2008 Everett M. Rogers Prize Colloquim

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2008 Everett M. Rogers Prize Colloquim

I you thank you for coming I’m Marty Kaplan I’m the director of the Norman Lear Center and we’re thrilled to have the opportunity that we do have today but I’m not going to tell you what that is I’m going to do the man who is going to tell you that he is both at the annenberg school and the pic x school for medicine and many of you have worked with him or taking the courses or know about his research and he’s intimately familiar with the field that we’re going to be learning about today so please welcome Peter Clark well and thank you for coming and it’s such a pleasure because since 2004 when at Rogers died we have gathered here to celebrate his career but also even more importantly perhaps recognize someone who has really contributed to the field of education entertainment and there are a number of people who filed a single out or identify for you because they’re one of them is a formal recipient of the Wow has joined the Legion of recipients lv rogers in ordine al sabido a longtime friend of the Annenberg School there are others in the room for comment we will celebrate this year’s recipient who contributed mightily to this field of bill Ryerson and son Fox bar at the table and others in the room have both part of the education entertainment community and we thank you for your contributions air Rogers was a very important figure in American intellectual life gentlemen not just education entertainment his book diffusion of innovations went through I window hominy editions and was and is still to this day one of the most cited works in all social science it’s a towering accomplishment it was not his only in scholarly accomplishment by enemies be published to more than 500 articles during his career and I’m pleased to say that during the most productive part of his career the Annenberg School faculty has a Walter Annenberg professor of communication and has a very dear friend for many years to me but also an ally social d middle school it was a pleasure to work with them and a pleasure to that was intellectual contributions when he left it over the University of New Mexico we were all people sadly but we’ve got touch with him and it’s his career and his intellectual contributions that we celebrate in this award and that set such a high standard for people who we have purpose aboard on and our previous awardees through valium Dora Nogales I’ve already mentioned and Harley Senegal all of these are of course familiar mains to you and had their own particular and continuum in cases to have their own particular contributions to education entertainment either in production of works the development of dramatic theory the guides the production of effective promise for the purpose of reinforcing social values are doing important research on the impact of this work and our recipient today is not particularly in those categories but does represent something else that has to be done if you want to be good which i think is the purpose of Kanan you have to read mobilize political and economic voices and power in behalf of the design pivots and back in the 1960s and 1970s was by no means as deceptive as it is today to talk about issues of appropriated health in the media it was not commonplace to talk about family size was certainly not talk a commonplace talk about gender

stereotypes particularly stereotyping women’s and the acceptance the principle of these things should be welcomed into the entertainment sphere require the mobilization of important people and our awardee this year played a unparalleled role in the mobilization of important people that means heads of state such as Derrida Gandhi in India that means network executives that means the heads of production companies that means of the chief executive officers of foundations that might make money available for this purpose or wealthy individuals people of means that might contribute to this for that means the heads of non-governmental organizations and indeed of international aid and governments associations such as united nations general and david point us as the Poindexter did that work he got the right people into the right rooms and talked about the importance of this work we made p-channel in their power and their influence so the people who could produce the program that they could do research on the impacts and that is very important working population communication international which was its first president which was for many lives a final instrumentality for the sustenance of its grip and so it really gives me great personal pleasure and certainly gives them on their center and hand which school of communication great pleasure to recognize this year’s awardee and to invite him to talk with us about his experiences and about what he feels needs to be done to confuse this work even further I introduce to you and thank you Peter now I’ve got to find the little here we are this is the fourth year we’ve been in this room for this type of thing I’m particularly delighted that the winner two years ago and my dearly beloved friend Miguel to be though is here I had a bra jerz first as an acquaintance I had gone looking for him and that said on the picture there next to royal collie and myself at one of our board meetings which happen to be in India and he was my acquaintance and then my friend and then consultant and advisor and for many years we were collaborators and very warm close friends and here is a picture of ebb at a symposium that Miguel sabido organized in Mexico City decades ago I came to annenberg at halves invitation to lecture to a class of his on international communications I think with late afternoon as we were going across the school to an amphitheater somewhere on the other end of it I said to have you know I feel like a total fraud coming here in my entire life I’ve never had so much as one course in communications and he jabbed me in the ribs with his open he said you want to know something neither of I and so what this is all about is the population bomb and a challenge to utilize mass media to defuse it in the late 60s do you ever find yourself in a situation on a morning where people say to you did you see such and such on television last night well it’s happened to me in the late 60s only it was just a few people all day people were saying that to me because the previous night Paul Ehrlich had appeared with Johnny Carson on The Tonight Show and had played Paul Revere only this time the message was the P coming and it began to galvanize this country because of a great man in our country William a straight for junior 1974 was declared world population year and the world population conference the first UN conference was held there was in this country because of him a US National Commission on population growth and the American future headed by john d rockefeller the third and so the focus was on the population question the following april of nineteen seventy ah was Earth Day it was an event happening

