE AT A LOCAL LEVEL TALKING ABOUT DELIVERING THINGS TO YOUR DOORSTEP ALL THESE CAN HAPPEN WITH DRONES DER 55 POUNDS ANDNDER THINGS YOU CAN ACTUALLY DO WITH THEM >> FOR SURE >> AND HOW TO LET EVERYONE DO ALL THOSE THINGS SIMULTANEOUSLY AND KEEP THE AIRSPACE SAFE? >> EXACTLY >> THAT WAS KIND OF THE RESEARCH WE WERE LOOKING AT >> THAT’S ALWAYS THE KEY >> SAFETY FIRST >> WHAT WAS YOUR ROLE? >> I WAS THE CHIEF ENGINEERS WAS REALLY THE KIND OF CORE KNITTING A LOT OF THE TECHNAL ASPECTS OF I DID FOCUS A LOT ON THE SOFTWARE ASPECT OF IT, SO WE TALKED ABOUT AUTOMATION EARLIER IN THE AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT, HOW IT’S GOING TO HAVE TO BE AUTOMATED IN THE FUTURE TO HANDLE ALL OF THIS TRAFFIC SO HOW DO YOU BUILD A SYSTEM THAT ENABLES ALL THIS STUFF TO HAPPEN? ITS CLOUD-BASED AND IT LEVERAGES A LOT OF BEST PRACTICES IN THE SOFTWARE INDUSTRY WITH OUR KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERTISE AND THAT’S FOR AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT HOW DO YOU MARRY THOSE TWO THINGS? THAT’S REALLY WHAT WE WERE LOOKING AT >> AND JOEY WON’T ADMIT THIS, BUT HE WAS THE BRAINS BEHIND THE UTM PROJECT AND I WOULD SAY THAT JOEY AND HIS TEAM MOST RECENTLY WON THE NASA SOFTWARE OF THE YEAR AWARD, SO THAT’S ACTUALLY KIND OF A BIG DEAL SO WE GIVE JOEY A SHOUT FOR THAT >> WE HAVE A LOT OF BRAINS ON THE PROJECT, WHICH IS GREAT, THAT’S HOW YOU MAKE IT SUCCESSFUL HAVINGOT OF PEOPLE WITH AT OF DO COME TO THAT IS HOW YOU KIND OF GET TO THESE INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS AND NASA IS A GREAT PLACE TO KIND OF ALLOW THAT TO HAPPEN >> AWESOME CONGRATS! >> THANKS >> SO WHAT ARE SOME SPECIFIC ABILITIES YOU GAVE THE DRONES OR THE SYSTEM, LIKE YOU WANT TO KEEP THEM, KEEP THEM SEPARATE S >> WE HAD SORT OF A CLEAN SHEET TO BEGIN THINKING ABOUT HOW TO GET THIS DONE IT’S A CLEAN SHEET ABOUT HOW THE AIRSPACE WORKS AND OTHER VEHICLES WORK SO WITH THOSE BOUNDS, WHAT WE WANT THE SYSTEM TO DO? ONE OF THE KEY THINGS IS HOW DO WE HELP MAKE SURE THE DRONES DON’T RUN INTO EACH OTHER >> FOR STARTERS DESPICABLE THIS ESTIMATES HELPS THTAY SAFELY SEPARATED T SOME DEGREE HOW DO WE KEEP THEM SEPARATE FROM TRADITIONAL AVIATION, HOW DO WE MAKE SURE THEY DON’T FLY INTO OTHER AIRCRAFT? CAN YOU BUILD SOME SYSTEM THAT HELPS WITH THAT PROCESS? ONE LAYER OF THIS ISN’T GOING TO BE THE END-ALL AND BE-ALL OF THESE ANSWERS BUT HOW DO WE START THIS PROCESS OF KEEPING THE AIRSPACE SAFE? ALSO, HOW DO WE ALLOW FOLKS THAT ARE DOING IS OPERATIONS AND THE VEHICLES THAT ARE DOING THIS OPERATION BE IDENTIFIABLE T ROGUE OR UNIDENTIFIED OBJECTS FLYING ON THE AIRSPACE, PEOPLE NEED TO KNOW WHAT’S THERE TO KEEP THE AIRSPACE SAFE IT IS KIND OF A SECURITY ASPECT TO THAT AS WELL AND THEN HOW DO YOU HAVE SOME PRIORITY FOR IMPORTANT OPERATIONS? SO FOR EXAMPLE, RECENTLY THERE WAS ACTUALLY A DRONE THAT DELIVERED HUMAN KIDNEY FOR TRANSPLANT THAT WAS ACTUALLY TRANSPLANTED INTO A PERSON >> WOW >> SUCCESSFULLY SO THAT WAS DEMONSTRATED ONE IMPORTANT USE FOR DRONES HOW DO WE LET THAT HAPPEN WITHOUT BEING HINDERED BY DRONES THAT ARE DELIVERING HOT DOCS PEOPLE, RIGHT? WANT TO MAKE SURE THE HOTDOG DRONES GET OUT OF GET OUT OF THE WAY AND LET THE KIDNEY DRONE COME THROUGH SO THAT’S JUST ONE EXAMPLE SO THESE PRIORITY OPERATIONS NEED TO BE THOUGF AS IMPORTANT IN THE SYSTEM AS WE DESIGNED IT OUT THERE’S A LOT MORE OF THE IMPORTANT CLASS OF OPERATIONS YOU CAN THINK ABOUT, BUT THE IDEA IS HOW DO WE MAKE SURE THAT CAN ACTUALLY OCCUR? >> THAT ALL OF THIS CAN OCCUR YOU’LL GET YOUR HOT DOG >> YOU’LL GET IT >> AFTER THE KIDNEY IS DELIVERED >> 30 SECONDS LATER >> I WOULD ACTUALLY ADD THE SERVICES THAT JOEY JUST LAID

OUT, THEY ARE EXTENSIVEND APPLICABOR ANY NEW ENTRANTS JOEY WAS TALK ABOUT HOW THEY WERE APPLIED FOR DRONES, IF YOU CAN THINK ABOUT FOR THESE LARGER URBAN AIR MOBILITY VEHICLES, FOR ANY NEW ENTRANT, THESE SAME TENANTS CAN BE APPLIED SO IT’S ACTUALLY REALLY GREAT FOUNDATION FOR US TO BUILD OFF OF AND EXTEND FOR NEW ENTRANTS INTO OUR NATIONAL AIRSPACE >> CLEAR HOW IT SUPPORTS THE S SHIVANJLI IS WORKIN ON >> THE KEY THING IS THE CURRENT SYSTEM AGAIN, AIR-TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS TO WANT TO BE CONTROLLING A 40-POUND DRONE AT 200 FEET THEY HAVE ENOUGH TO DEAL WITH THE BIG AIRCRAFT AND THEY DON’T WANT TO HIRE 10,000 MORE OPERATORS TO WATCH ALL OF THESE DRONES SO THIS IS KIND OF THE AUTOMATION OF THE AIRSPACE AND A LOT OF THESE THINGS WILL TRANSLATE OVER TO THIS AIR TAXI, AIR MOBILITY WORLD QUARTER IT HAS TO CHANGE A LITTLE BIT, BUT WE HAVE A FOUNDATION TO START WITH >> TOTALLY >> THAT KIND OF ANSWERS THE QUESTION HERE, MANAGEMENT WILL BE AUTONOMOUS AND YES, IT WILL BE AUTONOMOUS >> IT WILL HAVE AUTONOMOUS ASPECTS IT DOESN’T MEAN YOU JUST PUSH A BUTTON AND THE AIRSPACE IS COMPLETELY FRE GO AND THE AUTONOMOUS — THE AUTONOMOUS NATURE OF IT WILL INCREASE OVER TIME WHEN YOU GET STARTED YOU ONLY HAVE SO MANY OPERATIONS AND YOU MIGHT HAVE A GOOD AMOUNT OF HUMAN SUPERVISION, BUT THEN AS THINGS SCALE OUT, HOW MUCH OF THAT CAN BE AUTOMATED AND MAKING SURE YOU DO IT AGAIN IN THE SAFEWAY >> MORE LIKE A CONTINUING THERE’S GOING TO BE PIECES OF IT THAT ARE AUTOMATED, AND HOW DOES THAT CONTINUUM GROW OVER TIME? >> MAKES SENSE >> SO THE DRONE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM, WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE OR FEEL LIKE FOR A USER, A PILOT? LIKE IF I WANT TO FLY MY DRONE, WHAT AM I GOING TO SEE? >> IN THE FUTURE HOPEFULLY IT WOULD BE VERY TRANSPARENT, IT SHOULD BE A BIG BURDEN TO ACTUALLY US THE SYSTEM, SO THERE’S ACTU GOING TO BE A LAYER BETWEEN YOU AND THE AIRSPACE AND IT WOULD BE KIND OF A SERVICE PROVIDER TO GET INTO THE AIRSPACE ALMOST LIKE A CELL SERVICE PROVIDER IF YOU WANT TO MAKE PHONE CALLS YOU HAVE A CELL SERVICE PROVIDER, YOU CAN TALK OTHER CELL SERVICE PROVIDERS YOU WOULD HAVE ONE OF THOSE PROVIDERS THAT GET TOO ACCESS TO THE AIRSPACE, HE WOULD TELL THEM WHAT YOU WANT TO DO, MAYBE YOUR INTENT, WANT TO FLY FROM HERE TO HEAR AND DO IT ABOUT THIS TIME, THE IDEA