Oil spill response capability for heavy oil products — August 2019 webinar

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Oil spill response capability for heavy oil products — August 2019 webinar

– [Mark] Hello, this Mark Burrows I’m a project manager with the International Joint Commission’s regional office in Windsor, Ontario The IJC’s a partner with Sea Grant and the Great Lakes Commission on this webinar series Welcome to the third webinar of the 2019 webinar series, hosted by Great Lakes Sea Grant Crude Oil Transport Network Our previous two webinars with Guy Meadows and Steven Keck are available on the website with captioning The Crude Oil Transport webinar series is meant to provide the latest research and resources to stakeholders in the region, to inform decision making around this complicated and complex issue Anyone with a vested interest in how crude oil and associated products move throughout the region will find the content informative It’s my pleasure to introduce Mr. Bill Hazel Bill is the Vice President of Marine Services for Marine Pollution Control, a full-service environmental organization founded by Dave Usher in Detroit in 1967 In his 28 years of service to MPC, Bill has responded to numerous oil and hazardous materials spill events in the U.S. and overseas He has also participated in research and development programs through oil spill technologies and tactics involving heavy oils and oil spills in ice conditions Bill is here today to tell us about oil spill response capability for heavy oil products And with that, thank you so much Bill for helping us today, and please take it away – [Bill] Thank you very much Mark And I’d like to begin by thanking the Michigan Sea Grant Program for having me here today, in their lovely offices in downtown Ann Arbor And for carrying forth the mission of these seminars as they do To get a little perspective about how I’m going to approach this presentation today, I just wanna tell you a little bit about myself I’m not a scientist, I’m an oil spill response professional And I’ve been doing it for 28 years now And the experiences that I’m going to present here today come from the perspective of field operations I will be touching on the science, because we use that to some extent in order to guide our actions in the field But really what I’m gonna talk about here today is about the tactics and techniques that are applied, and the capabilities that are available here in the Great Lakes, from the oilfield response community So I’d like to start with this slide here, and just to present the idea that this is the first concept that we look at when there is an oil spill and we start addressing it That it’s not simply the slick that is distributing across the water’s surface, but there are also other actions that are taking place Including evaporation Part of the oil will evaporate during this process, some will dissolve into the water column, and some will actually sink and be deposited on the bottom And all of these actions, these physical properties of oil must be considered when we are selecting tactics and techniques to respond And looking at that from the perspective of heavy oil, we’ll look at all of those concepts as we move through here So these three principal concepts also apply to how we address assigning tactics and techniques to an oil spill response The three important concepts are viscosity of the oil, which refers to its resistance to flow Its volatility, refers to how quickly the oil will evaporate in the air And its toxicity, which refers to how toxic or poisonous the oil is to either people or other organisms Volatility is something I’d like to highlight generally from the responder’s perspective Because this is an interface that involves the health and safety of the personnel that will be responding to the spill So a more volatile oil has to be treated in a specific way, relative to protecting the responders during the response operations And hopefully as I get through this,

I’ll start to kinda draw out more clearly how viscosity and volatility is addressed in that process So oils are generally classed for this purpose in five groups And what you’re seeing now is the first three groups, which include Group I, non-persistent light oils And these include gasoline and certain condensates Up to Group II, which will include diesel, Number 2 fuel oil and light crude oils And up to Group III, where medium oils are considered So these include most crude oils, and what’s called Intermediate Fuel Oil Number 180 And I think you can see from these slides, and I know they’re a little busy, but you can see that what’s happening as we move up the scale here, oils are becoming thicker They’re becoming possibly less volatile But they’re also becoming of a heavier viscosity, and probably a longer sense of persistence to their presence in the environment as well So these are the two groups that really are classified as heavy oils And we’re referring to the heavier crude oils, Number 6 fuel oils and Bunker Cs As you’ll see, in these cases little or no evaporation or dissolution of the oil is likely to take place Heavy contamination of the inner tidal areas is likely And this implies severe impacts to the waterfowl and fur-bearing mammals Long-term contaminations of sediments are possible It will weather very slowly, and shoreline difficulty, clean up will be difficult And then we move into the Group V oils And these oils are specifically classified in that their specific gravities are greater than that of the water into which they may be spilled Which means that they will sink So most of us are familiar with the idea that oil spills are floating components, but they’re not always And so this presentation will be addressing that And other important