New York came to a halt Fifth Avenue was closed I saw one big banner which said here we are on Spaceship Earth we’re running out of air and we’re running out of water and we don’t have any Houston and there was great emphasis on what could be done and so a friend of mine with whom I’d worked in or previously in the early 60s to try to mobilize the country to pass through the Senate the test ban treaty ending the testing of atomic weapons in the environment had gotten concerned about population he saw that there were two bombs the nuclear and the population and he came to mean he said look here we are in spaceship earth and a few of us are up here in first class and the masses are down there in steerage and in the developing countries they’re growing by sometimes three to four percent a year their economies are growing by one to two percent a year they’re on dead center they’re only going to get poorer and poorer there’s no way you can hype their economies in a country full of illiterate adults so what we’ve got to do is bring down the fertility rate so women have fewer children now I said it seems to me we’ve gotta mobilize I massive educational program to re-educate masses of people around the world and he said I don’t see how that’s possible but without the effective use of radio and word exists television now I said you know something about that I’ve been k in that field for several years in New York but had an office out here also he said if you were going to do something what would you do and I said I don’t know I’ll think about it and I did think about it and about six weeks later I wrote him a paper and when I wrote that paper n in 1969 early 70 that were three plus billion people on the planet headed the democracy to seven billion by the year 2000 the total fertility rate on the planet the average number of children and woman would have when she was through with her childbearing was 6.2 average worldwide the u.s. at the height of the baby boom had three point three five children so you can see the difference and I wrote him a paper and he says this makes sense to me if I can find the money will you go to work on it and I said yes I will so here’s where I was put yourself in my shoes when I started you life verse nineteen seventy I was going to set out to change the behavior of the married couples and the sexually active people on planet earth ha and I had a munificent budget for the first year of $50,000 and I had the received wisdom from Joseph clapper in the effects of mass media which said mass media cannot change behavior because of the three selective exposure perception and retention and and everybody assumed that those that wisdom had been received from on high and I had my intuition and my intention to ition was let’s start in the US because I know more about that by far and we didn’t know whether the baby boom was over in nineteen seventy or not so the question is how do we build a relationship with us national television because that’s where the American people were feeding and we had three networks and so what I’m talking about today is the diffusion of a broadcasting innovation how the most effective behavior changed methodology gets around and we’ll talk about that and it’s been presented to you here two years ago a year ago al bendera said when he was the recipient and his lecture he said we have a good model for the theory his and he said we have a good model for the translation Miguel’s abidos but he said we don’t have a good model for the diffusion well I think we do and today I want to talk about the diffusion of broadcasting innovation which is unique on the planet and tell you where it came from and where it’s going and works what his future is now if you’re going to talk about something you better define your terms and for that I went back to the the the master of the question of diffusion and that’s everett rogers and here’s the definition and you can read it and the question is how would this be communicated and through what channels

and over what time among the members of the global not only social but national systems now there are two a reason Rena’s for diffusion first of all the grass roots and then corporate or governmental whenever Roger started out he was studying the diffusion of hybrid corn among the farmers of Iowa and what we’re doing of course there’s a diffusion of messages among the members of a market audience in a country or in a marketing center or whatever but before you get there you’ve got to get to the people who own the airwaves so for us the diffusion was on two levels one was corporate or governmental because they’re the ones that decide what will be seen and heard by the audience and then there is the grassroots who are the ultimate consumers so here are the elements of a diffusion model and the first principle is from that great savant professor Harold Hill and Meredith Willson’s the music man and the messages you’ve got to know the territory and and the fact is probably you don’t I didn’t so if you don’t you must enlist those who do and I’ve always said I succeeded because I had the right kind of advice and I listened carefully to what they told me and then I did my best to do what they told me to do and it worked on the way to the US television networks I was lucky enough to be able to organize an advisory group here in Hollywood on that group i had the president and chief executive officer of the television Academy Bob loween who in his career had been vice president program for all three television networks I’ve been president Warner Brothers television he knew the territory and I had others I’d the president Warner Brothers television I had the staff vice president of NBC here in the coast whose last name happened to be Sarnoff I had a giant in the history of entertainment TV a man named Harry I’m Ackerman and then I had a group on the east coast to and among those who were advisor to me was new Cowan has a son who is well-known in these precincts whose name is Jeff and Luke Owen was a former president of CBS and of the network and he knew how network television operated and I didn’t and when you go abroad you have to know what the territory is too before Miguel sabido went to to India the first time he said David I must speak to somebody who knows India as well as Octavio Paz knows Mexico and he was not the one that originated this principle he knew it and then you ask I’m pushing wrong there we go then you have to mobilize the maximum amount of clout with the most senior authorities my advisors here on the coast said to me there is very little that any writer or a producer in Hollywood can accomplish until you can create a support of a climate of support and approval at the network’s because in the field of population first of all and intrinsically you are dealing with scx and middle-aged and older American males don’t know how to do a deal with that and so I figured well we’ve got to have the backing of the top leadership of the networks to me that meant we had to get the chief operating officers of the corporations that own the networks and to whom the network presidents reported into the same room and get their involvement now that’s not a task that’s easily done but the Rockefeller Commission had a Republican senator who was the junior senator from my state of Oregon and I’d known him since he arrived in college of the freshman and I was a senior so I said to Bob will you help and he said of course he was his focus was on population and so he issued the invitations and and it worked who I really wanted most of all was dr. Frank Stanton the chief operating officer of and vice chairman of CBS Inc and he came and we got his peers from NBC and ABC and while we ate a delicious lunch in this suite in the Waldorf Towers and I may say I had a blue ribbon committee that got them there others on the committee were the then un ambassador George HW Bush and mr. Rockefeller himself and when it all worked and I was over my colleagues said to me I said pradnya we got it all and he said well they had to agree otherwise mr Rockefeller might have bought their

