Principles of mobile app design: Delight users and drive conversions – Google I/O 2016

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Principles of mobile app design: Delight users and drive conversions – Google I/O 2016

JENNIFER GOVE: Hello everyone How are you all? AUDIENCE: Good JENNIFER GOVE: Great Such a wonderful crowd Thank you so much for all coming to my talk today So my name is Jenny Gove and I’m a User Experience Researcher here at Google I’ve been at Google, now, this month, for 10 years, and I heard that that coincides– [CLAPPING] Thank you I heard that that coincides with the number of years we’ve been having I/O conferences So, double anniversary, that’s really fun So, this afternoon, we’re going to be talking about developing great apps and creating principles of mobile app design that I want to share with you, so that you can create great experiences for your users And why is this important? Well, it’s important because there are– sorry– there are over 1.5 million apps in each of the app stores, as we know So there’s a lot of competition out there, and you don’t want your app to suffer from usability flaws I think usability flaws and user experience issues can contribute to the lack of engagement that some apps have So, for example, we’ve learned that things like 25% of apps sometimes don’t get used more than once, and 34% of apps aren’t opened more than 11 times So there’s these statistics that are around, with regard to app engagement and re-engagement We’re doing a lot of work on that issue, itself, at Google, with certain products that we’re bringing out But I think it’s also on us to really work on our user experience and our usability issues in our apps So I’m going to tell you about three things in the rest of my talk I’m going to tell you a story about an experience I had with an app recently I’m going to tell you about a study that we ran to understand what makes a really great app experience And I’m going to go through some of the principles that we have published online, so that you can understand some key things that you can do to make your app experience better And within those principles, I’ve got a number of resources for you as well that can help you along the way So my story While I was on vacation with my family– here we are, we’re having a wonderful time in Florida That’s me and my partner and my kids And, before we went on vacation, I set up a series of hotels for us to stay at It was a self-driving tour and I pre-booked these– I did that on my laptop When I got to Florida, I found that a lot of hotels had started making great use of new technologies– apps specifically– in order to give me some really seamless experiences on my trip They do things now like enabling me to check in, before I get there– so just like I can for an airplane– and enabling me to go straight up to my room in order to open the door, just with the app That’s pretty cool, I was pretty blown away by these new things that they were able to do But, what happened when I was on vacation was, the notification to check in came while I was standing in line at something like this, the roller coaster at the theme park It asked me, did I want to check in? And it also asked me, did I want to choose my own room, or did I want to let them choose for me? Well, back when I booked, I remember there was a text field, and it had asked me if I’d got any requests, and I put in that I wanted to have a sea view, because I knew at the next hotel there was this beautiful, pristine beach I’d ordered a room with a balcony and I really wanted this wonderful experience, looking out over the sea But I didn’t know whether that experience on the laptop would translate into this app experience that I was now faced with I was a bit concerned about that And I thought that I might have a better opportunity of choosing my own room, rather than letting them choose for me Kind of always better to take it into your own hands, right? So, I decided to choose my own room, and the experience that they gave me was pretty good on a mobile device It actually worked I know this looks like it would be quite challenging in terms of real estate, but it worked quite well They clearly laid out the different rooms and they clearly labeled whether the rooms were taken or open There was only one problem, though, and that was I had no idea which way the hotel was facing, in front of the sea So, I was in line, and trying to figure out how I could solve this Now there were some workarounds that I didn’t actually think of at the time Things like going to look on Google Maps, maybe I could figure out, or looking on Google Images In this case, the hotel is rather symmetrical, so, it would be quite tricky

