PWO Organisational Behaviour Lecture 3 T1

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PWO Organisational Behaviour Lecture 3 T1

well sorry for the delay in getting this up but it’s been quite a week with the room in which I work has got lots of people in it and we’ve had very good attendance this week and liver a private moment in which I could just sit quietly in her desk and present maybe it was a matter of employee motivation who knows who’s telling the truth psychologists can’t trust him all right so we’re talking motivation this week for Lord definition as it says on the screen zoom in a bit for you there processes that account for individuals intensity direction and assistance of effort towards a particular goal so it’s not just randomly people who show up assistance of something it’s going to be focused on something all right I will play this video as it is one of the best best quick and most memorable illustrations of motivation at all three components directed intentional Ted’s assistant cat wants us to get up does a bit of subtle I used to do this not quite jumping up and down but just rolling around in bed hoping that my wife would wake up some have tried more devious methods when this cat starts off with acceptable forms and moves to the unacceptable forms he’s getting annoyed but he’s persisting with a very direct intention of waking boss up it’s obviously some cat food with his name on it it’s not good enough but this’ll work absolutely like that so sums it up nicely the components of motivation now I’m going to just play a couple of other videos for you that talk about some key well-established explanations of why people do what they do you’ll have probably heard of Pavlov and Pavlov’s dogs if you is up there with a Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung sort of famous figures in psychology nope ever love it was actually a biologist he wanted to look at instincts and instincts are those kind of behaviors that are unavoidable that that their fault that under certain circumstances always occur so in this particular case he was looking at the instinct of salivation when food appears and he would measure in a very scientific manner you know what how different types of food and how much shall either was produced from saliva a glance of the German shipments that I worked with and with time he found his experiments were getting a little bit messed up by the fact that the dogs was started to anticipate or see the food arriving and so he got to the stage where which I’m hoping will show very shortly where he shielded she ordered the sight of the food and hopefully the smell from the dogs so that the he could measure when the the instinctual all the other response occurred now what was interesting that here we put the shields up was that when the food was prepared and ready to go I don’t quite remember the full story but a bell would ring to indicate how we got food ready to to pass on to the dogs possibly in the kitchen and when the dogs heard that Bell and in this video they’re showing it as a metronome which is not quite accurate I don’t believe the dogs would start to salivate at the sound of the metronome and so strong was what we call this conditioned response and have lost the public was the first to establish this that the bell which is intrinsically not tasty a sound isn’t tasty produced the response that was associated with smell and taste of food so dogs started to associate this with that and classical conditioning consists of associated you can see the saliva

coming just at the sound of the bell classical conditioning roles for example money gets us excited but money is just pieces of paper printed with in comment but it is so closely associated with the things we can purchase we get excited about so that’s classical conditioning a pro condition he is well illustrated by are you finished this little video thank you how thoughtful would you like a chocolate oh yeah sure thanks oh sorry Sheldon I almost sat in your spot did you I didn’t know this have a chocolate so instead of this goes with that operant conditioning involves this follows that and Sheldon this training penny to behave in a more Sheldon acceptable level simply by issuing her with chocolates post that is after the good behavior or the desired behavior and with these two kinds of conditioning methods you can actually create or shape a huge variety of human or animal behaviour and once were a video which I think I applied to some students once of of chickens playing ping-pong and that behavior is quite a complex behavior for a relatively bird-brained animal event I can use that to somewhat specie ‘used expression but they were able to train able to successfully trained chickens to play people in return for rewards using a combination of classical and operant conditioning so with with employees to bring us back to the workplace it is of course possible using carefully placed rewards either classical rewards associating in a smiles with certain behaviors or you know rewarding post a behavior in an opera never certain pages you can create or using punishment too by the way you can create a highly complex series of desirable behaviors within the workplace but we’ll be talking about the reasons why that’s a little bit risky and these two books why do why we do what we do by edward EDD chi or punished by what our rewards by alfie kohn would make very good additional reading for you dead she’s work and I just quickly grabbed a couple of years you saw quotes out of this but he focuses on what he calls the fragility of intrinsic motivation now intrinsic motivation is doing something this is a term that you should become familiar with intrinsic intrinsically motivated people do it because they actually really like it they like the feel of running not the priors of winning a Gold Cup at the end of it that’s extrinsic reward they like the sense of being good at their work you know being successful as a designer for example that sense of creativity rather than the pay packet at the end of the way and his second comments quite a nice one if people are continually treated as if they were either passive mechanisms like Pavlov’s dog or the chicken in the in the ping-pong case that needed to be controlled they will be interact more and more that way in the future so there are a couple of useful quotes that kind of sum up ditches work now cone in a similar vein has done some original work but mainly collecting evidence from other studies and he talks about here these 70s studies show extrinsic motivators those outside rewards including for example gold stars that teachers give you or Pat’s on the back but your mates give you the footy they’re not only ineffective over the long haul but counterproductive with r with creating things particularly the classroom situation but also even at work place that we would like to foster within our staff or students that we’re teaching we want them to have this innate desire to learn and is commitment to the firm commitment to good values and you can as debt she said this is a delicate mechanism you can easily interfere with it by inappropriately using rewards it’s somewhat care of intuitive I’m sure what you think and I think and we will tend to think but giving a reward for a behavior is going to increase that behavior and the evidence room Pavlov and post pavlov was that that was a fabulous way to create behaviors but what these two authors worry about is the impact on the internal structure of our mind on what makes us do what we do because imagine if it were true that these rewards were successful but that as soon as those rewards were removed that people would cease to do the