networks and fired them and but we had influence flows downward and we had a group that works officially highly-placed that they came and about 15 minutes into the lunch when Bob had been laying out the domestic and international population realities dr Stanton said to me decimals of the group he said senator you don’t have to convince us further about the importance of this but you’re talking to the wrong people you ought to be out on the coast talking to the creative people at that point I reached in a file folder leaned against the quitter my chair and I pulled out a letter from Harry Ackerman and i said i’d like to read you a letter received within the week from Harry Ackerman and the sentence the sentence said there is very little that any writer a producer in Hollywood can accomplish on your subject until you can achieve a climate of support and approval at the networks and dr. Stanton gave me a big grin and he said okay that’s fair and then he leaned across the table he said so long as it’s a quality program and I said dr. Stanton if it’s on my subject unless it’s a quality program I don’t want it on the air he said we agree so that’s where we started I came to the coast with those letters and I almost had to bring such smelling salts for the writers and producers but suddenly here was the whole new area that they were welcome to begin exploring in and they did well you have to maximize the the maximum amount of clout and we were able to there Stanton leaned across the table also and said and I’ll tell you what to do get Nixon to invite the Hollywood community down san clemente like he did on your subject like he did last year on drugs well great idea years ago miguel sabido said to me David we’ve got to figure out how to get Rex and his backing for us whoever is the wrecks in your situation so here was Rex I ran it past Robert Finch counselor to the president and he said forget it Nixon ran that issue up the flagpole they didn’t get anybody saluted and I ran it by Bill sapphire and he said the same thing so we got there by an association we developed with the Academy the television Academy could have been a lot easier if we’ve been able to get the white house behind us so far we haven’t been able to get any white house on this planet hardly behind us a little bit we did in India because when i had with Indira Gandhi and Miguel forever has been pleading with me David we have to get racks and frankly Mexico is a spectacular example of the failure of our of our doing that because of the sabido methodology and its application in Mexico that government was the first government to receive the United Nations Population prize after it was created and it was what Miguel did there that made the difference the head of their national population council said to me the driving force behind behind our demographic success have been the telenovelas of Miguel sabido and take a look at Mexico today they’ve got crime they’ve got murder they’ve got kidnappings they’ve got drugs they’ve got demography and they’ve got much more in their problem basket and they have an enormous potential for an answer to all of these and they’re not using it because televisa completely removed itself from Social Communications and there is no Rex that can mobilize the the opposite of where they are now so you need to mobilize the maximum amount of clout not easily done I knew early on that we would have to move from the u.s. to the world we have five percent of the world’s population we ever by the time by this time in early part of the 70s pretty sure the baby boom was over in this country but around the world when women are having 6.2 live children the baby boom is going full blast so the question was how do we do it I knew Claude is pretty sure I knew how to operate in this country but I was also pretty sure that what I knew was not particularly relevant to the realities people living in the cultures and languages of a whole spectrum in Africa Asia Latin America etc Middle East so I figured we’ve got to find an answer somewhere how do we operate and I was pretty sure that the answer would be found somewhere on the ground and not in this country and I looked everywhere all