classification in that regard, generally is the idea of an oil being persistent or non-persistent And this is amongst the group of five different oil categories Group I oils are not a persistent oil Their evaporation quantities and qualities are such that the majority of a spill will evaporate with no actions taken at all This implies an acute toxicity to the environment, but not a persistent problem Whereas the oils that we’re concerned about, most specifically Group IV and Group V, these are persistent oils These are oils that are going to stay in the environment for a very long period of time Not a lot will evaporate, and not a lot will dissolve As you can imagine from a response perspective you’re looking at longer duration of an operation, and a longer slog and a harder workload So to summarize what I just covered there, relative to the some of the classifications of how we look at heavy oils, and what that means For Groups IV and V, the viscosities are likely to be very high, particularly after weathering and the release of the light ends And when temperatures at the spill site are low In terms of volatility, the heavy oils will tend to be less volatile than oils in Groups I through III, with a very important distinction And that is that certain grades of crude oil are mixtures that may include highly volatile light ends, mixed with the heavier components And this is what I was trying to imply when I said that this volatility issue is very important to the responders who have to address the spills And then in terms of toxicity, these heavier oils will have a lower acute toxicity than the first three groups, with the important distinction of those high volatile fractions And then persistence, heavy oils should be considered as persistent oils And so as we go through the presentation we’ll come back around that word of persistence and what it means to responders So I’m gonna cover, for heavy oil spills, the response methods that are generally associated with responding to them And these will include containment, and mechanical recovery on water Mechanical and manual recovery of oil on shores In-situ burning And Non-Floating Oil response techniques What I will not be covering, relative to the Great Lakes environment, is the issue of dispersants

And dispersants are surfactic chemicals that are applied to oil spills, and which allow them or force them or cause them to break up into smaller molecules that then are hopefully distributed through the water column This type of approach will not, in my opinion, ever be seen in the Great Lakes They are not approved for the Great Lakes, due to the shallowness of the water bodies, the fact that the Great Lakes provide fresh water, potable water for our communities and so on and so forth So they will not be applicable, it is not something that I consider as relevant to the topic for Great Lakes heavy oil spill response In order to give those who may be participating who are not really familiar with oil spill response generally, I’m gonna start with this concept of containment booming So basically a containment boom is a barrier that is placed across a water body, that is designed to hold in a surface oil spill, and direct it to a position where the oil can be mechanically recovered In this case, the slide we’re looking at, there’s a skimmer positioned there from a shoreside recovery perspective And in that pocket is where gathered or accumulated oil will be recovered by a mechanical device And in this animation, we’re seeing that mechanical recovery device, how it works Basically there is a weir presented there And the oil which is on the surface in this particular case, pours over the edges of the weir and then is delivered through a hose mechanism to some form of temporary storage device So that’s kind of Oil Spill Response, Mechanical Recovery and Containment 101 For those who are participating who may not be familiar with those techniques Now to break that down a little bit further, there are typically two types of mechanical recovery devices that are employed for oil spill response This first one is a weir skimmer device And as you can see, the idea is is that the oil will pour into a weir, right at the oil-water interface at the surface of the water And that it will be pumped by that orange pump mechanism there to the temporary storage device And the alternative to that is an adhesive type of an oil skimmer And in this case, what we’re looking at is we’re looking at drum skimmer And that round drum that is positioned within that collected oil pool will slowly rotate And as it rotates, the oil will adhere to the surface of the drum, because the drum is oleophilic, it likes oil, it loves oil And then it is scraped off into a hopper basin, and that hopper basin then has a pump or a vacuum device, and it’s recovering that oil as well So these are both typical oil spill mechanical recovery devices that are used in the field, and they can be adaptable for heavy oil application That’s a heavy oil you’re looking at right now Some type of oil that was involved in a steel making process And the other thing I really like about this slide, that I’ve always liked about this slide is it shows that laminar flow, by that swirling pattern which is as that drum is just simply spinning, there’s no other energy force other than that current, and the laminar holding together of that oil on that surface that’s drawing it into the skimmer and delivering it to the storage device for recovery So the issue of viscosity when we’re talking about heavy oils is a critical component of what we wanna talk about here This particular quote from Tim Wadsworth presents the idea that viscosity will have a considerable effect on the efficiency of virtually any kind of recovery devices And oils with high pour points, or high viscosities, like heavy crudes and fuel oils, they don’t flow easily And if the ambient temperature is below the pour point, the oil will effectively behave almost as a solid, and hence will be difficult to recover And he’s drawing this experience from the Exxon Valdez, where many of these techniques were attempted And as the oil became weathered and became heavier and heavier, the skimmers and the pumps and the transfer equipment all became harder and harder to work with and hence the efficiency of the operation was diminished So