IS THAT THE SERVICE PROVIDERS SURE THAT ITS FORMATION AMONGST EACH OTHER, THEY DO WHAT’S NECESSARY TO KEEP THE AIRSPACE SAFE INTO CONFLICT AND MESSAGES BLOWING THAT NEED TO FLOW IN YOU AS A PILOT JUST TAKE CARE OF YOUR MISSION YOU JUST WHY YOUR OPERATION HOW MUCH OF THAT OPERATION IS AUTOMATED AND NOT AUTOMATED, THAT DEPENDS IN THE FUTURE HOW FAR YOU GO, BUT A PILOT WOULD BE IN CHARGE OF THAT OPERATION AND D DO IT CLEANLY AND RECEIVE INFORMATION BACK FROM THESE SERVICE PROVIDERS ABOUT ANY CHANGES IN THE AIRSPACE ARE THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW >> LIKE THERE’S A STORM COMING, THERE’S AN EMERGENCY OPERATION >> THAT’S RIGHT THAT KIDNEY IS COMING THROUGH EXACTLY >> GET OUT OF THE WAY >> I WAS JUST GOING TO ADD THAT I THINK THERE’S A WHOLE HOST OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF OPERATIONS THAT KIND OF LENDS ITSELF TO SETTING UP DIFFERENT MISSIONS I WOULD ALSO ADD THAT THE TOOLS AND THE TECHNOLOGIES AND INTEGRATION WITH THE PARTNERS THAT WAS BUILT UP UNDER YOU TM, I THINK IT’S A GREAT MODEL THEY INTERFACE WITH A WHOLE HOST OF INDUSTRY PARTNERS ALONG WITH THE FAA IN THAT SAME MODEL OF COLLABORATIVE INNOVATION IS WHAT WE ARE AIMING FOR >> AND I WANTED TO GO BACK TO — EARLIER SOMEBODY ASKED, TRAFFIC LIGHTS, I FORGET WHAT THE QUESTION WAS YOU ARE SAYING THERE WILL BE DIGITAL TRAFFIC LET’S, NOT PHYSICAL THINGS IN THE SKY BUT YOU’VE TOLD ME THAT WE CAN THINK OF THE DRONE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AS LIKE RULES OF THE ROAD THAT WE KNOW ONE DRIVING, RIGHT? >> WITH INK ABOUT DRIVING TODAY, THE FOLKS THAT ARE DRIVING IN GENERAL YOU HOPE AND EXPECT THAT THEY KNOW THE RULES OF THE ROAD THEY KNOW WHAT A RED LIGHT MEANS, THEY KNOW WHAT TO DO WHEN YOU BOTH COME TO A STOP SIGN AT THE SAME TIME, THEY KNOW HOW FAST YOU CAN GO ON THE FREEWAY AND HOW TO CHANGE LANES THOSE KIND OF THINGS DON’T EXIST FOR DRONE TRAFFIC SO WHAT ARE THOSE PROCEDURES, WHAT ARE THOSE RULES? WHO HAS THE RIGHT-OF-WAY IN CERTAIN IOS AND HOW DO YOU SHARE THAT INFORMATION AND MAKE SURE THAT EVERYONE’S AWARE OF THE SAME RULE SET? THAT IS A LOT OF THE RESEARCH WE DO AS WELL, SO THAT’S REALLY THE DRONE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM DEFINING THOSE ROADS, THE PROCEDURES, MAKING SURE EVERYONE IS CHECKED OUT ALL THOSE THINGS TO ENABLE ALL OF THESE OPERATIONS TO HAPPEN AND YOU KNOW, YOU HAVE ON YOUR PHONE, HE TELLS HER THERE’S A TRAFFIC JAM IT, THAT’S THE NEXT LEVEL OF SERVICES AHAT WOULD BE PART OF THE ECOSYSTEM AS WELL, THAT THERE IS WHETHER AHEAD OR LOOK A LOT OF DRONES OVER HERE SO MAYBE YOU SHOULD GO OVER THERE SHARING DATA SO YOU CAN MAKE THOSE DECISIONS >> AWESOME, THAT’S REALLY CLEAR >> WE HAVE A QUESTION HERE IT WILL THESE DRONES HAVEN’T OPTION FOR MULTITASKING? FOR EXAM BECOME OF THE DRONE COULD BE DELIVERING A KIDNEY ALSA AND ROUTE? SO WILL THEY HAVE LIKE DIFFERENT — >> I THINK THE PERSON WAITING FOR THE KIDNEY WOULD HELP MAYBE IT’S FOCUSED ON THE KIDNEY >> IT’S NOT DOING — >> IN GENERAL IT’S ALL ABOUT THE VEHICLE CAPABILITY, WHAT DID

THEY DESIGN THE VEHICLE TO DO? THE IDEA WITH OUR RESEARCH WORTH TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AND ALL THOSE S OF THINGS, HOW DO W MAKE SURE F THOSE CASES? HOW DO WE MAKE SURE WE ENABLE FOLKS TO DO THE THINGS THEY NEED AND WANT TO DO IN THE AIRSPACE SAFELY, SO YES AND WE HAVE LOOKED AT DRONES BEING REPURPOSED IN ROUTE YOU MAY BE DOING REGULAR TRAFFIC SIGNALS BUT THEN MAYBE THERE’S A SEARCH AND RESCUE THING THAT HAS TO HAPPEN IN THAT ROOM COULD BE REPURPOSED IN FLIGHT TO TAKE OFF AND DO SOMETHING SO THIS IDEA OF REPURPOSING IS DEFINITELY OUT THERE >> AND I WOULD SAY WHETHER IT’S SINGLE TASK OR REPURPOSE SING OR MULTITASK, WHAT YOU NEED IS A SECURE COMMUNICATION AND NAVIGATION PLATFORM, RIGHT? SO YOU HAVE TO BE ABLE TO COMMUNICATE TO THAT VEHICLE, THAT DRONE, OR THAT UAM AS YOU HAVE MULTIPLE TASKS, THAT STILL IS THE FOUNDATION, HOW DO YOU HAVE SAND EFFICIENT OPERATIONS, RIGHT? >> YEAH COMICAL SO THIS YEAR YOU GUYS ACTUALLY HAD A BIG MILESTONE YEAR, RIGHT? TELL US ABOUT WHAT WENT DOWN >> WE’VE BEEN DOING THIS SINCE 2014, RESEARCHING THIS DRONE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND WE’VE BEEN KIND OF BUILDING UP AND COMPLEXITY OF THE KIND OF WHEN WE GOT TO THUMMER WE ACTUALLY EXECUTED FLIGHT TEST TO DEMONSTRATE THE MOST MATURE VERSION OF THE SYSTEM WE HAVE AND WE DID THAT IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT, SO WE KNEW INTO DOWNTOWN RENO AND CORPUS CHRISTI, TEXAS, WITH THE HELP OF THE FAA TEST SITES AT THOSE AREAS AND MANY, MANY PARTNERS DOING THAT WITH US WORK IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND FINDING OUT WHERE THE LIMITS ARE, WHERE THE GAPS ARE AND WHERE IT WORKS REALLY WELL, THAT’S WHAT WE DID THIS SUMMER THAT WAS A REALLY EXCITING TIME FOR US >> YOU GUYS GOT VIDEO THAT, DIDN’T YOU? >> WOULD PROBABLY HAVE SOME >> CAN YOU TELL US ABOUT A? >> YOU’RE LOOKING AT RENO HERE YOU’RE LOOKING AT A COUPLE OF DRONES TAKING OFF FROM THE TOP OF A BUILDING AND YOU CAN SEE THEY’RE FLYING NEAR THE CASINOS AND COMING REALLY CLOSE TO EACH OTHER ACTUALLY MORE SPACE THAN YOU CAN TELL FROM THE GROUND HERE IN THE KEY THING IS THAT THE TWO PILOTS FOR THOSE VEHICLES KNOW WHAT THE OTHER ONE IS DOING BECAUSE THEY’VE BEEN SHARING INFORMATION YOU CAN SEE ONE HOLDING UP HERE WHILE ANOTHER ONE PASSES BY THAT’S THE RULES OF THE ROAD STUFF WE WERE TALKING ABOUT SO TESTING ALL THOSE CONCEPTS AND HERE YOU’RE SEEING KIND OF A MISSION CONTROL CENTER WITH FOLKS FROM NASA AS WELL AS THE NEVA TEST SITE, WORKING TOGETHER TO EXECUTE THESE ACTIVITIES >> SWEET INTERESTING SO YOU ARE NOT THE ONLY ONE THERE, WERE YOU, JOEY? YOU GUYS, BOTH OF YOU >> I HAD THE CHANCE TO GO OUT AND OBSERVE THE UTM TEST BOTH IN RENO AND TEXAS AND I WOULD SAY SEEING THE DRONE FLYING IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT REALLY S IT TANGIBLE THE REALITY THAT’S COMING FAIRLY SOON AND TO SEE HOW IT’S A COMBINATION OF SOFTWARE THEY LEVERAGE CLOUD SERVICES, PLUS THE DRONE TECHNOLOGY, PLUS THE INTERPLAY OF