over Africa I looked all over Asia and last of all I looked at store in Mexico and there I found my answer in September of 1977 and that we got there because of the door was opened by the international council of the television Academy and we came in at the top which is where he would always like to at the level of the owner Emilio scarica he wasn’t there he was on one of his two yachts in the Mediterranean where Elvis was in August mid-september but that day we were sent by his very competent staff to meet with somebody named Miguel sabido who gave us a three-hour lecture and spoke not one word of English it was all with professional interpretation and before he was thrown through I had had all the circuits of my nervous system blown from the top of my brain to my large toe and I was pretty sure we were on to something as that happened to be the first week that he was on the air with his next social content telenovela acompane may and you’ll see a bit of it in the middle in a minute Miguel said to me that day we have done our homework we know the situation in our country we know what our methodology can accomplish and the growth rate of Mexico in the year ahead will come down four tenths of one’s percent I was enormously skeptical because I had received wisdom ray Raymond Holt was the head of the office of population of USAID and Ray had informed me that the average result of a good country program would be the reduction of one-tenth of one percent in a year there were two outstanding examples on the planet where it come down two tenths of one percent in a year and this over in Mexico was telling me he was going to double the best model on the planet and I wasn’t terribly positive about the possibility and he will never let me forget it it came down for tents of one percent that year it was unprecedented and the head of the USAID population office said everywhere I go in pharmacies and family climbing centers wherever I say to people why are you here and they give me one word back the name of the telenovela al campania may and I’d like to see just well I I brought the word of that back to my advisory council in New York and they were skeptical and one of my members dick man often wrote the book those are the social marketing mix that Poindexter forget it what you say they’re doing in Mexico we couldn’t do in this country in it for sure no developing country including Mexico could ever do it well I’m sorry dick I said but they are doing it today and tomorrow and the rest of this week and every day of next week and on into the future well he said I won’t believe it till I see the evidence I said whatever if you need to see he said I would like to see bits and pieces taken out of the nine month long till you know villa so I could see a story line through the whole nine months and that i would like to have two separate episodes so I see a full episode early on and later on in the serial drama and he said of course it will all have to have English subtitles because I don’t understand Spanish well to do that would have taken my entire budget for the next quadrennial so I went to Miguel and I said big l I need this please and he said all right and I took those video materials to my advisory council and it blew all the circuits in their brains in nervous system and manoff said David you’re right I was wrong this is it and the other member who was head of the US National Committee for the International Institute of communication said we must have this next year at our annual meeting in Strasburg and they also said please bring this man to meet with us we must meet him so I’d like you to see just a little snippet of that first family planning telenovela which really was not family planning it was family harmony the goal of nobody’s life is to plan their family everybody wants to have a harmonious individual life family life community life and national life but you’ve got a plan to get there and that’s the point que yo voy a dormir aqui la cocina y tu I adentro con los hombres las mujeres aqui y ustedes los hombres pedindo

ok taec tengo miedo tengo muchisimo Meadow Creek Asia mi mama y minera Blarney Seska ok me avisas si yes desesperacion no creo que mis hijos Kreskin en una casa como esta cita con piernas mama que no ven que no te las Puente tus hijos estan con vanaras al Infierno yo no quiero que me paso Oh quiero no quiero no quiero and that’s what Mexico was looking at and that’s what delivered the reduction in the growth rate and the family size of Mexico when that went on the air the average woman is having 5.2 live children today in the valley of Mexico where live one-third of the population the family size is smaller than in this country and what Miguel did did not go the full length of what it should have because of the company but it made the the vital difference for that country so you got to find individuals and networks to help you open doors I want to go into that much but the Commonwealth’s broadcasting association has helped the International Institute for communications helped the international council of the television Academy helped unfpa has helped a lot they the network’s exist and we have utilized them and still look for them and then the time came to explore targets for diffusion and we brought we had hearings we brought in experts and their final verdict was find one country in Africa and one in Asia and try that and I’ll get to that in a second but while you’re doing this also expect just plain blind luck both good and bad and I can illustrate that with a few incidents when I was starting out to relate to us television I was in conversation at some length with Eddie Albert who was starring in green acres and Eddie was consumed with concern about the environment and I said well what a great vehicle you have to deal with environmental education and issues Green Acres how could you have anything better than that you know what Eddie said oh no that’s education we only do entertainment and then over the horizon came a genius ay-ay-ay God’s gift to us really and a wonderful man named nor leader who proved that you could deal with social issues and you could get top ratings and everybody wanted to have their product on your program and so a lot of things happen well for example one time bill Ryerson had a session out here with Rob Reiner and I said to rob you know you and I have one thing in common you don’t know it and he said oh what’s that and I said we arranged for you to have a vasectomy once and he said how did you do that and I said listen you’re not the only friend Norman Lear has and and meat had had a vasectomy I wonder why and we could go on and on and at and norman was not only doing his own thing but he was also in bandura storm a bit of a role model for the entire industry we had more minutes on the air and prime time in the heart of the program and not infringe flush time I assume you know what that means then General Motors had minutes on the air advertising their products and we did her for peanuts and they did it for