behaviors that they previously be encouraged to do then rewards become successful but you become addicted to them and you continually need to have more and more rewards in order to respond in a desirable way and that is what the evidence tends to show all right don’t wanna spend too long on them so engagement is another term that’s used here it’s the textbook refers to it as a focused intense persistent again and purposed purposes effort towards work right of goals so it’s it’s how our motivation plays out in the workplace we tend to talk about engaged employees and some of these terms that we’ve talked about a little bit last week you also need to be familiar with high self-efficacy absorption in the work remember if self-efficacy is believing you have their ability knowing what you have to do and you have the resources to get something done you sense an ability to follow through and carry something out this issue of engagements important because most employees aren’t in gay and most employers don’t really realize the value to proper extent of having that intrinsically and and focused and happy and driven employees but that focus that engagement that absorption in the work tends to lead to some of those big big outcomes that employers do really care about like job satisfaction customer satisfaction employee satisfaction so that they do not leave and you have to retrain new staff all the time and profit their needs are not drives we need to differentiate as the textbook does between things that we like or want or need and things that we absolutely have to have now the probably the most important one that we need to focus on in terms of some of the theory behind this is the 4dr theory which I’m just trying to see ya the 4dr theory I think we’re coming back to that later but drives sorry I’m a little bit disorganized this week it is a Saturday actually that I’m speaking to you drives are these hardwired brain characteristics that is they hard way it means it sort of software status so you can program it to change so to speak when we use the term hardwired we mean they’re things that are honest intial and can’t be changed they don’t always occur in a particular pattern this follows that assimilating that sense to instincts and they are prime movers of you know some core behaviors and there’s some theories for example 4dr theory which will be talked about in a little bit which identify a number of key drivers that that let’s play out in the workplace in a number of different ways and that you as a manager do need to be aware of now you’ve all I think you all know Maslow’s theory of that hierarchy of needs but effectively down the bottom here are these drives and instincts we simply at this kind of a biological level we have needs drives like food and drink the need to stay safe the instinct to avoid fire for example or cliffs that type of thing but when these safety and physiological needs are met then the theory proposes that were able to advance or graduate to caring about some of these higher level needs for example a suddenly sense of belonging some becomes important once our stomachs is filled or once we’ve satisfied our first or Sofia and that when that sense of belonging has been satisfied we sometimes can then escalate our leads to esteem level being people need to care about what we do we need to have respect from others or from ourselves or what we do and finally this top level of self-actualization which relates to being all that you can be which is thought to kick in only when these other lower level needs have been satisfied it look like a lot of stage theories in psychology as those theory does have some problems because people to tend to set it be driven by some of these high level needs they skip some of these lower level needs at times and be aware for example you know people go bungee jumping they’ve actually violate those needs and it also there’s those