THE FOLKS ON THE DRONE DOME AT GROUND YOU REALLY SEE WHAT JOEY WAS REFERRING TO AS EARLIER AS THE NATIONAL AIRSPACE, KIND OF IN A MINIATURE VERSION RUNNING IN THESE FIELD TRIALS, WHICH IS GREAT TO SEE AND IT REALL LENDS ITSELF TO HELP US UNDERSTAND WHAT ARE STILL SOME OF THE MAJOR QUESTIONS THAT WE HAVE TO ADDRESS, SO ALL THE DATA THAT’S COLLECTED FROM THESE DEMONSTRATIONS IS REALLY, I THINK, VERY VALUABLE >> YEAH WHAT WAS YOUR EXPERIENCE LIKE, TIFFANY? >> SO I’M NOT ENGINEERING OR ANYTHING LIKE THAT SO I WAS GOING TO COVER AND HELP THEM AMPLIFY THE RESEARCH THA THEY’RE DOING FOR THE PUBLIC, BUT I WOULD SAY RENO WAS COLD AND THEN TEXAS WAS VERY, VERY HOT BUT I WOULD SAY IT WAS REALLY A GREAT EXPERIENCE TO SEE THE TEAM — EVERY TEST DAY WAS DIFFERENT THEY LEARNED SOMETHING ONE DAY AND THEY APPLIED IT THE NEXT DAY AND EVEN WHEN THERE WERE TOP CHALLENGES TO SEE THEM ALL KIND OF COME TOGETHER, COME UP WITH A PLAN, STICK WITH IT THE NEXT DAY, IT WAS REALLY GREAT TO SEEE YOU HAVE COVERED THIS PROJECT FOUR, THREE OR FOUR YEARS NOW KIND OF GREAT TO SEE IT COME TOGETHER THE ACCOMPLISHMENT WITH THEM IT WAS REALLY COOL >> THAT’S AWESOME >> YEAH WHAT WOULD YOU SAY YOU LEARNED IN THE END FROM THESE TESTS IN DOWNTOW RENO? >> IT SOUNDS KOF SILLY TO SAY A LOT BUT IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW THAT WE LEARNED THAT THE SYSTEM WORKS YOU CAN ACTUALLY DO THE THINGS WE THOUGHT IT SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO IT HELPS DRONES STAY SEPARATE AGAIN, IT’S NOT THE ONLY LAYER OF DOING THAT BUT IT’S A KEY LAYER OF DOING THAT YOU CAN MAKE SURE YOU HAVE ACCESS FOR PRIORITY OPERATIONS, YOU CAN ACTUALLY IDENTIFY THE DRONES IN THE AIRSPACE DIGITALLY AND IN OTHER WAYS, SO ALL OF THOSE PIECES WERE EXECUTED IN THAT AIRSPACE AND THE OTHER KEY THING IS FINDING OUT MORE ABOUT WHAT IT TAKES TO FLY IN THAT ENVIRONMENT, RIGHT? WHAT KIND OF THINGS MAKES THIS HARD? LET’S GO THERE AND FLY THAT AND IS NOT JUST LYING ONE DRONE A LOT OF FOLKS CAN DEMONSTRATE SOMETHING WITH ONE DRONE AND A LOT OF FOLKS OF DONE THAT WITH A LOT OF THOSE CASES BUT BRINGING A FULL SYSTEM WITH MANY STAKEHOLDERS TRYING TO COLLABORATIVELY MANAGE THIS AIRSPACE IS REALLY IMPORTANT TO DO AND FIND OUT WHERE MORE WORK NEEDS TO BE DONE AND WHERE THEY ARE SALT AND THAT’S WITH THE FLIGHT TESTS DO FOR US >> SO WHAT’S NEXT FOR THE DRONE

TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PROJECT? >> SO A LOT OF THIS — WE’VE BEEN CONTINUALLY HANDING OFF TO THE FAA, WE TALKED ABOUT A PARTNERSHIP, BUT I REALLY IS A TIGHT PARTNERSHIP WE MEET WITH THEM OFTEN, PROBABLY MORE OFTEN THAN THEY WOULD LIKE WE ARE TALKING WITH THEM QUITE OFTEN TO MAKE SURE WE UNDERSTAND WHAT THE FAA IS THINKING ABOUT WHERE THIS IS GOING, TO MAKE SURE THAT — WHERE OUR RESEARCH IS TRACKING WITH THAT BUT THEY’RE GOING TO BE EXECUTING A PILOT PROGRAM AS WELL, A SECOND PART OF A PREVIOUS PILOT PROGRAM AND WE WANT TO HELP T IN THAT EXECUTION AND REALLY THAT’S ABOUT TAKING THE TECHNOLOGIES THAT WE’VE BEEN DEVELOPING WITH THE FAA AND OUR INDUSTRY PARTNERS AND MAKING THEM REAL IN THE AIRSPACE IT’S AN IMPORTANT STEP IN THAT DIRECTION WE ARE GOING TO KEEP GOING THAT WAY >> ALL RIGHT, EXCELLENT EXCELLENT GREAT >> WE HAVE A QUESTION FROM RESONATOR GAME IS THERE ANY FUNDAMENT OF CONCEPT THAT THOSE IN THE PRIVATE OR COMIAL SECTOR TESTING OF THE DRONE SHOULD BE PAYING ATTENTION TO? >> THERE ARE SO MANY PIECES TO THIS, RIGHT? SO A LOT OF FOLKS ARE SPECIALIZED IN A CERTAIN AREA, MIGHT BE ON THE PLATFORM ITSELF ELTING THE AVOID SENSOR, HOW DO YOU ACTUALLY SEE THINGS IN THE AIRSPACE AND GET OUT OF THEIR WAY? AND I THINAT CONTINUING TO PUSH ALL OF THOSE LANES IS IMPORTANT I THINK UNDERSTANDING THE ECOSYSTEM AS A WHOLE IS ALSO REALLY IMPORTANT I THINK FOLKS THAT DO WORK ON IMPORTANT SENSORS AND IMPORTANT PLATFORMS, IT’S IMPORTANT FOR THEM TO ALSO UNDERSTAND THE ECOSYSTEM IN WHICH THOSE DRONES WILL OPERATE SO JUST TRYING TO KEEP PACE AND UNDERSTAND WHERE THE RESEARCH IS HEADING AND WHERE THE FAA HAS SIGNALED THINGS ARE GOING, JUST TRYING TO STAY ABREAST OF ALL OF THAT STUFF IS REALLY IMPORTANT >> YEAH, YEAH HERE’S A COMMENT ON THE DRONE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IF YOU CAN RESPOND TWISTED METALS ASKED THE PILOT WILL BE WATCHING A MOVIE JUST LIKE NOW 95% OF THE TIME BACK SO DRONE PILOT WILL BE WATCHING ON THE SCREEN, WILL THEY? >> I WOULD LOVE TO WATCH MOVIES 95% OF THE TIME >> 95% OF DRONE PILOTS, I UNDERSTAND? ARE THEY WATCHING THEIR FLIGHT ON SCREEN? >> I SEEK HIM ARE THEY PHYSICALLY WATCHING AIRCRAFT OR THEY WATCHING SUMMER PRESENTATION OF THEIR OPERATION ON THE SCREEN? >> I GUESS THAT THE QUESTION I THINK IT’S MORE THE LATTER WE ARE TRYING TO BUILD THE SYSTEMS OF THESE VEHICLES CAN GO BEYOND A VISUAL LINE OF SIGHTF THE OPER, THE PILOT SO THEY’RE NOT GOING TO BE ABLE TO JUST WATCH IN THE SKY AND THAT’S HOW YOU ENABLE ALL OF THESE BUSINESS CASES, YOU CAN HAVE SOMEONE WATCHING THE DRONE IF YOU GOING TO GO DELIVER THAT THING 5 MILES AWAY YOU CAN’T HAVE SOMEONE OR A LINE OF SOMEONE WATCHING THAT SO HOW DO YOU BUILD A SYSTEM THAT ALLOWS THAT? SO THERE WOULD BE SUMMER PRESENTATION OF THE OPERATION OCCURRING TT THE PERSON THAT’S IN CHARGF THAT OPERATION WOULD HAVE ACCESS TO IT MIGHT BE AS SIMPLE AS A MOVING MAP WITH SOME ALERTS THAT ARE COMING ONTO IT SOMETHING LIKE YOU’D SEE FOR YOUR REGULAR DRIVING, SOMETHING IS LETTING YOU KNOW WHERE YOU’RE GOING OR IT COULD BE MORE ADVANCED IT COULD BE A 3D VIEW, COULD BE A FIRST PERSON VIEW, EARLY DEPENDS ON THE MISSION AND THE DIVINE ACT ON MY SCH RONMENT YOU’RE DRIVING IN SO I GUESS YES >> I WOULD ADD REGARDLESS OF WHETHER IT’S A DRONE PILOT OR A PILOT ON BOARD ONE OF THESE NEW TYPES OF VEHICLES, THERE’S GOING TO BE DIFFERENT WAYS OF INTERACTING WITH THE VEHICLE AND CONTROLLING THE VEHICLE JUST AS AUTOMATION INCREASES AND THERE’S CHANGES IN HOW THOSE VEHICLES FLY, I THINK THERE’S GOING TO BE SOME CHANGES IN THAT TRADITIONAL PILOT FLIGHT DECK OR COCKPIT RELATIONSHIP BURIED AND HOW YOU INTERFACE WITH THAT IS GOING TO CHANGE AND THAT’S