Here’s a slide that presents the principle of friction loss And what that’s really talking about is just that thicker, heavier materials will be harder to pump through hoses and pipes than thinner devices Imagine it, I thought about it last night, imagine it the difference between drinking a glass of lemonade versus drinking a strawberry milkshake So you know that you have to apply more force as the liquid that you’re trying to transfer becomes thicker Now on this slide, if we kind of draw from the y-axis, which is the, no excuse me from the x-axis, which is the horizontal axis If we were trying to pump at 200 gallons a minute, the bottom curved line is indicating pressure loss or resistance to flow Versus of a thinner material than the upper line, and the difference is quite considerable With the thicker material that more resistance is there and therefore more energy is required in order to make everything move through the equipment So this slide represents two types of pumps, which are critical to maintaining the flow of all this One being an axial flow pump, on the left And the screw/positive displacement pump on the right And their discharge pressures are reflected as 115 psi for the axial flow pump, versus the 150 psi for the positive displacement pump So if you have a thicker material, if you’re dealing with a heavy oil, you want to select the types of pumps that have the higher pressure ratings in order to ensure that we can keep the material flowing into the tanks and storage devices, and being recovered from the field, and passing towards its eventual home which will be a temporary disposal site Now those principles, of placing high pressure pumps and pumps that can handle these thicker oils was in an early sense was presented as an important aspect of developing skimmer systems, which were used or can be used in heavy oil situations So these particular pictures are from a company call Lamor, that is out of Northern Europe They were presented to me, they’re a partner of mine in dealing with heavy oil response technologies And what they’ve done is they’ve taken one of those positive displacement type pumps and they work it in their oil spill skimmer units So I have a video here that presents what they are able to do, and I think it’s very interesting for folks to see the thickness of oil that can be overcome with this technology So what we’re looking at right now are discs that are flowing through oil spills in Arctic environments, and very very heavy oil spills And then they are being transferred into bins, scraped off of the brushes that are collecting the oil And from there, they will then be transferred through pumps and piping systems And I think you can see, this is a very, very, very thick oil that they are dealing with here Not sure exactly what it is, probably a bitumen-type product But you can see what can be achieved by integrating those technologies together, the high pressure pumps and the skimmer devices that can handle the heavy oil So I’ll just let this play out a little bit more to just show you the types and thicknesses of oil that can be overcome in that regard Now those technologies are very refined and they’re very unique And I just wanted to let folks know that these technologies have been deployed within the Great Lakes In this particular case, U.S. Coast Guard Research and Development field demonstration in the Straits of Mackinac 2012 That is one of those skimmers, mounted on a vessel that is positioned generally in Escanaba, Michigan And so this demonstration was to reflect that those technologies were applicable to our Straits of Mackinac area, to our Michigan environment There were deployed in the middle of winter,

it was a particularly bad winter There was 18-inch block ice out there, and we were able to mount the equipment on the vessel of opportunity, take it out there and use it in that environment I also would like to point out that subsequent to that, some of this technology has been acquired and is positioned in the Great Lakes In this particular case, this unit is owned, and it is positioned in Northern Michigan by Enbridge Corporation So they have invested in this technology They’ve invested in training folks in this technology This is my company participating with them in Cheboygan, Michigan to deploy that technology So two of those skimmers, those heavy oil skimmers, ice-capable skimmers are deployed up there But I also don’t want to give you the impression that those are the only heavy oil skimmers that are in place in the Great Lakes There are many of these types of skimmers, and many responders who have this capacity In this particular this is a stock photograph from Lamor, demonstrating that one of their mid-sized skimmers is capable of handling these heavy oils And here this is my company’s deployment of some of our heavy oil-capable skimming systems I would say of the skimming equipment that I own in-house, approximately 30 to 40% of it is currently heavy oil-capable The rest of it can be used in heavy oil with adaptations, but some of it is specifically designed And I think that’s the case with other OSROs in the area as well So I want to reflect, because the topic of the presentation is heavy oil