millions or billions all right so you have bad luck we were going full blast in Kenya and we were there under the aegis of the then vice president and one morning he woke up in the autocratic president had decided that the VP was too popular so he removed him and the next vice-president came in and said well those aren’t my programs get rid of them and their beloved to shore eonni which was the first authentic Kenyan melodrama they’d ever had disappeared and the public was outraged there were street demonstrations and they were almost riots that finally emerged into the parliament and the Minister of Information and Broadcasting promised the parliamentarians it would be the program would be returned he lied it never was and Kenya’s rate of population growth quit sinking because of the stupidity of the people who played the part of wrecks in that country bad luck in India mrs. Gandhi we didn’t know although certain times when we there I took Miguel there but mrs Gandhi needed television for political reasons and I think the reason we went there was out of an encounter that we arranged between Miguel and Prime Minister Gandhi and Miguel can be very impressive but he was to the Prime Minister and they needed a hardware technology which they got out of Mexico because Miguel got a key person there together with their man counter whitetip wotty and in 194 working days they put 194 ground stations and transmitters up and went from fourteen percent coverage of their nation to well over seventy percent coverage and then they needed a software and out of Miguel came the methodology came their first novella called hum log we people the ratings on that saying we send the thing further on but let me tell you we’re between 65 and 90 which means that a key points in the drama ninety percent of everybody in India who could get to a television set was in the audience that’s got to be a Guinness Book of World Records record and and that cereal is the basis that arvind single used for his PhD thesis he and Everett Rogers went to India and studied the whole thing and I learned a lot from what they told me more than I had any idea had happened so you have good luck and then and very bad luck was televisa withdrawal from Social Communications now if you’re going to go you need to identify that strongly felt needs of a target country and we found that both in India and in Kenya and in China for China is how can we achieve voluntary acceptance of our policy so when you go take a recognizably I have not kept up here but here we are take a recognizably needed successful model at the sheraton hotels the airport one evening I got Barbara pile who was environmental editor of CNN together with Cecile guilty res from the Philippines and Barbara ended up doing a major documentary and here is a little snippet out of it and the two key people you will see here are Barbara and Cecile as well as the Catholic priests by the Reuter developing countries soap operas aren’t selling soap they’re selling social change in the Philippines I went behind the scenes on a brand new soap opera it’s giving people a different perspective on issues like family signs wakes up this soap opera is the tale of two sisters it’s called Solis a silly sucks Sinise editing blights interweaving lines Cecile Alvarez Godot they invented these two sisters and is bringing their story to the Filipino people which is greedy yeah she’s gonna need okay folk opera is tackling the very difficult issues of population and family planning cecile wants to do is create behavioral change tell me what the basis of this story is well the basis of the story is to have a comparison between a negative model and a positive model the empowerment of women is so important in the population issue the part of this series is an incredibly dramatic story

of two sisters one named Monica and the other Marita maleta is the sister that are Lopes at the age of 16 and began having children immediately and she’s been having a baby every year and this is because she didn’t know any better and she couldn’t stand up to her husband who was insisting on having a boy your wife kept having children and kept getting weaker and weaker and you you want to still wanted more children are you going to change sometime in one of these episodes are we going to see you change depends upon the writer the other sister Monica Kenny school and became a very famous broadcast journalist welcome talk what’s different about this soap opera is that it uses real events and even real people that play themselves father Monica was kidnapped has finally been discovered and she was bleeding and rushed to the hospital and you’re the first person they called to attend to her they’re almost did Monica here yet it’s not hard for the man who plays the priest to get into character he is a priest he plays himself I was very moved by the actual scenes themselves and also by the people who are part of this project there’s all the actors and actresses and the cameraman and the director they’re incredibly committed to social change and what I’m interested in knowing is how this program makes you feel father it’s kind of a thing is stronger than the pulpit it’s stronger than the school it’s stronger than the home it’s the story thing we have and that’s why it’s so important to get this diffused around the world Jim writer is right it is the torrontés thing we have and the hallmarks of a successful model the ability to secure a spectrum of social change objectives and we can talk about some of them it isn’t just smaller family size I think we’ve come to the point of understanding that if we’re going to solve environment not just demography but all the environmental issues and a lot of the economic issues we have got to move from the point where women are defined as property to the point where women around the world are defined as persons and each woman has control over determining her own destiny and when that happens everything seems to fall into place so we’re working very much on that everywhere and so you need to achieve your spectrum of job social change objective but you got to secure high audience ratings when Miguel sapito went on the air but that soap opera the snippet of which you saw if after a month his ratings had gone into the cellar he’d been off the air you know that but his ratings were higher than the ratings of the normals entertainment program that had preceded it and when he was through with his and the one that followed the ratings did not equal his so you got to have ratings in television and radio you always have to have ratings and you got to have sales in India when they did hung LOCC they’d never had sponsored programs that’s why their programming was so bloody awful they have any money and on that one we had to really twist arms to get people to agree to advertise our division of Nestle is called food specialities advertise something called Maggi noodles now whatever else Indians eat chapati curry tandoori doll etc there are neat noodles that’s in Vietnam and Southeast Asia or in China except now the noodles because Maggi noodles was advertising a boil and a bag full of noodles and a little another plastic thing with sauce center you dumped the noodles squirt the sauce over and you have a meal and the sales went through the ceiling and they started from nothing and they went by hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of percentage points and it brought sponsored television india and that’s all other story won’t take time for but you can have sales believe me and then you got to secure the funding and i won’t take a lot of work time on this except to say it’s hard work because Rex doesn’t understand this you talk about soap opera I’m the person that got the word soap opera into a UN document and I have battles get doing that because nobody believes that soap opera can make any difference and indeed it will make a determinative difference it was based on the right design which is seated beside me here and then you got to recruit a