ALSO ANOTHER INTERESTING AREA OF RESEARCH ALL THE WAY FROM, YOU KNOW, HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERFACE LOGIC THAT GOES BEHIND THAT AS WELL AS WHAT BUTTON DO I PUSH TO LAND OR TAKE OFF OR IS THERE AN EASY FLY BUTTON? SO THERE’S ALL KINDS OF NEW WAYS TO ENGAGE WITH AIRT, WHETHER IT’S DRONE OR SOME OF THESE NEW VEHICLES I THINK THAT’S A REALLY INTERESTING AREA >> I THINK ONE OF THE KEY THINGS WE ARE SEEING A LOT OF RESEARCH ON FROM INDUSTRY AS WELL AS THE NASA SIDE IS HOW DO THESE PILOTS MAY BE CONTROLLED MORE THAN ONE OF THESE DOES IT HAVE TO BE A ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ONE PILOT AND ONE ACTIVE OPERATION OR CAN YOU EXTEND THAT FURTHER CAN YOUUALLY HAVE THREE PEOPLE CONTROLLING EIGHT VEHICLES OR CAN IT BE ONE AND CONTROLLING TWO ONE OF THE LIMITS OF THAT AND WHAT TOOLS NEED TO EXIST IN ORDER TO MAKE SURE THAT AGAIN HAPPENS VERY SAFELY >> FOR SURE >> WE HAVE A QUESTION HERE IS THERE ANY CORPORATION WITH AUTONOMOUS CAR RESEARCH OF THE GOING BE SIMILAR ISSUES FOR COMMUNICATION AND CONTROL? >> I THINK THE SAME PRINCIPLES AUTONOMOUS CAR, AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE, SELF-DRIVING CARS, HOWEVER YOU WISH TO CALL IT, SOME OF THE SAME PRINCIPLES ARE I THINK IMPORTANT IN AVIATION AS WELL SO CAN I UNDERSTAND WHAT MY ENVIRONMENT IS PRESENT INTO ME, RIGHT? DO I HAVE SE AWARENESS OF WHAT MY ENVIRONMENT IS, AIRPLANES THAT WOULD INVOLVE — AIRCRAFT AND DRONES IT WOULD INVOLVE WEATHER KNOWING HOW STRONG THE

COMMUNICATION — A ALL OF THE SE TYPES OF QUESTIONS ABOUT MEDICATION, SAFE COMMUNICATION, RELIABLE COMMUNICATION UNDERSTANDING OF THE ENVIRONMENT AROUND YU, BEING TO REACT APPROPRIATELY TO THE ENVIRONMENT AROUND YOU KNOWING THE RULES OF THE ROAD THAT JOEY HAS KIND OF REFERENCE, WHETHER ACTUALLY ON THE ROAD OR JUST LYING IN THE AIR, THOSE ARE ALL THE SAME PRINTABLE THAT CAN BE APPLIED >> MAKES SENSE COOL I WANT TO JUMP BACK TO ANOTHER TOPIC THAT I WANT TO MAKE SURE WE DON’T MISS ONE OF THE COOLEST THINGS I RECENTLY LEARNED ABO THE URBAN ARAB ABILITY RESEARCH IS THE SIMULATION WORK THAT YOU GUYS DO, CAN YOU TELL US ABOUT THAT? >> SURE I THINK FOR ALL OUR TWITCH BANDS OUT THERE, YOU GUYS MIGHT HAVE MICROSOFT FLIGHT SIMULATOR HAVE USED THAT SO JUST LIKE YOU COULD EMULATE FLYING A CESSNA OR A PAPER, EVEN LIKE A 747, WE HAVE ADVANCED FLIGHT SIMULATORS HERE AT AMES THEY ARE KIND OF A COMBINATION OF FLIGHT SIMILARS, SUMMARY FIXED, MEANING THEY DON’T MOVE AN ACTUAL ALLOW YOU TO FEEL ALL THE FORCES HE WOULD EXPERIENCE LIKE YOU ARE FLYING IN REAL LIFE WE HAVE LOTS OF DIFFERENT KINDS KINDS OF SIMILAR LEADERS AND IT’S NOT JUST WE HAVE — THE FACT THAT WE HAVE THE SIMULATORS, IT’S THE FACT THAT WE HAVE OR ARE DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE MODELS FOR THESE NEW TYPES OF VLES SO WE CAN UNDERSTAND HOW THEY ACTUALLY FLY >> THEY DON’T EXIST YET SO YOU HAVE TO INVENT A MODEL OF IT >> RIGHT, EXACTLY TO TAKE SOME CONCEPT VEHICLES, UNDERSTAND HOW THESE VEHICLES WOULD FLY, BUT WITH THEIR PERFORMANCE BE AND THEN HOW WOULD THEY ACTUALLY FLY IN AND EMULATED WORLD IN OUR AIRSPACE AND GO THROUGH SOME OF THOSE SAME QUESTIONS WE’VE ALL BEEN TALKING ABOUT W DO I INTERACT WITH MY CONTROLS? DO I HAVE A JOYSTICK LIKE I WOULD FOR A HELICOPTER, LIKE A CYCLIC, OR DO I HAVE SOMETHING ELSE TO AND WHAT IS THAT MODE OF INTERACTION? THOSE ARE QUESTIONS THAT WE ALSO CAN THINK ABOUT FOR THESE SIMULATORS ALONG WITH HOW DO I INTERFACE WITH SOME NEW TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, PARTICULARLY FOR MY VEHICLES BUILDING UP THE WORK THAT JOEY HAS BEEN DOING SO THERE’S ALL KINDS OF DIFFERENTHINGS WE CAN INIGATE WITH THESE SIMULATORS >> TESTING EVERYTHING AND HOW IT COMES TOGETHER >> AND WE ARE GOING TO SEE WHAT THIS LOOKS LIKE IN A SENSE THAT YOU BROUGHT A VIDEO LET’S SEE THAT SIMULATION VIDEO AND TELL US WHAT WE ARE SEEING THIS IS GOING TO BE — >> SO THIS IS A VIDEO FROM ONE OF OUR FIXED BASEGHT SIMILARS, FLIGHT SIMILAR TO THAT DOES NOT MOVE THIS IS FROM ONE OF OUR RESEARCHERS, MIKE FUREY, AND HIS SIMULATOR HERE, YOU CAN SEE THAT IT SHOWS A VEHICLE TAKING OFF VERTICALLY AND NOW IT’S MOVING FORWARD IN FLIGHT AND WAS ACTUALLY REALLY INTERESTING, SOME OF THESE VEHICLES AS THEY MOVE FORWARD IN FLIGHT HAVE THIS TRANSITION PERIOD BECAUSE YOU HAVE TO TRANSITION FROM VERTICAL TAKEOFF TO FORWARD FLIAND HELICOPTERS, THAT KIND OF OCCURS INSTANTANEOUSLY, BUT FOR THESE VEHICLES, YOU’RE GOING TO HAVE THIS TRANSITION PERIOD AND THAT’S INTERESTING TO KIND OF UNDERSTAND NOW YOU CAN SEE THE VEHICLE FLYING IN AN URBAN CENTER, IN THIS CASE IT’S A MODEL OF TEMPERANCE AND SKILL AND ARE SIMULATORS, WE CAN MODEL ALMOST ANY TYPE OF URBAN ENVIRONMENT OR, YOU KNOW, ANY LANDSCAPE THAT WE WISH TO UNDERSTAND OR UNDERSTAND THE PROCEES, FLYING HOW WOULD I LAND, HOW WOULD I COME IN FOR MY APPROACH? THESE ARE SOME OF THE THINGS THAT WE CAN EXPLORE, SO YOU CAN SEE THIS VEHICLE NOW COMING IN FOR ITS APPROACH AND ITS LANDING AND THIS IS AN INTERESTING QUESTION, AS YOU COME IN FOR YOUR APPROACH UNDER LANDING, YOU CAN SEE THAT VEHICLE KIND OF PITCH UP A LITTLE BIT, SO HOW DOES THAT FEEL? SO JOE AND I WERE SITTING IN THE BACK WITH COFFEES IN HAND,H THAT COFFEE SPILL — >> ARE GOING TO WARN ME FIRST? >> SO UNDERSTANDING THAT PASSENGER EXPERIENCE IS ACTUALLY A REALLY BIG PART OF SOME OF THE WORK THAT THESE SIMULATORS CAN DO SO IT’S NOT QUITE THIS SIMULATOR BUT WE HAVE ANOTHER MOTION SIMULATOR THAT ALLOWS US TO UNDERSTAND WHAT IS THE PASSION TO MY PASSENGER EXPERIENCE, WHAT DOES IT FEEL LIKE >> I’M GLAD TO HEAR THAT >> THAT’S SO COOL >> I GOT SICK ON A WHALE WATCH THIS YEAR SO I WOULD LIKE YOU TO FIND OUT GOING TO GET QUEASY >> ARE YOU SIGNING UP? >> I’M GOING TO LET YOU FINISH FINISH DUMB I FIGURED OUT FIRST FOR A WHILE SO THESE SIMULATORS, FOR ME WAS ONE OF THE COOLEST THINGS I HEARD ABOUT DO YOU HAVE A FAVORITESPECT OF THIS RESEARCH OR WHA REALLY COOL THING Y WANT TO SHARE? >> YEAH, SO I’D SAY THE NUMBER OF QUESTIONS THAT THIS RESEARCH IS KIND OF HIGHLIGHTING IS REALLY INTERESTING AND THE FACT THAT IT’S THIS NEW ERA OF AVIATION, THIS NEW MODE OF TRANSPORTATION IS VERY EXCITING SO AS THIS TECHNOLOGY KIND OF DEVELOPS AND THESE NEW VEHICLE CONFIGURATIONS COME TO LIFE AND WORK STARTING TO ASK FOR THEM, I THINK THE REALLY INTERESTING THING IS THAT THIS IS AN AREA OF WORK THAT’S GOING TO CONTINUE SO ALL THOSE FOLKS THAT ARE INTERESTED IN UNDERSTANDING OR MAYBE EVEN PARTICIPATING IN THIS AREA, THEY HAVE A CHANCE TO REALLY BE PART OF IT SO PEOPLE OUT THERE HAVE A CHANCE TO BE PART OF THIS NEW ERA OF TRANSPORTATION THEY CAN ACTUALLY BE INVOLVED, WHICH I THINK IS REALLY NEAT >> THIS IS BY NO MEANSISHED WE NEED HELP >> EXACTLY >> WHAT ABOUT YOU, JOEY? >> WHAT I’M LOOKING FORWARD TO? >> YEAH >> JUST TAKING A STEP BACK AND LOOKING AT IT FROM THE OUTSET,