spill response capability, that it exists And not just the knowledge of it, and the research and development of it, but it’s here And trained and qualified people know how to integrate those systems together to address the issue So what it all comes down to, from that perspective, relative to mechanical recovery I’ve put together this for us So we have a water body, and we have an oil spill on top of the water body And then we’re going to select an oil skimmer And if this is a heavy oil, then we’re going to select a heavy oil skimmer That skimmer will deliver product to some form of portable storage tank And in this case it’s the tank in and of itself Now that tank, which is now accumulating this heavy oil which needs to be moved, it’s gonna have to have a specialized pump apparatus that’s applied to it In order to deliver that material to over the road tank trucks or other transport devices, with the goal and the objective of getting that oil back to a reclaim or disposal facility So throughput efficiency is the name of the game And understanding the throughput efficiency of heavy oil as being more difficult than a lighter oil, just relative to its viscosity and its handling requirements, is something that is built into what I’m talking about here today But also our approach to heavy oil response generally And as we go through the presentation, hopefully we’ll give a better idea of all of the aspects and facets of what’s happening in the Great Lakes between the OSROs and the oil transporters and the regulatory people But I would like to highlight that this concept, that as the oil becomes thicker and these transfer methods all become harder and everything starts to get more and more difficult you can imagine that in addition to just technology, manpower has to go up So if a skimmer only has one half of the efficiency in a heavier oil that it would have for a lighter oil, then you need two skimmers Or three skimmers, and if you need two or three skimmers, you need crews to support them So as this oil becomes heavier, then the workload becomes greater It seems apparent, but I wanna break down the idea here of how we think, how oil spill responders think about the problem So just briefly mentioning that we’ve talked so far about recovery of oil on water bodies, and how it’s accomplished Obviously the entire thing also translates to shorelines So here’s an oil spill, I believe this is the Prestige spill in France

And when heavy oil is deposited on a beach it’s persistent It’s not going to evaporate, it’s not going to go away And methods for its recovery must be devised And in this case here, here’s a slide from 1989 This is an Exxon Valdez slide So this is an Alaskan shoreline, and this is a shoreline washing operation of a washing a relatively heavy oil, I do not know if the Exxon Valdez crude fell into Group III or IV But it’s a heavy oil for our purposes and discussion here And this is the kind of operation that can be anticipated with a heavy, persistent oil Here’s another picture, again I think this is from the Prestige spill And this reflects a methodology that was employed in order to recover this heavy oil from this rocky shoreline They determined at this point that this would be the best way for folks to be recovering this And I’m gonna reflect on that in the next couple of slides about why a methodology like this, a manual methodology might be preferable to another methodology such as this This is a mechanical recovery of an oil deposit on a beach And this one, this particular picture comes to us from 2010, from probably the coast of Louisiana, maybe Alabama But this is from the Deepwater Horizon spill So these mechanical methodologies may be applicable to cleaning up a shoreline, as opposed to those wider footprint, no pun intended, technologies where manual recovery is taking place And here’s another picture, of the Deepwater Horizon spill and a beach recovery operation And as you can see, in order to mediate that heavy oil from the beach, a considerable mechanical presence was required on the beach And as you may imagine, a considerable mechanical presence on a beach will have some form of derogatory effect on the beach itself as well There will be a give and take, between the idea of how to recover the oil and not doing too much damage to the beach by driving too much heavy equipment across it And that entire concept is captured by oil spill responders and by the community that addresses these by what is called Net Environmental Benefit Analysis, or NEBA And what NEBA is a structured approach used by my community and stakeholders during oil spill preparedness planning and response to compare the environmental benefits of a potential response tool, and then develop a response strategy that will reduce the impact of an oil spill on the environment So there are the four stages that are identified here where are to compile and evaluate the data to identify the exposure scenario And then you identify potential response options, and you can then understand the potential impacts from a scenario Then you will predict the outcomes from the given scenario to determine which techniques are effective and feasible You’re gonna balance some trade-offs, by weighing the ecological benefits and the drawbacks resulting from each feasible response option that you have And I wanna call out that word feasible, okay? Because this is not a smorgasbord of availability of all the entire spectrum of response tactics are available, all the time, under all conditions When you say feasible, you have to weigh in with the OSROs, with the response community and say what can we do, what do we have here? And what is, no, it’s 85 hours away from us right now, but this is here now So feasible is a very important word in that particular concept So the bottom line is is that a bunch of people will get together and talk about what is at risk, what can be done, and what could be brought to the table, and what’s the best choice to do it? And NEBA gives us the tool and the discipline to do that So we start NEBA by looking at the environment considerations, what is going to be affected by the spill? We have a tool in the Great Lakes, it’s produced by the National Oceanic