research partner both performative research and for so many research and we’ve learned that along the way and we’ve learned a lot about it in some mature situations you can do a literature review and may be tested with focus groups and you pretty much know what the situation is in Tanzania there was nothing to no literature to review and to begin with there was a 4,800 person quantitative survey each interview of more than an hour in length all the coded and computerized and analyzed and i may say everett rogers directed the research in that country we had there what I think was unprecedented we did a comparison area controlled study we couldn’t call a a controlled study because to have a a control area you gotta select them randomly and you can’t do that on a night nationwide basis but we blocked out the middle of the country and everything was on the same frequency in the country so the people in the middle of the country were hearing music well everybody around the fringe was hearing our program and it worked and we could isolate out what was the effects of what we were doing and so you need somebody for for formative research and if not you broadcast people don’t know how to do research but on the other hand research people don’t know how to do broadcasting either and and there’s got to be that kind of a close collaboration and then you’ve got to do some any research because if you don’t you don’t know what’s happened and in Tanzania there was this quantitative baseline survey that F did and then every year for the next five years there was a follow-up survey so we knew exactly what was happening and and why and then if you can it’s often useful to create a country advisory council with representatives from the relevant ministries education communication planning health and on and on and and then you’ve got to have your own country director in the country and we’ve found some Cracker Jacks the head of builds program in Ethiopia is the guy I first met when I was asked to have lunch with in one day at the UN the man who started out as a radio broadcaster then got his PhD and communicate and then when the horrible period of manga zoo and Ethiopia went away he was brought back and put in charge of developing the national population policy and program then we got to be 55 they retired them at that age in developing countries and so he came to work as the director of our program there and he’s too good to be true and you always look for a qualified person on the ground because as I started out saying you need to know the territory and then you need to recruit and train a production team and that varies widely in Tanzania they had never done a scripted drama on radio and may I say there was no television when we started there the per capita GNP was ninety dollars a year nobody could have in fact the radio operation was many of the repeater stations were still operating with vacuum tubes so that’s how primitive and poor things were and they didn’t have anybody who could do a scripted drama so we went to the University and we recruited bright young people and trained them and they did a crackerjack job on the other hand you may go into a place where they really know how to produce but they don’t know how to produce on the sabido methodology which is exactly backwards from every other production operation in the world normally a producer gets a concept and a plot and characters and drama it doesn’t work that way here here you start with a moral framework for years Miguel sabido said to me what gives me the right to determine what is the good and what is the not good in Mexico and he agonized over that nobody would tell him the government didn’t know and he could find that the church would say one thing and they Communist Party on the other hand would say another thing but was coke and finally and this is one of the great contributions of the United Nations in 1994 at the UN International Conference on population and development the documented of that conference brought together all the declarations and covenants of the united nations beginning with eleanor roosevelt’s universal declaration of human right and they put them together in a coherent document that said well it’d be it was really a code of conduct for human