WE ARE GETTING A LITTLE CLOSER TO BEING JETSONS WORLD, RIGHT? THIS IS ALMOST LIKE THE JETSONS TALKING ABOUT FLYING CARS BEFORE, WE ARE STILL A FEW STEPS AWAY FROM THAT, BUT WE ARE GETTING THE GOING TO HOPEFULLY HAVE SOME MORE OPERATIONS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT THAN WE HAD BEFORE, THEY ARE GOING TO HAPPEN SAFELY, GET US CLOSER TO WHERE WE WANT TO GO, IT’S REALLY NEAT TO SEE >> REALLY COOL >> WE GOT A BUNCH OF QUESTIONS PILING UP >> SHIVANJLI, YOU WERE SPEAKING ABOUT LIKE THE PASSENGER EXPERIENCE AND THINGS LIKE TT, LEGIT TWITCH CHANNEL IT WILL PEOPLE BE REQUIRED TO WEAR TO WEAR PARACHUTES, WHAT KIND OF SAFETY MEASURES WOULD WE EXPECT, OXYGEN MASKS, LIFEJACKETS, THINGS LIKE THAT? >> I THINK THAT’S A GREAT QUESTION AND IT RAISES THE FACT THAT AS THESE VEHICLES ARE GETTING CERTIFIED, THERE IS THAT ASPECT OF ENSURING SAFE OPERATIONS AND IN THE CASE O ENSURING THAT THOSE FOLKS ON BOARD HAD THE APPROPRIATE MECHANISMS TO ENSURE SAFETY SO JUST LIKE WE HAVE THE SAFETY BRIEFING THAT WE ALL LOVE TO SIT IN WHEN WE GO FLY ON COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT, THERE HAS TO BE SOMETHING MOST LIKELY SIMILAR, FOR A PASSENGER CARRYING VEHICLES, EVEN IF THEY ARE URBAN M ABILITY VEHICLES SO SAFETY IS NUMBER ONE CON FOR US, FOR THE FAA AND FOR INDUSTRY THAT’S DEVELOPING THESE VEHICLES THERE WILL MOST LIKELY BE SOMETHING SIMMLER, WE JUST DON’T KNOW QUITE WHAT YET >> AWESOME TRYING TO PRONOUNCE THESE NAMES IT’S A STRUGGLE WILL THE DASH WILL IT HAVE AIRCRAFT SCAMMERS WITH SPECI SOFTWARE TO ATE AANDING POINT MACK I KNOW THAT YOU HAVE WORKED ON LANDING I CAN ISMS >> THERE’S A LOT IN THAT QUESTION >> I THOUGHT THERE MIGHT BE >> IT’S A GOOD ONE, BECAUSE IT SPEAKS TO THE NUMBER OF WAYS YOU CAN ACCOMPLISH THINGS EVEN AS YOU LOOK AT THE SMALL DRONES, THEY DHAVE CAMERAS OF DIFFERENT TYPES THAT HELP IDENTIFY IF LANDING LOCATION IS SAFE TO LAND OR NOT BECAUSE YOU CAN PLAN AHEAD OF TIME I’M GOING TO LAND IN HIS OPEN FIELD AND I’M GOING TO GO THERE AND I’M GOING TO LAND THAT AND IT’S GOING TO BE GOOD BUT YOU GET THERE OR THERE’S A CAR THERE ARE PEOPLE HAVING A PICNIC DO YOU HAVE A SYSTEM ON BOARD THAT CAN HELP YOU IDENTIFY THAT AND GO TO AN ALTERNATE LOCATION? SO SOME VISUAL TECHNOLOGY IS USED TO DO THAT SOME OF THAT HAS BEEN DEVELOPED AT NASA LANGLEY FOR EXAMPLE TO DO THOSE OF THINGS AND IN GENERAL WHEN THEY ARE PLANNING THEIR OPERATIONS, THERE WOULD BE SOME VISUALIZATION PROBABLY WHERE THEY WOULD LIKE TO GO AND HOW THEY WOULD LIKE TO GET THERE, SO YOU COULD PUT A POINT ON A SCREEN THAT COULD BE TRANSLATED INTO A FIGHT PLAN AND I COULD BECOME INDICATED TO THE SYSTEM ALL THESE THINGS ARE THINGS THAT ARE POSSIBLE AND WE’EEN EXAMPLES OF ALREADY >> SO YOU’RE ALL OVER THAT WORKING ON THAT >> WE HAVE A QUESTION HERE IF YOU COULD SNAP YOUR FINGERS AND SOLVE ONE ASPECT OF INDUSTRIAL DRONE FLIGHT, WHAT WOULD IT BE? >> GOOD QUESTION >> IF YOU SOLVE THE DETECT AND AVOID PROBLEM FOR ALL VEHICLES AND ALL CLASSES WITH THE SNAP OF A FINGER, THAT WOULD DO A LOT SO THAT’S THE LAST LAYER OF SAFETY, HOW DO YOU MAKE SURE THAT I SEE THAT THING THAT’S COMING AT ME AND IT’S VERY CLOSE AND I NEED TO MOVE OUT OF ITS WAY >> THAT MEANS ONE DRONE BEING ABLE TO SEE THE OTHER ONE COMING AND MOVE >> EACH DRONE COULD AVOID THE THING IT NEEDS TO AVOID WHEER THEY ARE STATIC THINGS ON THE GROUND, MAYBE YESTERDAY THERE WASN’T A CRANE THERE AND TODAY THERE IS A CRANE THERE AND THAT’S NOT ON MY MAP, HOW DO I DETECT THAT, AS WELL AS OTHER THINGS FLYING IN THE AIR, WHETHER IT’S A TRADITIONAL CESSNA WITH A REAL PILOT ON BOARD THAT CAN’T SEE YOUR LITTLE DRONE, OR MAYBE DOESN’T HAVE THE SAME MANEUVERABILITY AS AN URBAN ARM ABILITY VEHICLE HOW DO THESE VEHICLES DETECT THOSE PROBLEMS AND AVOID THEM, RIGHT? IF YOU COULD SOLVE THAT PROBLEM YOU’D GET A LONG WAY TOWARD SORT OF THE SAFETY QUESTIONS THAT NEED TO BE ANSWERED AND THERE’S A LOT OF WAYS TO DO THAT AND THERE’S A LOT OF FOLKS WORKING ON THAT AND THERE’S SOME VERY GOOD SOLUTION SORTED BUT IF IT COULD BE UNIVERSALLY SOFT, THAT WOULD BE AWESOME >> SWEET HOW ABOUT THIS ONE FROM HARBOR R CAT WILL THE FLIGHT SIMILAR IN FLIGHT SIMILAR BE BE OPEN SOURCE? >> THAT’S AN INTERESTING QUESTION FOR SOME OF THESE VEHICLES, THE MANUFACTURERS THAT ARE DEVELOPING SOME OF THESE VEHICLES HAVE A WHOLE HOST OF CONFIGURATIONS AND SOME OF THEM ARE WORKING WITH THE TRADITIONAL FLIGHT MANAGEMENT COMPUTER’S, FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSMS THAT YOU HAVE IN COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT TODAY AND SOME ARE NEW DEPENDING ON THE SAFETY CASES AS WELL AS THE SECURE COMMUNICATION PIECE THAT’S REQUIRED, IT MIGHT NOT BE QUITE OPEN SOURCE, BUT JUST LIKE WE HAVE SIMULATORS TODAY THAT HELP US UNDERSTAND THE PERFORMANCE AS WELL AS THE CONTROLS FOR THOSE VEHICLES, I’M SURE THAT SOMETHING SIMILAR WILL BE DEVELOPED SO THAT FOLKS OUT THERE WHO WA TO TRY THEM OUT OR WANT TO FLY THEM IN THEIR OWN SIMULATOR WILL BE ABLE TO DO SO BUT AS THE INDUSTRY IS DEVELOPING THEIR TOOLS, THEIR PULLING FROM EXISTING TOOLS FOR