and Atmospheric Administration, called ERMA It was developed out of the Deepwater Horizon incident But it has since been exported to various regions in the country This particular slide shows us some of the environmental sensitivities that are near Frankfurt, Michigan and Betsy Lake So those colored areas are identifying the types of shoreline, and the protections rating of those particular areas, and you can see red is a high protection, it’s a very sensitive environment Whereas blue has none That particular logic is something that’s built into their system And then the green which is a low impact shoreline So we start there by looking at what’s gonna be impacted, and then we start using some of these tools to say to ourselves, what would be the best selection? First of all, we have to select what can we bring here? So this particular table, and I would like to apologize for the quality of the graphic, and to encourage you to email me later on if you want the source document This is looking at a series of different recovery techniques And if you notice at the top it says “What is the relative impact in the absence of oil?” So basically what this table is saying is it’s saying that you choose this selection and you look at these criteria, and that technique, even if there isn’t any oil, will have this impact on the area On that particular site So we look at these things in the absence of oil, we say what will the technology, what will the response technique actually do in terms of damaging the environment? And that starts, all of NEBA starts from the concept of take no action, and this slide kinda implies that Now this next slide is interesting in that it’s saying what are these techniques, what is their capability versus what are their operational limitations? So it goes back to examining what the feasibility of a technology will be And so what I’d like to highlight here is that if we look at the top one Open water skimming, okay, and then we look at the other criteria that’s being applied to it And it’s very hard for the reader here probably to view this but I’m gonna tell you what it says is “debris or broken ice.” And basically what they’re saying is that if you wanna do open water skimming in debris and broken ice conditions that there will be high amounts of operational limitations to mechanical recovery So this is what we’re talking about there That orange object being deployed from that crane that’s the vessel U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Hollyhock, and that’s the Mackinac Bridge in the background there, this is part of that demonstration in 2012 That skimmer’s going to be deployed into that broken ice patch there, with the thought that it would be used for a recovery operation However, we’d like to present to folks that during an ice condition, an oil spill in an ice condition, the ice will prevent the oil from getting to the skimmer In this particular case, the skimmer is positioned in some simulated oil, this was some PeatSorb and some oranges there But once that skimmer has completed recovering or separating the oil out of that recovery pocket, all the ice all around it is going to hold oil from getting to the skimmer and prevent recovery operation So in this case in the NEBA benefit here, this skimmer or this technology, this tactic might be ruled out to some extent because it’s not gonna be very effective In other words the ice is gonna prevent that technique from working So that leads us to what would work And so the concept is, the idea is, is that one of the techniques that is used to recover oil is this idea of in-situ burning, which is basically setting the oil on fire in order to allow it to be, it will delivered into the environment, it will be disbursed through the atmosphere, be removed from the waterway So it is a technique that in certain conditions, and applying this NEBA concept, it is one of the only tactics or techniques

that may be useful to reduce the amount of oil that is in the environment So what I’m calling out here is that, it says “in ice covered water or in a marsh, “in-situ burning could be the only spill response method “that is available.” So it is one of the tactics that has been considered for oil spill removal in ice, in the Great Lakes Now the general principles of in-situ burning include that all oils can be burned but Group I oils are much too volatile to safely use in-situ burning tactics Heavy oils may have lower burn efficiencies, but they can still be burned Slicks have to be a least two millimeters thick to allow for burning Windows of opportunity are short for applying this tactic Maybe less than 72 hours, although in Arctic conditions, those windows of opportunity may be extended And then the bottom sentence here, the bottom point here is that in-situ burning definitely requires stakeholder consensus So all members of the incident command for the spill must present their cases pro and con, and the agreement to be able to use this technique, applying the Net Environmental Benefit Analysis principle to it, that is something that will need to be obtained And I will point out that in the Northern Michigan region, that this dialogue and this discussion is definitely being had by that area committee I don’t know if Steve mentioned it, but it is definitely something that is being considered for the region