beings on this planet and every government on the planet endorsed it and now I can go into anybody’s country and I can say this is the good and this is the not good and they can’t contradict me because we have a document and they ratified it so you start with your moral foundation and then you’ve got to do a whole values and social analysis I won’t take time to go into it now but it deals with economic matters family matters educational matters health matter on and on because you’re going to say this is the good and this is the not good it is good that a husband or my love each other well what does that mean because we’re going to be acting it out and it’s not just a statement on paper it is the basis for drama and it is not good and on and on so I could tell you a hilarious tale wonderful tale out of China but I don’t think we have time today ah and then you produce the initial episodes of the cereal and you take the mountain field taste test them in Tanzania they took them out and rolled the car and just about killed themselves but you take him hunting field test them and and bring them back and based on the field test you revise them and then you go into production and it was I’ll take time for one little incident we did this in st. Lucia and our trainers were from Kenya and after they had produced the initial things than the kds went home and the production team went into business to produce the person I don’t know 20 30 episodes of the serial you got to have something they can before you go on the air and then they came back and it was in there and they’re patois and so they started playing them and Tom began commenting and they said oh no you can’t comment on it this is in our Creole and Tom said what you don’t understand is your Creole is the language I hear every day on the streets of Mombasa Kenya and my hair stood straight up the world suddenly shrank a lot ah so you launch the cereal with much ballyhoo in the news media you conduct ongoing evaluation research while you’re doing it there are focus groups going on and we found it very helpful to the writers to go out and audit those focus groups they get a lot of input and you publicize the audience effects of the cereal and and when you’re finished in the scientific publications and there have been articles by Rogers based on the thing we collaborated in and by arvind single likewise let me just say a couple of results the purpose we’re doing this for in the diffusion effects and demographically bill has got a whole program in Ethiopia and a recent radio novel Tavella there in the amharic speaking region in two and a half years the total fertility rate of the women of that region came down from five point three to four point one one point two children per woman reduction in two and a half years that’s unheard of and had Ethiopia minute or two child family we would never have read about famine in Ethiopia and the only way we’re ever going to get them out of Haman is to get them down to two children and here is something that is moving and that’s why it’s the most valuable resource we have on the planet and Rex doesn’t yet understand it and so you publicize the results of it ah and finally as I say the diffusion is not just corporate within Broadcasting System it’s where it reaches the public where the people live and let me just finish with a couple of illustrations in Tanzania they got a new UNFPA director and what did he know about a serial drama on radio he knew how you do censuses and how you get commodities out to their clinics and all those things he didn’t know anything about a radio drama but he was from Uganda and he understood the language keep Swahili and one day even way out in the bush at a crossroads and here was no man who was whittling and bill said to him old man I see you over radio and the old men said oh yes I do and he said why and he said because there’s this program on the radio every week and I can’t miss it it’s the most entertaining program I’ve ever heard but also he said I think it’s educating us on things and he concluded by saying if that program had been on the air when I was young man I wouldn’t have had all the children i had and i’d be a wealthy man today and just like that that you and I PA exactly was converted and went

back and started telling others you’ve got to get something like this on your air or in India we did a radio serial in the hindi belt called tinka tinka souk which harvin says about something about small things but it’s not what it means I was there when they named it it means little step little step to a better life patinka is a twig a bird builds a nest with and we got about 160,000 letters to the station from that but the one that everybody loves a poster-sized literally came in and on the front of it was the whole letter on the back were the signatures of a large share of the people in the village and what it said is you would tell you have taken us out of the darkness of centuries into the light and then there were three major points one is for the first time we understand the evil of dowry and all of us who have signed this letter agree that never again will we agree to either accept or give dowry that’s pretty radical in India and wonderful and then further down it says and for the first time we’ve come to understand what we didn’t know that girls can learn like boys cans and we think that they should be educated and from now on in our village they will be educated bingo on the back of it there are rows of thumb prints a village wipes and somebody signed their name while that not the future of that village now and then further down they said and we also have come to the importance of small families and we think husbands and wives should discuss this together and agree upon it which is exactly what we’re talking about because the precursor or a couple going for family planning is spousal communication and husbands and wife don’t really know how to talk about things that are very intimate this way but you can role play it for them in the drama and they learn how you do it from listening to the drama and then they go into their own communication and then they go to the clinic and it was so remarkable in that village and that bill found some money and Evan Arvin went back and studied that village and it formed the basis of a book they did on entertainment education and finally you know how you get a bride in Ethiopia or historically traditionally you have you abduct her and rape her and then her family won’t take her back and then you have your bride nice huh and we got a letter well that’s the same area where the fertility rate has come down we got a letter from one couple who said our 13 year old daughter was abducted and we lost her and so we kept our 10 year old daughter home because we couldn’t bear the thought of losing her but you have so changed the understanding and behavior of everybody in our part of the of Ethiopia that we no longer have to fear this so now our daughter is back in school I think it’s a wonderful left and that’s the diffusion of this of what is the most effective broadcast methodology in the world and you’ve got to continue the process and here are some conclusions from 1972 2008 we’ve come from an intuition which I had to a scientific methodology to diffusion among 40 countries from a platter planetary population of three and two-thirds billion to the current 6 and 2 30 billion headed for 9 and beyond if we can’t get her stopped but from a total fertility rate of six point two children to occurrent two point six children per woman and from a paucity of entertainment education to a growing global movement and if not just what we’ve done there are many other things going on and over the year we will cover them here I’m sure and from a few studies to a sizable growing body of studies and from interaction between the account little interaction between the Academy and the practitioners to active collaboration and this school has been one of the important partners in that and countries that have been on the air or on the air or preparing to go on the air are as follows those are the African countries you can run your eye over now there are 52 countries in Africa we’ve hardly begun to dig there yet there’s a lot more to be done but that’s not a bad beginning and and it’s an enormous effort to have that much done and in Asia and bill just came back from a meeting of Asian parliamentarians in of all places who lon ba tour and a number of other countries Kingdom said we would like to talk to you about coming to our country and we’ve got all of that in the Caribbean and in Latin America Brazil Guatemala Honduras we are doing things in Mexico but not through televisa and