I decided to use a kind of rule of thumb– or heuristic– and I decided to think that, the side with the most taken rooms was probably the side that was facing the sea So, I decided to choose room 730, over here So we got to the hotel, took up all our bags, you know what’s going to happen, don’t you? I got a view that looked a little bit like this [LAUGHTER] Big disappointment So what did I have to do then? Well I had to then go all the way down, again, to reception– which I thought I’d bypassed, by using the app– and talked to the receptionist They were extremely helpful, lovely hotel, fixed it for me, and in the end, we went back up, a different floor, went in the hotel, and I got a view that was much more like this Beautiful, huh? This is actually Florida It looks like the Bahamas or something It was really, really nice So the in-person guest service was required– human intervention was required– because the app hadn’t really delivered the service I’d hoped it would It had done so well, I was really taken with this new technology I could use, but it fell short, because it hadn’t delivered this critical piece of information for me, which was, I just needed some information on the map In this case, I just needed a view of the ocean, perhaps a few waves I just needed some orientation So for me, it was pretty critical that my view was of this beautiful beach, rather than this carpark And it could have been even more critical than my very dear to me vacation It could have been an event manager booking for a client, perhaps it could have been people booking for guests for a wedding or something One lesson is clear, and that’s how we, as developers and designers, really need to understand the whole flow that our users are going through, and where that breaks down This had been really cool, new technology, but I’d had to sort of backtrack through the whole thing and do those things that the app was supposedly saving me from doing So really understanding that experience from beginning to end And, I think on mobile, it’s really those little things that we don’t realize we need to cover, and so that’s why we really need to understand the user’s perspective and the user’s experience with that So, my talk is going to be about things like that and how we can fix them Let me give you a little history A couple of years ago, we found that a lot of experiences on the mobile web were particularly problematic for people And so, we conducted a large study and tried to understand where things weren’t being implemented right for the mobile web, and where we could do better, and we released a set of 25 principles for the mobile web Those have done really well People have used them as a kind of initial step in making a good foray into providing a better user experience on the mobile web But as well as those have done, we’ve had people come back to us and said, this is great for the mobile web, but my app What about my app? Can you tell me about my app? So I’ve had lots of calls to do another study, and a study on apps, so that’s what we’ve done More recently, we’ve looked at native apps in a study And so the principles I’m going to present to you today are the result of that work So in this study, we’ve been able to understand patents that lead to poor user experiences, and then, luckily and happily, we were able to see where some companies have implemented things in a better way, and understand why those patents work better, and bring those to you as well And it’s important to us for us to really understand this well, so that we can be confident in the principles that we’re telling you about, and you can be confident in implementing them in your own products So in order to do this study, we partnered with a company called AnswerLab They’re a user experience consultancy based in San Francisco And we partnered with them because they could help us scale, because we wanted the study to be pretty large scale We studied interaction on 100 different apps on mobile So these ranged from large retailers, through to smaller service providers We looked at news apps, we looked at many different sorts of services, like grocery services, travel services, retail, small and big companies We didn’t look at games as part of this, and that was on purpose, because we felt that would weaken, or dilute, the principles We think games probably have a whole different set of principles, so aside from that, we looked across a wide range of verticals

And we conducted these studies in San Francisco, in Chicago, and New York City Now, there were 103 participants that took part in this study So, for a usability study, that’s really big They came into the lab, individually, each for 90 minutes So that makes 155 hours of usability studies So, if you stayed up all night and all day, that would be almost a week, with no breaks, or, in reality, it’s more like almost four weeks of working weeks So, a large study, indeed, and that’s so that we could cover these different verticals And what did we do in this study? Well, people came into the study, and during the 90 minutes, they were able to use around six apps for really getting into some good tasks for each of those They brought in their own phones with them, and that was because we wanted them to be really familiar with the phone And we didn’t want any problems because it was a different device, or they weren’t used to the back button, or anything like that So we had about 50% on Android, and 50% on iOS And then, what did we do when they were in the study? So, we had different tasks and different scenarios set up for them We did our best to make that task kind of mean something to them, as well, so that they couldn’t do, what we call, satisficing, which is just kind of doing the task as soon as they can, and in as quick a way as they can We wanted them to care about the task So we often talked to them about things that they cared about In this example, we might talk to them about their favorite food and understand what it is from them, first, before then going to ask them to see if they could order it for dinner that evening And we had them speak out loud using, what’s called in usability terminology, think-aloud protocol, and we did that so that we