hierarchy tends to presume wrongly that everyone wants to head towards this top self-actualization stage and that we are all driven once these levels are satisfied to move up when some people are quite satisfied to stay at these lower levels now the key needs that the textbook talks about and which are important in the workplace are the ones that from an organizational behavior do need to be focused on are these three need for achievement need for affiliation and need for power need for achievement and need for power are often quite close because people are driven by wanting to achieve in order to get the secondary need of power satisfied but this need for affiliation this desire to gain some social rewards from being at work is something that is often misunderstood or overlooked by employers you know the whole case of office romances have very significant organizational consequences and yet managers tend to ignore that side of things that also not people do come to work and spend a lot of time at work if you block off their ability to make friends we’ll have some kind of work social life you’ll find that their work satisfaction decreases significantly and there will be in balance and kers which they might take out in other ways possibly by leaving the company for example now 4dr theory I did promise that we talked about that so for drivers the four drives that Lawrence and Mariah identified were to acquire you know so for example pay packet or money or knowledge or certificates to bond to understand and to defend not all of these dryers are equally important in every workplace circumstance for example to defend my only kick in when we feel under threat from a peer who’s getting promoted ahead of us or for example where we being bullied or harassed at work place that one they kick in but these are the three likely to be playing there in the background at work whether we as managers recognize that or not the four drives tend to have a lot to say about the emotional content of the workplace and the 4dr theory is one of the theories that actually is stronger from the position of bringing emotions into play within the workplace a lot of what we see in organizational behavior but more so within for example human resource management in the workplace tends to ignore the role of emotions the the manager needs to you know the good manager needs to take a play take account for these wet clothes emotions and tend to shape them towards you know organizationally valid outcomes but you know the way that they play out in the workplace does temptu be modulated or adjusted by social norms as well as individual personal values and experience so when we talk you might remember a couple of weeks back we talked about contingencies within the workplace and these social norms personal values and experience that we talked about here are some of those contingencies that will change the way some of these drives play out for different individuals all right I’m not having a great day this overview which I think comes from the textbook talks about you know puts these drives here at this end with the goals at the end but they are impacted by these contingency values so that’s a good overall visual of how that particular relationship plays out so as I say employees seek to fulfill those drives in a work setting and employers need to avoid creating conditions that for example inflame the drive to defend at the expense of the drive to provide to some choir bond to learn you need to keep things in balance and preferably with the drive to defend you need to keep that to a minimum now expectancy theory this is a this is

a this is a key theory so it’s important that you spend a bit of time the textbook having a look at this particular section we talked about two different kinds of expectancy ETP expectancy which is effort to performance expectancy which relates to the probability that a particular amount of effort that you put into a task will result in a kind of performance task now just to put that in give it a nice example if you felt by taking good quality nerves during a lecture for example that that would lead to great memory performance during an exam then you would put more effort into putting the putting together quality notes but if from experience you’ve discovered your et pe2 p expectancy is that note-taking if it doesn’t result in any better performance then you will put less effort into it so that’s one of the one of the outcomes that comes from expectancy theory Peter are Peter Oh outcomes reward here Peter outcome Peter allu expectancy is the probability that if you put let’s say you’ve taken notes on the expectancy that you will be able to remember things and that as a result of being able to remember things you will perform well at the exam then that’s that’s second part of that what we’re talking about here is the P 20 expectancy so in cases where ETP expectancy a pedo expectancy is high we will perform work hard put a lot of effort in at that original stage however there is one other contingency which is violence the valence of the reward if we don’t care whether we perform well at the exam a lot because we’ve already passed the course or because we’re about to quit anyway because we’ve got a very lucrative job somewhere else then suddenly all these other expectancies don’t count so this final contingency is also important to part an expectancy theory so that’s a fairly good quick overview we’ll move on from this now I did want to distinguish when we were talking about the classical conditioning before I did want to distinguish between different kinds of reinforcement a reinforcement is when you give a reward reinforcements relate to reward for the havior szoke and it’s the term we use now they can be either positive reinforcements so for example chocolates in the case of Penny and Sheldon’s behavior they’re negative reinforcements removal of chocolates that can increase or decrease behavior that you’re targeting so negative reinforcements should need to be distinguished from punishments so if so if instead of giving penny chocolates he Sheldon had given her glance each time she ugh Yung a frown or exploitive every time she did a behaved of it that would be a form of punishment but if he’d simply ceased rewarding something for example ceased giving her chocolates on the occasions when she was doing things where he didn’t Mike that would be negative reinforcement so extinction is also slightly different extinction like the term suggests is where a particular target behavior disappears because there’s no consequences at all and this is a typically a good way to think about this is with children who misbehave in supermarkets you will find that given time there crying screaming and begging for chocolates will disappear if our simply ignored that that behavior so it’s not rewarded positively not rewarded negatively not punished but simply ignored then that behavior will eventually extinguish become extinct now as we’ve talked about the positive reinforcements and we probably hit this particular theme hard enough when we talked about dead she and turn earlier but the problems with positive reinforcement is that it tends to ignore the cognitive processes in learning and motivation which include an intrinsic motivation it also tends to