Now when this occurs, when this is considered, special considerations must be given to allow for it to happen Basically this is administered through the SMART protocol, Special Monitoring of Applied Response Technologies And generally what we’re looking at here is just that smoke plume and any burn residue must be monitored in order to ensure that the safety of local populations and that What we wanna do here is reduce ecological damage, that that is being achieved by what is being carried out Now in the demonstration that took place in 2012, this technique of in-situ burning was tested And by that I mean that the equipment was tested, nothing was burned No oil was present, this was a oil-free demonstration So that is a in-situ burn oil boom And that boom there is capable of withstanding the high temperatures that would occur when an in-situ burn is going to take place on a water body It’s a Kevlar fabric, those are stainless steel floats And it is deployed in this manner It’s being deployed off of two local Escanaba-based tugs, both of which are ice classed in the Straits of Mackinac area We’re pulling the boom out with the one tug boat, deploying it from the stern of the second tug boat And here we are, here’s a aerial view of us cutting a small portion of the ice out of the ice flows What we’re going for there is that would be an area of ice that has oil within it So here is a video of taking that ice from that ice body and towing it out into the straits The weather was significant on that particular day, probably three foot swells And as you can see, the boom is able to hold that material in there to facilitate the burn So here’s a test in the Straits of Mackinac of that technology And there we have a example of an actual burn This is in Europe, put out by an organization called SINTEF So they are using that in-situ burn boom, and there is oil in that particular area In that ice flow, and they are burning it

And as I said, in those kinds of conditions where mechanical recovery may not be useful, then these types of ideas and these types of response techniques are applicable to the subject And just this slide here shows that it’s not necessarily only applicable to open water recovery operations This was what we call a thermal recovery operation of a crude oil spill on a small creek in Ohio So in this particular case it was determined that the best way environmentally to deal with that oil was to burn it off of those shorelines So it has been applied in the Great Lakes, in open water conditions I think in the 70’s I don’t have any provenance on that But this particular case was probably around 2006 So That brings us to the final response consideration that I wanted to address today, which was that particularly heavy oils, the Group V oils and other oils as well in the groups of Group IV and possibly into Group III, is non-floating oil Oil which sinks, which may seem counterintuitive to many people, that oil floats Well it doesn’t always There are reasons why oil may sink The first one is clearly that its specific gravity is greater than the specific gravity of the water into which it has been placed And the second is that an oil that may have a specific gravity that would generally allow it to float may interact with sediments present in the water and agitation And as that sediment picks up into the oil load, that may cause the oil to sink as well So this table from the National Academy Press shows the relationship between the density of oil and the salinity of water And then I’ve positioned some API numbers on the right The lower the API number, the heavier you can anticipate the oil So if you look at the two green lines that I just introduced into this, our Great Lakes do not have a high salinity Which makes them more prone to a sinking oil, as opposed to sea water So anything on the vertical line, the crooked density versus salinity line Above the red line it will not float, below the red line it will float So you can see that in the Great Lakes, we have a greater propensity for density or for oil in freshwater, that it could sink rather than in seawater, which is a denser form of water And then this table here brings up the idea of oil-to-water density, is fairly clear I mean, if it’s less than one, the majority of oil will float, that’s on the left-hand side of the table If it’s greater than one, then the majority of the oil will not float However as currents are applied, and oil is suspended in the water column the oil may sink to the bottom and then if sediment interaction occurs, then even with the oils with a specific gravity of less than one, if that interaction is high, the oil will sink If it’s low, it might form tar balls, and that carries through The idea is is that there are several reasons why oil may sink And so looking at all of this and understanding that these conditions could occur, United States Coast Guard, who classifies OSROs, actually in 2016 made a special classification for OSROs or Oil Spill Removal Organizations A company like mine, which are response organizations, that they be classified with capacities to deal with these sinking oils And there are numerous Oil Spill Response Organizations that do this, and by numerous I mean there’s probably 10 or 15 But they do have presence here in the Great Lakes, there is that capacity So in terms of the problem that’s being presented here, on the left we see a floating oil, and the oil is visible And the currents and winds will drive its direction, therefore we know where it is traveling, we know where to send response equipment We know how to address that oil mechanically