could understand the pain points that they hit as they were going through the different tasks that they were doing, and we could understand where things flowed really smoothly for them So having done that, we took the data– there was a lot of data, as you can imagine, from that much usability material– and we’ve collated it down to 25 principles, so that this is something that you can take, and understand, and apply it to your own apps We’ve categorized the principles into six chapters, but before I go into them, I want to explain how we actually got to these 25 So, in order to make it into the 25 principles, we had to see that this was a problem across a wide range of verticals, and we had to see that it was a fairly common problem We did encounter more things than 25 things that were problematic in apps, but we wanted to make sure that we were hitting the biggest problems, and that we also saw better ways that these could be implemented OK So, the different chapters that we have are around app navigation and exploration, in app search, commerce and conversions, registration, form entry, and usability and comprehension Now, we’ve got 25 of these different principles, but here, in this talk, I’m just going to go into two principles from each of the chapters, and the rest of the principles are available to you online I’ve also pulled together some resources for you that can help with implementation of some of the things you see here That might be a good time to take a picture of the screen, as it’s a resource that you can look into in your own time, in more detail OK, so let’s starts off with app navigation and exploration So this chapter is really about guiding users to the content that they’re looking for, quickly So we brought together a set of key principles to help you create effective and delightful app navigation So let’s take a look at two of these now So, a feature that can be really of great help to users is auto detection of location, but don’t assume that the location-based task is necessarily based in their current location, without exception I think we saw this too often So it’s a really great thing to be able to implement and help create a seamless experience for users when they want something that’s located where they are, but basically, we saw it over-applied without a way of enabling people to change that location So in this example, somebody is looking for a hotel tonight, and they’re looking for a hotel near where they are And, unfortunately, while they can change location, the only way to do it is probably go through settings

We saw this problem in, not only travel apps, but we saw it also in retail apps We saw use cases of people wanting to find something in a store, but that perhaps was located near where their parents live, and they wanted to figure out if it was in the store near them, so that they could tell their parents about that So just only providing this, basically we we’re seeing too many use cases that were outside of the scenario In travel, we saw it where people would turn up for their transportation, and the hotel that they wanted to book was at the other end– the other end of the train line, and they had time now to book the hotel, but they’re not in the place where they’re needing the hotel at the time A much better scenario is to still enable people to use their current location, but to provide the resource for them to change that well So basically, great, great technology here, that I definitely encourage you to use, but it’s kind of over-applied, without using some of the screen real estate to enable them to change location If you do want to use that auto detecting location, then Google Places API enables you to discover that currently supported location, and we’ve got a short link for you there to get to that material So, another aspect of app navigation and exploration that we saw a fair bit with apps is, moving people from the app to the mobile web And you can see in the way I’ve written this principle that there are issues with doing this It says, where app-to-web transitions are needed, so where they are needed, make them frictionless So I think the idea here is, are they really needed in each case for doing it? We’re trying, here at Google, to make technologies to make this a lot smoother, this transition where you need to do it, but at the moment, we still see at least some sort of performance hit So, really consider whether you have to push people out to the mobile web when they’re in their app experience right now, and then make them frictionless So, in this example, we’ve got somebody who’s checking in for a flight This can be a quite usual situation where people are moved out to the mobile web But what we often saw, are not just in travel apps, in other scenarios, as well, we saw the experience change fundamentally So we saw something like this OK? And it can sometimes happen, I think, because of the organizational structure of teams You know, this is the app team, and this is the mobile web team, and they haven’t been talking enough, right? So I think some companies are doing a better job of bringing these teams together to enable them to plan the user experience, the look and feel, and how content is laid out And then, separating out for the actual implementation on different platforms So, a much better experience is when companies have been really thoughtful about this and you can make that look and feel very seamless, even though you’re just moving