lead to what’s called reward inflation that this is an important one that will be talked about perception in previous weeks and how a human perceptual system is set up to only go to strange so if you give a certain flattered award on a weekly basis let’s call it a wage if you give a certain wage that wage after six weeks eight weeks two weeks for 20 weeks whatever eventually that reward will disappear in the mind of the individual so that positive reinforcement of the salary disappears as a motivator unless you increase the lunge if you increase it by ten percent and usually there’s an increment that you need to increase it or more by before it even gets noticed by the human perceptual system but if you increase it by a suitable increment that it gets noticed by the individual again then eventually or reach a point where it to or get ignored and become invisible to the employee so you get this impact of reward inflation we’re gradually individuals need to be rewarded more and more and more for the same action in order for them to even notice the fact that they’re getting rewarded effectively as I said before they get addicted now social cognitive theory is a nice additional area that you should be aware of so I won’t show the video on this occasion but just to be aware there are other ways that humans learn and they don’t learn just through YouTube videos or through punishment and reward processes that we talked about the conditioning stories / blog etc I just try and mention these names again and again just to get them through to through to you that it when it comes to an exam time you’ve got some of these names and theories in your hand but there is another form of learning in Albert bandura was famous in the 1950s and 1960s for demonstrating for example how individuals learn simply by watching other people behave and getting rewarded and punished for behavior so we can learn by proxy or learn what we call vicariously from other people through these processes and a typical example that bendarek showed was that if you show two adults behaving violently and then later on told the child or violence is bad but those two adults were not punished for behaving badly or being violent or smoking or drinking or any kind of behavior then the child will learn what the parents did rather than what the parents said actions speak louder than words is another way of summing this particular aspect of the theory arm so you learn what follows as you learn contingencies from certain behaviors and watch what kind of consequences occur for those behaviors and then you imitate that through a process called modeling so the textbook then goes on to talk about issue of goal set it and its goal setting is is where you create or try and motivate staff by setting particular long-term targets rather than just simply rewarding particular targets you in a collaborative sense put together at some long term targets and roll targets and try and offer them training on how to achieve those targets and create expectancies in the individual these this kind of approach rather than just using straight out rewards relies on you know higher level cognitive processes and more on the intrinsic rewards or the intrinsic motivations for doing things it also relies on the individual’s ability to self-regulate to observe their own behavior and modify their own behavior towards a particular goal in order to achieve that now in goal setting we talked a couple of weeks ago about the personality variables and I gave you the example of canoe or ocean as ways of remembering the Big Five personality variables smarter is another neat way of remembering good quality goals as opposed to poorer quality goals so a good quality goal needs to a specific measurable achievable relevant time framed exciting or engaging and it needs