from a containment perspective But on the right-hand side, we have this condition where oil is no longer visible to us And so therefore the detection and the forecasting of where oil will be and how to react to it becomes exponentially more difficult This is a slide from Puerto Rico, of a heavy fuel oil spill And those dark ridges there, that is submerged oil that is contained within the surf zone And these are some photographs of that, this photograph is of that oil in that surf zone Now what was particular interesting about this was that at night the oil would sink, but during the day, as the sun heated the oil, then its viscosity would lower, and then it would float So it was a sinking and floating oil that was being affected by temperature And so, and the other thing that’s important about this is So the fundamental difficulties that I’m trying to imply here are that in terms of detection, trajectory forecasting and tracking of a heavy oil spill that sunk, there is no single reliable method for all situations And locating and tracking is critical to guiding tactical response efforts Containment is a specific complication in this strategy Oil on the bottom, it hopefully will deposit in areas where current slows down and there will be deposition areas But in order to create those containment devices, whereas an oil spill, an oil boom on the surface is a fairly straightforward situation, on the bottom it gets a little bit more difficult Recovery, the techniques are, they are complex, they are expensive and they require robust logistics I’ll get to that with some photographs here And then waste management techniques These types of operations from the bottom of water bodies are going to result in the gathering of large amounts of water and particularly of sediment And that all has to be factored into this, whereas an oil spill skimmer, hopefully I’m skimming just oil off the top of a water body When I’m dealing with trying to recover oil from the bottom, I’m dealing with a much more difficult cut to all of this So Non-floating oil spill response detection and mapping techniques include direct observations These are divers on the upper left-hand side Basically these are divers who are going down and they will delineate where the oil is By getting into it ROVs have been deployed with cameras and with sensors The device on the left is called a V-Sorb, that is basically sorbents that are dragged across the bottom And when you pull them up, if they have oil on them, there’s oil there So if you GPS that, where you dragged it, then you can start developing maps of where the oil is and where it may be going And then there are breakthroughs that are taking place with sonar devices That by acoustical principle can delineate what is on the bottom and maybe discriminate oil from water Now in terms of containment, I had mentioned that these things are somewhat ad hoc and they’re a bit difficult to render quickly, for a non-floating oil spill On the left, those are sorbent compounds that are deployed on a fence And that will be lowered in place near a submerged oil spill, in order to capture any oil that is released during a dredging operation On the right, that is a dredging operation, and that white line in the background, that is actually a boom with a net that extends to the bottom, with sorbents deployed on it The left picture is from a river near Philadelphia, the Delaware River And on the right, that is in Chicago in the Sanitary and Ship Canal Now in 2018 the United States Coast Guard Research and Development Center conducted demos for a deployable boom, or barrier, that can be positioned on the bottom and will prevent the oil from spreading from where it has deposited on the bottom So those tests were carried out in 2018, and it’s my understanding that the report on them will be available this winter, for public review

And this is a picture, I’ve forensically tied this back This is an incident that occurred probably in the 1980’s On the St. Clair River, and they deployed large sandbags to create a deposition area in the river after a heavy oil spill from a dock Now in terms of recovery We have available techniques such as diver-assisted pumping, mechanical dredging, and tow-able sorbents While they are used for detection they can also, they’re actually recovering oil at the same time And then waste management We have on the top, that is roll-off boxes deployed on a barge And we’re putting contaminated spoils into those boxes Below, from that diver-assisted pumping technique, we are pumping into an oil-water storage separation, filtration and decanting system So I’m gonna proceed quickly here, because I understand I’m running out of time, and I apologize for that But this is that operation in Chicago, where a submerged oil mass was identified and recovered using a mechanical dredging device And that is a computer-generated GPS positioning of each cut that is taken by that mechanical dredge, resulting in a picture of what was recovered And in this case, it is a case where this is a three million gallon oil spill And it doesn’t look like one, does it? That is because the oil had a specific gravity above one, and so it immediately sank So this was a slurry oil in the Gulf of Mexico that was, the barge struck a submerged object after a hurricane and it resulted in this large spill And the majority of the oil sank And so what was selected for that particular recovery was the diver-assisted pumping So basically a mechanism was devised where a diver could deploy a nozzle into the submerged oil mass, and a pump would deliver that material top-side And that’s the barge that was set up in order to conduct that operation And this is the diver that was up close and personal with the oil And this video here, I hope you can see it, this is the top view, this is the divers view through a video camera But I want to show you how effective this technique was That is the slurry oil, and