FLIGHT CONTROLS TODAY AS WELL AS DEVELOPING THEIR OWN, SO IT’S KIND OF A MIXED BAG RIGHT NOW >> NEEDS >> FOR THE SMALL DRONES WERE LOOKING AT — IN GENERAL EVER THINK SHOULD BE PERFORMANCE-BASED WITHIN THE BOUNDS OFERTAIN PERFORMANCE ENVELOPE? I KNOW I CAN CONTROL MY VEHICLE UNDER ALL THESE CONDITIONS AND I CAN SHOW YOU HOW I DO THAT THAT MAY MEAN YOU USE AN OPEN SOURCE, PIECES, OR EVERYTHING IS OPEN SOURCE OR NOT I CAN’T SAY THAT IF THERE WAS A SINGLE OPEN SOURCE FOR A PIECE OF THAT AND IT WAS PROVEN TO PERFORM IN A CERTAIN WAY, THE NET WOULD BE VERY VALUABLE BUT I DON’T THINK IT WILL BE A REQUIREMENT THAT EVERYONE USES AN OPEN SOURCE PARTICULAR ELEMENT >> I SEE ANOTHER QUESTION HERE, BUT YOU MADE ME THINK OF IT, YOU MENTIONED THE WORD SECURITY SO LEGIT TWITCH CHANNEL ASKS COULD DRONES BE SUBJECT TO HACKERS? WILL THERE BE SECURITY MEASURES SIGNALS? UNWANTED OR HARMFUL >> SO THE ANSWER TO THE FIRST QUESTION IS YES DEFINITELY ANY PIECE OF I.T. TECHNOLOGY, RIGHT, CAN BE POTENTIAL HE HACKED IF IT’S NOT BILLED CORRECTLY SO THE ANSWER IS YES AND AGAIN, IT’S PART OF NOT NECESSARILY GETTING — YOU WANT TO BE AS SECURE AS POSSIBLE AT ALL LAYERS BUT INERAL WE KNHAT’S NOT LIKELY TO HAPPEN SO HOW DO YOU BUILD ENOUGH LAYERS IN SUCH THAT AS YOU LAYER THEM ALL ON TOP OF EACH OTHER BUT OVERALL THE WHOLE THING STAYS SECURE IT’S KIND OF A SWISS CHEESE APPROACH IF YOU LAYER THE SWISS CHEESE AND CERTAINLY YOU COVER UP ALL OF THE HOLES AND CAN’T SEE THROUGH IT >> OKAY, GOOD VISUAL >> I THINK THAT’S WHAT YOU WANT TO LOOK AT WITH THESE DRONES SO EVEN IF A GIVEN DRONE WAS HACKED, LET’S SAY, THAT IT CAN CAUSE DAMAGE TO THE FURTHER SYSTEM OR THE FOLKS ON THE GROUND DOES IT HAVE OTHER SAFETY MECHANISMS TO MAKE SURE THAT NO HARM CAN REALLY COME FROM THAT, SO THERE IS A LOT OF WORK AND CYBERSECURITY RELATED TO NOT JUST THE DRONES THEMSELVES BUT THE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AS A WHOLE IF THAT WAS HACKED THAT WOULD BE THAT AS WELL, SO HAD TO BUILD ALL THESE LAYERS IN >> I THINK SECURITY HAS TO BE THE VELE ITSELF, THE COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS BETWEEN THE VEHICLES AND THEIR OPERATORS, SO LIKE JOEY WAS SAYING, MULTIPLE LAYERS OF SECURITY ARE REALLY REQUIRED SO ANYTHING THAT LEARN FROM THE FEAR OF DRONES CAN BE OBVIOUSLY APPLIED TO OTHER TYPES OF VEHICLES AS WELL, SO IT’S A QUESTION THAT I THINK IS APPLICABLE FOR ALL VEHICLES >> YEAH GOOD >> IN GENERAL, RESEARCHWISE WE KE TO CONSISECURITY A FIRST-CLASS CITIZEN IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS IT’S NOT SOME THING YOU TACK ON AT THE END, IT’S SOMETHING YOU MAKE SURE YOU’RE THINKING ABOUT AND ENGAGING INDUSTRY WITHIN THE FAA WITH AND THE PRECYBERSECURITY PROFESSIONALS AS YOU BUILD UP THE SYSTEM BECAUSE YOU DON’T WANT TO COME UP WITH A GREAT TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTION THAT IS EASILY HACKED AND THE WHOLE THING FALLS APART YOU WANT TO MAKE SURE IT’S ROBUST FROM THE BEGINNING >> EXACTLY >> HOW — THIRD I JUST TOTALLY BUTCHERED YOUR NAME, I’M SORRY BUT HOW DO YOU DEAL WITH INCREASED RADIO TRAFFIC TO >> YEAH, SO THIS PROBABLY A COUPLE PIECES TO THAT ONE IS LIKE OVERUSE OF A GIVEN CHANNEL, THERE’S JUST SO MANY PEOPLE TALKING ON THE CHANNEL >> STOP TALKING! >> THERE’S ALSOIND OF A CERTAIN BAND BEING OVERUSED, FOR EXAMPLE, COMMAND-AND-CONTROL, WE TALKED ABOUT EARLIER AND THAT’S ONE OF THE THINGS WE LOOKED AT OUR FLIGHT TEST IN RENO IN CORPUS CHRISTI, FOR THESE SMALL DRONES, COMMAND-AND-CONTROL, DIFFERENT RADIO FREQUENCIES WE USE WONDER THEY GET SATURATED, WHEN YOU HAVE PROBLEMS WITH THEM? TURNS OUT IF YOU FLY NEAR AN APARTMENT BUILDING, YOU HAVE A LOT OF PEOPLE WITH WI ROUTERS AND IF YE CONFLICTING WITH THAT, YOU MAY HAVE TROUBLE COMMUNICATE AND WITH YOUR DRONE THESE ARE REALLY NO ISSUES BUT ACTUALLY TAKING A LOOK IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT IS IMPORTANT >> I WOULD KIND OF ADD TO THAT, YOU WOULD HAVE — YOU WOULD WANT TO UNDERSTAND WHAT KIND OF CONCEPT BUT NOT SATURATED LIKE A RADIO FREQUENCY TOO MUCH YOU WANT TO ENSURE THAT ANY COT THAT’S BEING DEVELOPED, JOEY HAD MENTIONED THAT AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS MAY NOT WANT TO BE TALKING TO EVERYONE OF THOSE DRONES, EVERYONE OF THOSE UAM VEHICLES, SO THAT’S PART OF THE CONCEPT UNDERSTANDING, HEY, HOW IS THIS ACTUALLY GOING TO WORK? THAT’S A REALLY IMPORTANT PART OF ENSURING THAT WE DON’T SATURATE CERTAIN PIECES THAT WE KNOW HAVE LIMITS TO THEM AND THEN INCLUDE SOME AS WELL AS FREQUENCY SO THAT GOES BACK TO THE FOUNDATIONAL RESEARCH WHAT THE CONCEPT OF OPERATION? >> A LOT OF WHAT YOU’VE BEEN SAYING TODAY IS PLANNED FOR THAT CHALLENGE FIGURE OUT WHAT IT IS TODAY AND PLAN AROUND IT HERE’S AN URBAN AIR MOTILITY QUESTION FROM LEGIT TWITCH CHANNEL AGAIN, COULD THIS RESEARCH EVENTUALLY LEAD TO ENTUALLY PEOPLE BEING AB TO OWN AND OPERATE THEIR OWN AIR TAXI? DO YOU THINK THAT’S COMING? >> I THINK IS GOING TO BE LOTS OF DIFFERENT USE CASES AND MODES OF FLYING I THINK IS GOING TO BE CASES WHERE SOME FOLKS MAY BE ABLE TO OWN THEIR OWN VEHICLES MOST LIKELY WILL BE A SERVICE LIKE WE USE TODAY WE’VE SEEN A BIG RISE IN SERVICE-BASED TECHNOLOGY, SO WERE AL USE WHETHER IT’S VEHICLES ARE FOOD DELIVERY SERVICES, RIGHT, SEEING MORE OF THAT COMING ALONG SO MOST LIKELY URBAN AIR MOBILITY WILL BE ACCESSIBLE AT

THE SURFACE BUT WHO KNOWS, RIGHT? MAYBE WE CAN ALL REALLY BE THE JETSONS JOEY’S MISSION OF THE FUTURE MAY COME TO LIFE >> WE ARE CLOSE >> IT’S FUNNY YOU MENTION THE JETSONS AND YET I TELL MY MOM WE ARE TALKING BUT DRONES ON THE SHOW TODAY, SHE SAYS, LIKE THE BRUCE WILLIS MOVIE? FIFTH ELEMENT? AND I WAS LIKE YEAH, MOM, BUT WAY SAFER >> A BIT OF AN INSANE FEATURE >> EXACTLY LIKE THAT >> A QUESTION FROM HOWEVER CAT WHAT’S A REASONABLE TIP FOR A FLYING TAXIDRIVER? >> PRACTICAL INFORMATION HERE TODAY >> I WOULD GO BACK TO LIKE THE FOUNDATION WHAT IS THE NATURAL AIRSPACE? YOU OUGHT TO KNOW YOUR RULES OF THE ROAD, YOU HAVE TO KNOW YOUR PROCEDURES YOU HAVE TO KNOW YOUR SAFETY UNDER CERTIFICATION ASPECTS CAN FLY SAFE AND GET TO WHERE YOU WANT TO GO FROM POINT A TO POINT B YOU HAVE TO HAVE THOSE FOUNDATIONS, A DRIVER’S LICENSE BEFORE YOU OPERATE GOT TO HAVE SOME SORT OF CERTIFICATION BEFORE YOU FLY >> FOR SURE >> SEABISCUIT IN THE THIRD, THAT’S