right out to the mobile web On Android, we’re doing some work on this, and we’ve got some technology called Chrome Custom Tabs that you should look into It’s really helpful for enabling you to do things like changing the toolbar color, and exit and enter animations, to make that whole process of moving from that app to the mobile web more seamless Moving on to the second chapter, here So, the importance of great in app search really can’t be underestimated So, let’s talk about a couple of crucial search implementations So, prominently displaying the search field We found this back when we did the mobile web study, about the importance of search So, on the poorer example, we have search in a place where people expect to look for it, but it’s not how they expect to find it, as a piece of text, here What we saw in the study was people kind of did have some frustration looking around for search Sometimes it was hidden under a menu, and it sounds like one of the most obvious things, but I think what my summary of what I saw in the study, was that developers and designers aren’t implementing a persistent search field enough We advise that a persistent search field should be included when searches are really quite a significant part of your experience in your app, but I think what’s happening is plenty of people are thinking that search is important, but not that important to devote the screen real estate to So, check that out in your app Should you be giving it more prominence than you currently are? So we have advice on this, in Material Design And we have persistent search, putting in a search field,

and we also have expandable search, where we have the looking glass icon that can be expanded for search, of course Think about the prominence of search in your app, and how much it really matters to people when you’re making that decision about which type of search you should implement And then, for implementation details, we have the search dialog and the search widget, and this link will take you to more information about that And what about filter and sort options? Hugely important Again, we often saw that they were hidden, or sort of buried, or further down, and people couldn’t get to them as much as they needed That’s what our study, that we just did recently, showed We did see great implementations of it, but still, there’s more work to be done Things like getting down to 242 results for a shirt, with no way to filter or sort them further So, a better implementation is to have a really nice, clear button Filter People can see that quite clearly and easily And then, this example, for apparel, you have this panel sliding out with all the right sorts of search options for them So you could sort by best match, latest collection, that kind of thing One thing I saw with filters like this was, some companies were taking, for example, the sizing away, when the inventory wasn’t available, and that caused a problem for the people, because they didn’t know if they would ever have their size in stock So imagine extra small being taken away, just because it wasn’t in stock, people didn’t know if it’d come back Better experience for that is something like enabling them to, perhaps sign up to find out when it is back in stock stock, but certainly showing it, and showing it in a stable state is good So here you have colors, and price, and one other thing I like about this design is it’s very clear when you’re clearing the filters, or applying the filters, and then a separate check at the top in order to close the panel, so that there’s not confusion about what closing the panel does So, keeping on this topic of search, we have other methods that will help people with their search One of those is Adding Custom Suggestions That can be created from data in your application, so that can really help people with their search And another one is Recent Query Suggestions So all these technologies and facilities can go to make that search experience better So thinking through that search experience in more depth is a good topic Commerce and conversions So users expect a really smooth in app experience for finding, learning about, and purchasing products So let’s look at a couple of things that the study revealed about commerce and conversions, and helping to drive that conversion experience So, enabling comparison shopping features So in this example, on the left here, we’re in a real estate app, here, and people are just– they’re only able to scroll down and look at the different homes Anything they like, they have to commit to memory, and people, us, you and me, we’re all cognitive misers, we don’t like to use our brains that much, really And we’re making the user use their brain a lot here, remembering where they saw things and so forth But we can do better, and some of those things that we saw that were implemented to help people in this way we’re letting people kind of bookmark items that they saw, so that they can compare them It’s still pretty difficult on mobile to do this, but still, anything we can do helps So the example I’m going to show you here had enabled people to compare And then, you can see it’s quite constrained, with the size of the phone, but still, you’re bringing that information together It means they could ignore all the other homes that they didn’t care about, and they can compare the bedrooms, they can compare the bathrooms, the cost of the home, and so forth We know this is needed, because, in the study, we saw people do workarounds for this So, in retail, we saw people add items to their cart, just so that they could look at them all in the same place And that was the users that thought about doing that, other people struggled So we know this is needed So think about the comparisons and the browsing experience that people are needing within your app And then, making it easy to add and manage payment methods I actually came across a poor example of this the other day, and it was when I went to purchase– I was going on vacation, again I like to go on vacation– and I was making a reservation for a rental home And I got to the point where I needed to update my card,