that is the diver’s hand, and that is deploying that technique there And this is what I would call the perfect example of this technique This oil separated from the bottom, the sand didn’t even come up, it looks like mercury And so about 200 000 gallons of this spill was recovered in this manner Now we are recovering a lot of water in this process as well, but this shows this ability to recover this oil The depth is about 100 foot of depth, it’s a significant depth for a diver to work in The safety factors are very high In that regard, my company considered the idea of using a manned submersible device instead of using divers from the safety perspective and from the efficiency perspective So we developed a concept of using a mini submarine to control that nozzle We then developed a prototype, we then tested that unit in 2007 in the Rouge River in Detroit, that’s the owner of Marine Pollution Control in the front, David Usher In the submarine, to go down and prove the prototype would work And we were successful in doing that, in that particular case And then we kind of carried that idea forward, to a more robust device that included detection techniques, and included the recovery device We developed that prototype further, and then we worked with the OHMSETT, well the U.S. Coast Guard R and D, to take that technology And we brought it to the national test facility in Leonardo, New Jersey This is them loading a test tray with a 140,000 centistoke oil And then these trays were lowered to the bottom of the test tank, and our device was used in order to recover that oil And this video will show that recovery process

So I particularly like the image on the right there, it shows the effectiveness, that is a heated nozzle That is 140,000 centistoke oil The depth is not significant, but the idea is is that the technique works in order to recover this submerged oil So I’ll just, let’s just take a little bit more of a look at that there, you can see the oil mass, while it’s very heavy is moving towards the collection device And then we will see the nozzle again in a better view there There we go So that is that particularly heavy oil at the bottom of a water body being recovered through this methodology, this suction methodology Envisioned as being deployed by a one or two-person submarine Commercial-grade submarine So just to finish up, and I’m sorry for running a little bit late I was asked to kinda look at this topic from the perspective of capability And being an English major I started with the definition of capability And these two words struck me very importantly Was first of all ability Which I think we see we have here, but then there’s what really I liked about this definition was potentiality So how do we build capability? Well the best opportunity for growth of our skill set here occurs at the interface between the responsible parties, these are the folks that are shipping oil Companies like mine, which are Oil Spill Recovery Organizations, and the regulatory agencies that mandate that all of this takes place And we do this through drills and exercises, as Steve Keck pointed out to you Area contingency plan meetings and committees, and research and development initiatives So this is a linear view of what I’m trying to imply capability means to us here Starts with design and engineering, design systems that can deal with heavy oil Move through proof testing and validation and then provide training And do drills and exercises to make sure that we’re ready to respond, and then we get a response event But I really don’t see this process being in this business for 28 years as being a linear process It’s more like this It’s a growth process, so it starts with design and engineering, but it never really ends And we’re always building capability by continuously moving through this cycle So thank you so much for you time, I hope that this has been valuable to this discussion And my email is at the bottom, and I welcome anyone to please email me with specific wants or needs You want this document, you want more explanation of this particular thing If we have time for the questions now, then I’ll do what I can to answer them, but I wanna welcome folks to talk to me later on about that as well – [Mark] Well thank you Bill, this is Mark again That was really great and very informative I think we might have time for maybe one question? And Geneva, do you wanna? – [Geneva] Sure thing, I can take it from here – Okay, perfect – Hello everyone, this is Geneva Langeland, I’m the Communications Editor at Michigan Sea Grant in our Ann Arbor office The question is, “What group of oils “are mostly moved through the Enbridge Line 5 pipeline “right now?” – [Bill] Actually, this is a question that this presentation is not involved in Those questions should be directed to Enbridge Because I don’t know exactly what they are And my presentation is about heavy oil here So if you wanna email me or contact me, I can direct you to the folks that can specifically address that question – [Geneva] All right So it looks like we don’t have any other pending questions in the Q and A box So unless I see something within the next couple of seconds, I think we can call that good on this webinar today We’d like to thank everybody for joining us Thank you Bill for sharing your work with us For those of you who might want to revisit this presentation, or send it to someone who wasn’t able to join it we will have the video with captions available on the Great Lakes Sea Grant Crude Oil website within a few days, and I’ll also send this email out to send the link in an email out

to the lists of registrants So I think with that if you have any follow ups, feel free to contact Bill at [email protected] And we thank you all for your attention this afternoon