obviously in North America and when I started out with the Academy here the Chairman was named Sonny Fox and he still work here and here he is at the table so that in effect is the diffusion of the most effective broadcast human behavior changed methodology on the planet and without Albert bandura for the theory and without Miguel sabido for the translation into this methodology and then without the effort of a lot of people to get this up and out and continue to get it out ah we would be in dire straits where we are now is we have what it takes the job now is to continue the diffusion to every place where it’s needed on every issue where it can be applied thank you very much I think you take some questions I’d be happy to take questions yes how much do you think of urging folks are going to play a role in the next 15 years per se with penetration mobile how much do I think what we’ll take the mobile technology emerged involves as a communication platform well because its ease of distribution I have a friend who was on my staff ones who heads an organization called sell solar electric light fund he’s putting electricity into villages and now they are computers and and Africa is never going to have a handful and they’re all cell phones and I think the emerging technology is incredible you know the what’s the chap at MIT who I heard under Miguel’s to be those auspices at televisa and he’s now got the computer that everybody can have and I think all of this is going to make a big difference and I don’t think we’re restricted just to radio or television I think we’re going to be on the web all over the place in Miguel is pioneered and that was web novellas and I don’t know where it’s all going but it is going something as a follow-up question to that person and each of the new technologies can platforms can do certain things you’re the business of changing behaviors why the longevity of the series is important can you and can you imagine that 23 minute episodes on teleconference or on my part would have the same result in terms of that as I read have to test you to find out I think it would be difficult for several reasons one of the things that’s important is group listening when families listen together it’s different than when individuals are nice elation listening the dynamics are different and secondly you’ve got to have people involved what what what this means is Vandor says behavior is caused by role modeling and if you want to change behavior then you have to have adequate role models and as in tanzania there were no adequate role models appropriate role models in that country so we had to create them and the second stage in learning theory if you can’t have an immediate personal relationship is a vicarious relationship which is what we do and therefore you’ve got to have a medium whereby the receiver can develop a real relationship with the characters of the drama and I don’t know that two minutes can afford you that possibility five years ago the way and I do against age from five minutes ago so we would come to room or girls or home

and they are using the computer and in Mexico Teresa is using and not implication traditional central procedure but my shows so again we got to proven that the the world to neurology that doesn’t lose sales using you can have so we have they have years ago we have sold homes in Romanian to why we are exactly your problem is they are visible bands they are social animals government book was an exception and maybe come by Brett the world but the problem businessman emergency ah who has a wonderful idea next to try find a human girl who combines the wrecks the president of the country that the frequencies of the division don’t doesn’t belong but ways you know is very very important that said all of us try to find out a way only the first universities that receive ology of my own University when I proposed whoa

Daisy and glory because the us I in this room you’re you’re sitting in the room or just started education and they would be able to take all the moves that we have all arrived 340 together and send them to the licenses they are not my true self driven reach and reverently cancer people only University so like like is he can do this I think that the work was a kind of troubadour or or Harbor and to put together all the media that you say Dalton’s everything I think that I’ve been invited by hospital University March and they’re going on like the communications of develop and optra in April we need a new medicine none on the subject of emergent media we are in the process now trying to apply the Sibylla creation of electronic games dealing with violence too big the UN Population Fund or supported us in the department the prayer will not be like a single episode evolution of characters within the game and the player wonder bonds or four characters over time soon as that by the game which a higher and higher levels of policy with the game you they will serve the characters in the game and earn points for sub n are very strategic well thank you very much Marty do you have some parting words from the one other senator to share with yes for those of you who are not familiar with the way in which we at the Lear Center has tried to carry this torch full forward I urge you to look at our program called Hollywood health and society the staff amazing staff of that program are here the director of the program sandra de castro

Buffington would love to hear from you we are a very fortunate of the number of students who work on projects with us doing research and working with TV shows and we’d be delighted to take advantage of your interest in this subject and move it forward so thank you Peter thank you so much David Thank You Miguel and more distinguished guests and thanks for being