so my model in my head was, well, a new card had arrived, and it’s simply the same card as before, it just had a new date on it In my mind, my mental model of my cards, that’s the same card, just needs replacing, it’s not a new payment method So I expected to be able to edit my existing card, but there was no facility to do that So I kind of had to understand the developer’s model that I needed to add a new payment method In this example, the person has got to the point where they’re supposed to be checking out, but there’s no way to edit a card, or add a new card That’s somewhere else, in some other settings But most of us don’t think, well, I’m going to wake up in the morning and think, I need to manage my payment methods in that app Kind of is a separate activity, right? We tend to think about it when we need to do it, when we come to pay So, this is a problem here So, in this example, it’s much better There’s an option to edit existing cards, to add a new payment method And provide multiple payment methods here, and lead people to a very clean form design, here, when the user has chosen to add a new credit card, and they can even scan their card if they wish to So making that experience nice and clean Now, one facility that we offer at Google is Android Pay, so making that a choice of one of the ways to pay The idea, here, is it’s really simple for the user and seamless for the user to pay through Android Pay, and I think there’s a talk about it here at I/O, and there’s more information that you can get at this link So registration Registration is really popular with companies and developers, because it’s seen to be that that is where we can get engagement from the user, and that’s kind of where the user commits to us We’ve known for a long time that providing these registration barriers up front can be a big hurdle for people to get to, and it’s better to offer them something first, so that they can start to feel engagement from their side, to the company There’s a couple of other things I want to talk about today with regard to registration So we saw users struggle with signing in and signing up It’s a tricky thing, right? We often saw users starting to fill out a form, if they were provided one, and realizing they were signing in when they were supposed to be signing up, and vice versa It’s probably happened to all of us So we found better experience when people were just given the option to sign in, or register The words were very different, they could differentiate them, and then we could channel them down the right kind of route, so that they didn’t get into that muddle We have lots of solutions for registration and identity at Google We have a whole identity platform that I’d encourage you to look at It’s basically an auth system, and it has several components and different choices for you to make So one of these is Sign-in for Android It enables the user to sign in with the same credentials that they use on Google The whole intent is to make that process more seamless and simple for them And talking of that, there’s other ways to make password authentication a frictionless experience We’ve all been in this situation, where it just doesn’t work for us, and it’s quite painful on mobile to keep putting your password in and it’s not working It can be even worse in apps, because we often found that this was a place where people were sent back out to the mobile web, right? So then, you’re in that loop again, and that’s even more aggravating So we’ve talked about one solution for easing enabling people to sign in Another one that we saw that’s becoming much more popular is fingerprint sign in, and, in our study, people were pretty happy about this They liked the idea very much of doing this, so I think this is a good thing to look into And we have some more implementation details for you, here, by using fingerprint scans on supported devices And Smartlock is another part of our identity system It enables you to automatically sign users in to the app, using credentials that they’ve saved So that’s another really good one, part of this federated identity provision And, if you haven’t got that far with users, there’s also a Sign-in Hints, and this allows us to use the credentials API