to have a review process in terms of some of the key issues I think when you’re giving feedback this is the same issue that I was trying to get up there before it needs to be the good quality feedback needs to be connected to the behavior it needs to be timely as well because if you give feedback remember with Pavlov’s dogs and penny and Sheldon if the rewards are disconnected or the feedback in this case is disconnected too much from the behavior then the connection in the person’s mind is harder to make and there’s a less solid embedded connection in the brain between the reward or punishment or the goal and the feedback of the behavior so they need to be when you’re giving managerial feedback these four characteristics you need to be quite specific not vague I used to get are some of my supervisors Santa Mira all of this is quite good but it needs to be tightened known as a researcher working producing research papers and of them this tighten up mean it was not simple not sufficiently specific relevant you need to have it focus once again on particular behaviors that the individual can respond to and if your advice is that credible that is your total incompetent in computer programming but you are trying to tell one of your program that’s how to do things then the feedback will be fairly useful useless sorry and you also need to make sure that that cycle of feedback on behavior is sufficiently frequent in order to reinforce those goal related behaviors you may have heard of 360 degree feedback talking about typically within the organization and we’ll be talking about this in future weeks when we talk about leadership we talk about and we tend to be focused on a managerial perspective of the manager giving feedback to staff below them so that they know in for example in performance management how they perform in the last year and one of them going to get a salary increase or not but 360 degrees feedback is a lot more challenging for managers because it involves employees giving feedback to you as a manager and also involves you receiving feedback from managers above you so you get feedback from all around you if you of course if you’re not a CEO you don’t give anyone above you because there is no one above you unless you’ve got the board of directors in which case there’s a bit of feedback from above you still to come but it provides often a much more accurate picture of an individual and much less biased so the other issue in relation to rewards and motivations that you do need to be aware of is and it’s also again a cognitive element to all of this is the issue of equity or justice and equity theory basically I will show you that video in a minute because it’s a very good very good thing but equity theory suggests that individuals look at the rewards they receive and look at the rewards that others around them receive and if I just speak to this slide because this is a even though it’s a boring slide compared with what I showed you just look forward to some degree this slide actually sums it up quite well so we look at the amount of effort that we put in for the amount of reward we get out and we calculate out in our minds some kind of rough output outcome input ratio that we compare that with other people’s ratios and here’s a key comparison so we work really hard and get 500 bucks a week but someone else works not so hard and gets 500 bucks a week or someone else works just as hard and then 700 bucks a week with no greater skill set than we’ve got we think that situation is in an acquittal and that lack of equity or justice drives us to try and restore the balance so going backwards to this particular graphic when things are out of balance we can either work harder or less heart so we can say a count of seven hundred dollar a week person is working just as hard as us well i’m going to work a little bit

less hard for my five hundred bucks to restore that ratio equity we can change our perception of ourselves others people we can choose a different comparison person let’s not focus on on the produce person who’s doing better than us but let’s focus on someone who’s doing worse than us or we can quit we can get out of this inevitable situation well I did want to show you this video even though we go that’s the experiment we did recently the video tape if Vishnu monkeys were never done the task is thinking that maybe they would have a stronger reaction and that turned out to be right the one on the left is a monkey yes q come but one on the right is the one who gets grapes the one who gets cucumber note that the first piece of cucumber is perfectly fine the first PC eats then see she’s the other one getting grape and you will see what happens so she gives a rock to us that’s the task and we give her a piece of cucumber and she eats it the other one needs to give a rock to us and that’s what she does and she gets a great and see the other one sees that so you give the rock to us now gets again cucumber now imagine if you could amplify that situation into the workplace what a problem that would be notice this the mochi only I’m pointing my screen which is a little bit ineffective the monkey on the Left saw the monkey in the right for a same task which was handing over Little Rock got paid in a great as opposed to a cucumber grape is much tastier than kick up on some people’s worlds so in monkey world and got angry and hit back at the employer so it’s this sense of equity and making sure that you keep an eye on man is quite an important part of of how you need to adjust rewards in the workplace a lot of employers including myself made a big point of saying to start please do not talk about wages and salaries and conditions with your fellow staff but people will talk so if you do not have a system that is equitable and that there’s some justification from differences in rewards you will have a problem as a result of these issues equity theory okay so distributive justice is the justice that relates to how employees view how you know rewards are distributed in the workplace and whether they were allocated in an equitable manner organizational justice is a bigger picture view of what’s fair in the workplace procedural justice is as I appoint up to class the other day perhaps best way to think about this is a very male form of justice which is a justice focused on the due process or rules or policies are being followed in a clear unbiased way boys tend even at a very early age like four or five years old tend to be very very strict about following the rules and if they don’t know what the rules are they try to establish the rules then once the rules have been established they are very very particular about making sure they’ve followed whereas girls when they play girls are much more concerned about relationships within the game situation less are the rules and that’s it for the week 38 minutes sorry I’m a little bit slow today and in fact if it was a very very rusty performance but what’s a Saturday so please forgive me and remember to get in touch particularly that’s true for the you know those of you who studying from home all over Australia I was a distant student myself so I’m very very happy to always hear from you and offer whatever help I can thanks very much