MY TIP >> YOU GUYS ACTUALLY UNDERSTOOD THE QUESTION DIFFERENTLY WHERE I WAS TAKING IT GOING TO SAY 10%,O MY HAIRDRESSER? WHAT’S THE TIP? >> I DIDN’T EVEN THINK ABOUT IT THAT WAY IN A RISE CHAIR I DON’T KNOW WHAT TO TIP, IT’S AWKWARD >> I MUST SAY I WANT — I WANT MY DRIVER TO HEED TOHAT >> WELL READ ON ALL OF THAT ALL RIGHT, LET’S TAKE A FEW MORE >> WE HAVE JOSEPH URBAN HERE SAYS WILL CARGO THEIR TAXES BE ALLOWED TO FLY AUTONOMOUSLY BEFORE PASSENGER AIR TAXIS? >> SO MAYBE JOEY AND I WILL TAG TEAM THIS ONE BUT I WILL START I THINK AS AUTONOMOUS APATIONS COME FORTH, CERTIFICATION — I GO BACK TO THAT, BECAUSE IT’S ALSO PART OF THIS, HOW DO YOU CERTIFY AN AUTONOMOUS SYSTEM? SO THAT’S A QUESTION THAT WE HAVE AND WE ARE DOING RESEARCH TO EXPLORE WHAT THAT MEANS GENERALLY FOLKS DO BELIEVE FLYING CARGO MAY COME BEFORE FLYING PASSENGERS, JUST AS A NATURAL PROGRESSION, BUT THERE E STILLS OF QUESTIONS, EVEN IF YO AUTONOMOUS FLIGHT >> I TOTALLY AGREE I THINK THE CARGO STUFF IS WHERE WE WILL LEARN A LOT PROBABLY BEFORE THE PASSENGER STUFF BUT THAT’S A SOMEWHAT SEPARATE QUESTION FROM HOW AUTONOMOUS THEY ARE ALLOWED TO BE IN THE AIRSPACE, HOW DO THEY PROVE THAT THEY CAN STILL SAY SAFE GIVE THE BENEFIT OF NOT HAVING PEOPLE ON BOARD, BUT YOU STILL CAN’T HAVE IING BAD THINGS IN THE AIRSPACE OR ANYTHING ON THE GROUND SO THERE’S A LOT OF QUESTIONS TO ANSWER BUT I WOULD GUESS YEAH, A LOT OF THE THINGS IN CARGO WOULD HAPPEN PRIOR TO PASSENGER ACTIVITY >> MAKES SENSE >> I THINK IT WAS BACK TO WHAT YOU SAID, JOEY, PERFORMANCE BASED SOLUTION, LET’S UNDERSTAND THE PERFORMANCE OF THESE VEHICLES AND THEN HOW DO WE INTEGRATE THEM INTO OUR NATURAL AIRSPACE AND THOSE ARE STILL QUESTIONS THAT NEED TO BE RESOLVED >> ALWAYS THE SAME COOL HERE’S A COOL IDEA FROM SPACE TV NET WILL AUGMENTED REALITY BE USED TO DISPLAY VIRTUAL ROADS IN THE SKY? COULD YOU DO THAT? >> YOU DEFINITELY CAN WE SORT OF HAVE WE’VE SEEN IT AND WE’VE DONE A LITTLE BIT HERE AS WELL AND THE ROADS, IT CAN BE AS SIMPLE AS JUST CYLINDERS THAT YOU KNOW YOU HAVE TO STAY WITHIN, BUT AGAIN, WHEN WE ARE GETTIN TO THESE BEYOND VISUAL SITE AND THERE’S NOT NECESSARILY A PILOT ON BOARD FOR THE SMALL DRONES, OBVIOUSLY IT WOULD BE HARD TO CARRY A PILOT IT IS MORE ABOUT HOW MUCH CAN THIS BE AN AUTONOMOUS OPERATION, RIGHT? VISUALIZING YOUR PLAN, VISUALIZING THE AIRSPACE STRUCTURE, VISUALIZING DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF YOUR OPERATION AUGMENTED D BE A KEY PART OF THAT WE ACTUALLY TESTED SOME OF THAT FOLKS WITH THE GOGGLES ON LOOKING AT THE DATA FROM THE AIR-TRAFFIC SIDE AS WELL AS THE MANAGEMENT SIDE OF THAT AND INTERACTING WITH THE AIRCRAFT IN THE AIR SEEING INFORMATION THAT’S AVAILABLE DIGITALLY SO YOU COULD SEE FOLKS MANAGING IN A DENSE ENVIRONMENT, MAY BE JG AT’S GOING ON COULD HAVE A LOT OF VALUE SOME WORK IS GOING ON IN THAT DIRECTION ALREADY >> THAT’S AWESOME THAT SEEMS LIKE A PERFECT USE FOR THAT KIND OF PSYCHOLOGY THAT’S REALLY HOPEFUL >> WE HAVE A QUESTION HERE FROM MEGA MAN BX ARE DO YOU THINK DRONES WILL PLAY A BI ROLE IN CRIME PREVENTION, LIKE MONITORING THE ROAD TIME AND STREETS OVERHEAD? >> WE ARE INVOLVED WITH A LOT OF PUBLIC ORGANIZATION ARE LOOKING AT USING DRONES MORE AND MORE IF YOU THINK ABOUT SAFETY AND SECURITY, ONE OF THE BIG THINGS WE’VE SEEN A LOT OF SUCCESS ON, YOU CAN JUST SEE IT IN THE NEWS, SEARCH AND RESCUE OPERATIONS CITIES ARE ABLE TO BUY THESE DRONES, THEY CAN ACTUALLY SEE HEAT ON THE GROUND, SO AT NIGHT THEY CAN BE FLYING AND SEE A LOST CHILD IN A FIELD

RIGHT? SO THEN SEND FOLKS TO THAT LOCATION OBVIOUSLY YOU CAN DO A LOT OF GOOD THINGS WITH DRONES, RIGHT? ONE OF THE OTHER USE CASES IS A FIRE DEPARTMENT WANTING TO SEND A DRONE OUT AHEAD OF THE TRUCK BECAUSE I CAN GET THERE FASTER TO SURVEY THE SCENE BEFORE THE PEOPLE GET THERE TO FIGHT THE FIRE, THAT’S ANOTHER USE CASE THAT PEO ENVISION AGAIN THE AIRSPACE HAS TO BE READY FOR THAT YOU GO BACK TO THE HOTDOG DRONES THEY HAVE TO GET OUT OF THE WAY OF THAT FIRE DRONE COMING THROUGH AND WITHOUT A UNIFIED — A SYSTEM TO SHARE THAT INFORMATION, YOU CAN’T REALLY MAKE THAT HAPPEN COMPLETELY BUT THERE’S A LOT OF INTEREST FROM POLICE AND FIRE AND OTHER AGENCIES TO USE THESE FOR THE THINGS THAT THEY ALREADY DO >> I THINK WE ALREADY SEE A LOT OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE APPLICATIONS I THINK WITH THE RECENT BUYERS HERE IN CALIFORNIA WE SAW SOME OF THAT HERE AS WELL THE TOOLS PROVIDED A GREAT INSIGHT FOR SOME OF THOSE EXAM, FIREFIGHTERS TO FIGHT THE FIRES THAT WERE BLAZING AND THEN ALSO FOR LIKE VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS, THERE’S BEEN A WHOLE HOST OF OTHER USED CASES FOR SURVEYING AND PROVIDING EMERGENCY RESPONSE BUT LIKE JOEY WAS SAYING, WE NEED THE RULES OF THE ROAD THERE AND HOW THESE AIRCRAFT ARE GOING TO OPERATE, OR THESE DRONES ARE GOING TO OPERATE TO REALLY ENABLE THEM TO DO THEIR MISSION >> AND WITHPUBLIC SAFETY KEEPING THE BUT THESE DRONES CAN ACTUALLY KEEP THE FIRST RESPONDERS SAFE AS WELL AND THEY CAN A DRONE TO THE TOP OF A ROOF TO SEE BAD GUYS OR WHATEVER IT MIGHT BE OR SOMEONE THAT MIGHT NEED HELP WITHOUT ACTUALLY PUTTING PEOPLE IN HARM’S WAY FIRST SO PUBLIC SAFETY DOES GO BOTH WAYS THERE’S A LOT OF REALLY GOOD USES FOR THIS IN THE POLICE AND FIRE REALM >> AND IN SOME CASES COME IN THE TEG, CORPUS CHRISTI, TH FIRE DEFERMENT THERE WI THEIR DRONE AS WELL, SO WORKING CLOSELY >> WE HAVE THE FIRE DEPARTMENT IS WELCOME IN CORPUS CHRISTIE, POLICE AND FIRE WERE GREAT PARTNERS THERE, ORGANIZED BY THE FAA TEST SITE IN TEXAS AGAIN, THEY HAD DRONES ALREADY IN THEIR INVENTORY IF THEY WERE ALREADY USING THE PERMISSIONS >> THEY WERE READY >> THEY WERE PARTICIPATING WITH GIVING US FEEDBACK ON THE CONCEPT AS A WHOLE AND ALSO UNDERSTANDING HOW THEY ALREADY USED THEIR DRONES AND MAKING SURE THAT THE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND THE CONCEPT STILL ACCOMMODATES WHAT THEY WOULD LIKE TO DO IT’S REALLY IMPORTANT TO GET THAT FEEDBACK EARLY AND OFTEN SO YEAH, WE ARE ALREADY SEEING THESE AGENCIES DO THEM IN THE POLICE WERE