It enables you to give hints to the user for signing in, for their username and email address Everything is done to kind of ease that sign-in hurdle So form entry We’ve been talking in design about form entry for years and years We did lots of work on form entry for desktops, and when we went to the mobile web, we kind of had to relearn all about again and again You’ll remember when those forms used to be really, really tiny, and you have to expand them to fill out the form It’s always been a little bit better with apps, because we’ve been designing forms from the get-go for the mobile devices But, I’m pleased to say, I think we’ve come a long way, but there are still things we saw in our study that could be improved So I’ve categorized this under building user friendly forms, and some of the things I saw was still some apps requiring users to do a lot of work on their part Putting that cursor in several different fields for their phone numbers, and things like this, takes a lot of effort on the part of the user And also, not paying out to see what form fields were coming up was a problem for users It was hard for them to sort of build their mental model of what they would have to fill in next It caused them frustration and was definitely a friction point So, better engagement, here, is doing more work on the back end So, whether the user wants to write in their phone number with dashes in between the numbers, with spaces in between the numbers, or it’s just one long field, we need to cater for that and make it– it’s a little bit more work for us on the development side, but it makes it a whole lot easier for the user to understand what they’re doing, and not get an error returned So also, where there are errors, providing those inline is really helpful And here we have an app that does a really good job of moving the form up the field as the user fills it in, and we found that was very advantageous to users So, we have a lot of information on creating great text fields through Material Design Talks a lot about the different aspects of creating a good form And, specifically for places, we can use Places Autocomplete as part of the Places API, again, and this can really help for filling in those form fields that require location Another aspect of form design is matching the keyboard with the required text inputs This is a fairly well-known thing to do, but we still saw significant apps not doing this well So when the users put their cursor in the credit card field, and if you’ve got this in your app, you should check it out, is it doing the right thing, right? In this example, here, it’s not doing the right thing The user is left with this keyboard, and they don’t have any way of getting the right keyboard up Not usually, they hit the number key over here and then they’ll get the keyboard with the numbers along the top, as opposed to designing that appropriately, and once the cursor is in there, bringing up the numeric keyboard for them So little things like this, all these little things on forms really add up, and just checking out your form design in this way is really helpful for people So we’ve got information on Specifying Input Method Type, and the correct keyboard, that you can find at this link Then lastly, let’s look at usability and comprehension These are those small things that you can do, that we saw in our studies, throughout the app, to make a more seamless experience for users It can be critical for ensuring a good user experience and not having users get stuck, or abandon their experience, at any point This one’s about providing text labels and visual keys to clarify visual information So, we saw this earlier In my story, I was specifically missing a visual key I just needed those waves in the picture to help me understand the orientation of the hotel Take a look at this example, here Just take a couple of moments and decide for yourself what you think those icons represent Some of them, perhaps more obvious than others Should we have a look at the answers? Here we go, so, it’s my trips, book, club, and account

Did anyone get them right? I think probably account wasn’t too bad, but, the lesson here, that we saw, is again, I think it’s over-generalizing The rule that we would give is when icons are vague, then they definitely need text labels The trouble is in saying when icons are vague is, we all have different levels of understanding, with regard that You have to, I think, assume that a lot of your icons are going to be vague I can give you an example So, you know the icon for filter, that looks kind of like this? You’d think that would be fairly universal It’s drawn in quite different ways, across many different apps, and we certainly didn’t find it universally understood among people So, I think we have to change our kind of level set with regard to the number of icons in our apps that need to have labels, if people are going to understand it And this is a very great place where you can do simple AB testing, and see the difference between providing labels and not providing labels Here, we’ve got some implementation details for when you want to use text and icons for buttons So if you have that, there And then, talking of labeling things, that always makes me aware of making my application accessible We have lots of guidelines here for you to make sure your application is accessible And the last principle I’m going to go into today is asking for permissions in context So, this is something that we enabled with Android M, but we still see that significant number of apps aren’t making advantage of it It’s been able to be possible and iOS for a while now, as well So in this example, the user has just downloaded and open the app, and they’re immediately asked, can their location be used? So, perhaps this app was suggested to them by somebody else They said, oh, this is a really good app if you want to learn about home decor, and it’s got some really cool things in you can buy But it’s kind of similar to how we would think of problematic registration, right? When you ask for that up front and it’s a hurdle to get over This is the same thing for users It’s like the developers saying, provide me with your location before I give you anything else, right? And users are often going to say no, because they don’t really understand why and they just wanted to look around your app So, a better way to do that– and you can do that now, because of Android M– is being able to do that in context at run time In this example, we have people searching for stores So much better because the user has their own motivation, right? They want to be able to find that store, and then what happens next is even more clear for them There’s a map that comes up behind and it asks, can we use you location? Well, of course you can Right? You’re much more likely to get acceptance if you ask in context We have lots of resources for you for this We have great little videos and implementation details about being able to request permissions in runtime And it’s simply in these principles, because, although I know many of you know about it, we saw it a lot in the apps that we studied recently, so, that’s why it’s here So that brings me to the end of the principles I’m going to go through with you We’ve gone through each of those chapters, and you can find more of these principles online They’re all online at think with Google And I made a short link for you here, specifically to the principles Better Mobile User Experience There’s actually multiple sets of principles Let me tell you what there is There’s mobile app principles, new set of 25 mobile principles, there’s a new set of 25 principles for retail– that is both web and app, again, we did a study, and so we collated the information provided that, there– and then there’s the mobile web principles that we’ve published previously, that you might have already seen All at this link, same link And if you want more implementation details on the mobile website, the principles are also part of our web fundamentals site, and that particular link I provided with you there, provides additional developer implementation details Before I go, I want to tell you about one more story from the study So, in the study, a number of apps

that implemented the ability to scan your credit card, in order to pay Now, we had a few people in the study that had used that before, and come across it, and liked it, but because this is relatively new technology, we had some people that encountered it for the first time Now if you think about the word scan, my most familiar experience, I think, with the word scan, is when I go to the grocery store and scan my credit card, right? And I’m putting my credit card right next– well, putting it through another machine, really, that’s scanning Another place I know of the word scan is putting paper on a photocopier That’s kind of a longer ago, but still, that’s scanning, putting something on top of each other So the users come to this request to scan their credit card That’s their use of the word scan, and if you imagine them trying to translate that, often the first thing that’s asked is, can we use your camera? Well, is the camera anything to do with scanning my credit card? Well, maybe, I don’t really understand it, but, yeah, OK, you can use my camera And then, it asks you to hold the credit card here, it with scan automatically OK, following the instructions, no surprise then, we saw three people in the study do this And they waited, and they waited, and they were terribly disappointed, because they thought it had sounded so simple way to pay And, this is just about as understanding what we’re asking people to do, and the language you’re using It’s plain and simple usability We’d all love this to work, unfortunately it doesn’t work yet But it makes sense, right, what they were doing, because of what they were being told to do So again, I return to that point I made earlier, which is understanding the user experience, end to end Understanding the flow and the pain points Really important Because I want you to have an experience where you make a really good app experience for your users Not one where the user is frustrated, and not the kind of frustration I felt like after I’d used my app, and gone up to my hotel room, and seen that carpark out of my window I want you to be able to make app experiences that make people feel like life is really frictionless, much more like a view of the beach And so, I want to end with giving you three takeaways And these are three steps that you can think about doing after this talk Taking a look at your app and auditing your app against the 25 principles Simply like, what are we doing in each of these experiences, and is it measuring up? That’s going to get you a long, long way, but your app is unique, too, right? So you have to really understand your key user journeys, and understand those breakdown points What I’d been provided for my hotel app was really exciting to me, but I had points that broke down from me such that it didn’t end up working that well in the end And then finally, thinking about doing your own user testing, and this guide from Google Ventures provides lots of resources for getting going for user research and user testing, in a really small scale way, so that you can see the good things that you provide in the app, and celebrate those, and also identify the pain points in your app, so you can think about how to fix them Thank you for your time [MUSIC PLAYING]