INTERESTED IN USING OBVIOUSLY TO IDENTIFY DRONES, LIKE IF IN THE FUTURE THERE’S MORE OF THESE IN THE AIR, THEY WANT TO KNOW THAT THEY’RE ALLOWED TO BE THERE WITH HERE DOING SOMETHING GOOD AND NOT BAD THE POLICE WILL HAVE AN INTEREST IN KNOWING THAT THE AIRSPACE IS SAFE AROUND THE PUBLIC AS WELL >> OF COURSE, YEAH I HAVE A QUESTION HERE MAKING ME PICTURE THE QUICK KNOW MY FIFTH ELEMENT SCENARIO WITH DRONES, YOU CAN HAVE MANY, MANY SMALL MISSIONS STARTING AND ENDING CONSTANTLY, SO HOW DO YOU ENSURE EFFICIENT USE OF AIRSPACE AND AN UNKNOWN NUMBER OF VEHICLES ENTERING THE AIRSPACE AT ANY TIME? THAT SOUND LIKE A LOT OF UNKNOWNS A LOT OF POTENTIAL DRONES >> I THINK YOU DO WANT TO TAKE A STEP APPROACH, A GRADUAL APPROACH WE DON’T HAVE TO BUILD THE SYSTEM RIGHT NOW TO HANDLE 20,000 OPERATIONS A MINUTE IN A CITY BLOCK WE DON’T HAVE TO HAVE THAT SYSTEM READY TODAY BUT HOW YOU START TO ENABLE 30, 40, 50 OPERATIONS OVER A CITY AT ONCE, RIGHT? THEN YOU’LL START TO SEE WHERE THERE ARE SOME ISSUES WITH THEM SHARING THE AIRSPACE OR INFORMATION SO THEY CAN ALL ACCOMPLISH WHAT THEY WANT TO DO AND SLOWLY YOU CAN BUILD UP THOSE DENSITIES AND THAT’S KIND OF BEEN OUR APPROACH IN THE RESEARCH AND WE SEE THAT APPROACH BEING ADOPTED AS WELL IN INDUSTRY AS THEY COME UP WITH STANDARDS BASED AROUND OUR RESEARCH TO HELP INFORM THE US THE AIRSPACE, THEY’RE NOT LOOKING TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM 20 YEARS FROM NOW, THEY WANT TO ENABLE MORE AND MORE OPERATIONS TODAY AND TOMORROW AND IT IS THAT SCALED APPROACH SO WE WILL COME UP WITH THOSE SOLUTIONS, WANT TO MAKE SURE THE ARCHITECTS — SUPPORT THEM IN THE FUTURE, DON’T BOX OFF ANY SOLUTIONS AND IT’S GOING TO WORK IT’S GOING TO WORK >> I WOULD EVEN UPPER-LEVEL THAT COMPLEX CITY, SO YOU CAN HAVE DRONES OPERATING BELOW 400 FEET AND ABOVE THAT YOU CAN HAVE THESE ELECTRIC URBAN AIR MOBILITY VEHICLES FLYING ACROSS URBAN CENTERS AND ABOVE THAT OF COMMERCIAL AIR TRAFFIC TO IT SO HOW DO YOU HAVE INTEROPERABILITY ACROSS ALL OF THOSE LAYERS AND THAT SAME DENSITY OF OPERATIONS, AND THAT’S ACTUALLY WHERE THE REAL FUN RESEARCH QUESTIONS KIND OFE, WHE OUR WORK COMES INTO PLAY HOW DO YOU HAVE THAT AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TO SUPPORT ALL OF THESE NEW ENTRANTS AND ALL OF THE DENSITY OF OPERATIONS WE EXPECT IN THE FUTURE >> I WOULD RAISE YOU ONE UP LEVEL, WE CAN GO 50,000 FEET PLUS, TRADITIONAL AIR TRAFFIC IN AND YOU HAVE FOLKS THAT WANT TO FLY OVER 60,000 FEET MAYBE AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES, MAYBE NOT BUT HOW DO THEY SHOW THAT AACE UP THERE WITH AONOMOUS VEHICLES, HOW DID THEY GET UP THERE FIRST AND THE FIRST PLACE IN AN EFFICIENT WAY? ALL THESE THINGS HAVE TO INTEROPERATE AND WORK WELL TOGETHER >> HAVE TO LEVEL UP >> I LEFT SPACE FOR YOU, YOU COULD HAVE GONE ONE MORE >> MAY BE ONE MORE QUESTION OVER THERE? >> SURE WEVE A QUESTION HERE, WHAT WAS THE BIGGEST BARRIER FOR YOU PERSONALLY GETTING HIRED, BUT WE’LL WHISKER QUESTIONS LIKE THIS AND PEOPLE WANT TO KNOW HOW

TO GET STARTED AT NASA? WHAT YOUR BACKGROUND? >> SURE I’M AN AEROSPACE ENGINEER, SO THAT’S WHAT I STUDIED IN SCHOOL, THAT’S WHAT I GOT MY BACHELORS IN MY MASTERS IN AND E HONES’VE ALWAYS PASSIONATE ABOUT AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT AND SPECIFICALLY FLIGHT CONTROLS AND THAT’S HOW I GOT STARTED, BUT I THINK THERE’S A WHOLE HOST OF OPPORTUNITIES AND AVENUES I DON’T THINK OF THE STUDY AEROSPACE ENGINEERING, NOR NECESSARILY EVEN JUST AERO, SO THERE’S A WHOLE DIFFERENT SET OF FIELDS AND DISCIPLINE THAT MAKE A WE HAVE PEOPLE WHO ARE PSYCHOLOGISTS, ENGINEERS, ANALYSTS, PEOPLE WHO WORK WITH DATA SO YOU CAN REALLY DO ANYTHING I THINK IT’S ALL ABOUT THE PASSION IF YOU’RE INTERESTED IN KIND OF SEEING HOW WE CAN PUSH THE BOUNDS AND BRING IN ALL OF THESE NEW ENTRANTS, BRING IN INNOVATION INTO AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT, I THINK THERE’S SO MANY WAYS YOU COULD COME IN AND PLAY A ROLE HERE >> DEFINITELY JUST TO ILLUSTRATE THAT WITH THIS DRONE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PROJECT, WE HAD FOLKS THAT WERE AERO ENGINEERS THAT ARE IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTANDING TO THE SYSTEM AND HOW THE VEHICLES WORK IN ALL THE SORTS OF THINGS, I’M A COMPUTER ENGINEER, SO I’M NOT AN ARROW ENGINEER BY TRAINING SO THAT’S IMPORTANT AND KIND OF BUILDING UP A SYSTEM SCIENTISTS, COMPUTER ENGEERS LPING OUT WITH US AS WELL AND THEN YOU DO GET SOME PHYSICISTS AND OTHER FOLKS THAT REALLY MATTER IN DOING THESE HUMAN FACTORS PEOPLE THAT UNDERSTAND — AGAIN, SHIVANJLI WAS TALKING EARLY ABOUT WHAT TO THESE NEW CONTROL SYSTEMS LOOK LIKE, HOW DO PEOPLE INTERACT WITH THEM, IT’S A COMPLETELY NEW SYSTEM WERE TALKING ABOUT SO WE DON’T REALLY KNOW HOW THE HUMAN NEEDS TO INTERACT WITH IT >> HOW IT CAN IMPACT THE HUMAN >> EXACTLY AND WHA MAKE THEIR JOB EASIER OR HARDER SO ALL OF THOSE KINDS OF FOLKS ARE REALLY IMPORTANT IN BUILDING OUT A SYSTEM LIKE UTM AND THAT’S WHAT WE HAD ON OUR TEAM >> IT MAKES SENSE IF YOU’VE TALKED ABOUT SO MANY ASPECTS OF THOSE, DIFFERENT FACETS, LAYERS, YOU KEPT SAYING DIFFERENT LAYERS OF THE SYSTEM YOU NEED SOME IN A DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES ON THAT SO THAT’S AWESOME THAT’S GOOD NEWS FOR PEOPLE OUT THERE IT REALLY DOES TAKE A TEAM THE TEAM WITH THE WHOLE WIDE RANGE OF DISCIPLINES THAT REALLY ALLOWS SOME OF THIS TECHNOLOGY TO COME TO LIGHT >> SOUNDS LIKE IT >> IT’S A GREAT PLACE TO SOLVE OUR PROBLEMS THAT’S WHAT AERONAUTICS REALLY OFFERS THAT’S WHAT BROUGHT ME IN IT’S A GOOD PLACE TO SOLVE REALLY HARD PROBLEMS AND MAKE AN IMPACT >> FASCINATING AWESOME! WHILE THIS HAS BEEN AWESOME THYOU GUYS FOR JOINING US TODAY WE HAVE JUST ABOUT RUN OUT OF TIME, BUT THANK YOU FOR BEING HERE AND THANK YOU TO EVERYONE WHO JOINED US IN THE CHAT ON TWITCH WE WILL BE BACK IN THE NEW YEAR, SO FOLLOW NASS ON SOCIAL MEDIA TO HER ABOUT UPCOMING SHOWS AND TO SEE PAST EPISODES OF THE SHOWS YOU CAN CHECK OUT NASA.GOVMES/NASAINSILICONVALL EY LIFE THANKS FOR WATCHING AND WE WILL SEE YOU NEXT TIME