Patho 370 FINAL Review – Part 4 of 5

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Patho 370 FINAL Review – Part 4 of 5

very good skin lesions this is the only respiratory disease that we talked about at this class that is with skin lesions Mac heels and papules please do not forget that what else goes on with these patients is it just little ice of the lung and the skin no very good it affects multiple organs and please keep in mind that you go over the organs that it attacks what is the issue with sarcoidosis why it attacks multiple organs and it’s just kind of all over the place what is the issue as far as the pathogenesis here what happens with sarcoidosis with immune cells what’s the issue um it could be yes NFL account could be elevated but that’s that’s not the physiology behind it say that again it very good there’s an abnormal t-cell okay there’s an abnormal t-cell function which causes these individuals to increase macrophage roots please understand that if you know the immune system we know that macrophage is come and eat and attack equipment so if a person has macrophage is elevated in all different types of their organs understand that this is what we call or fall under the category of is an autoimmune response so these patients do have the autoimmune issue where their body just they don’t know what happens why the t-cells get you know off and now they have an increase in macrophage is attacking all these different types of organs okay so just keep in mind the physiology behind them now moving on say for example if I’m allergic to bird feathers what respiratory diseases that fall under very good hypersensitivity pneumonitis okay hypersensitivity pneumonitis keep in mind that the risk factors with that particular are Satori disease are I said bird feathers but any type of animal farm there’s a lot of things on the farm okay as far as that’s in the table 2 different allergens and if you look at your book because it some time table 22 dash 3 and it goes over all the different types of allergens the other thing with hypersensitivity pneumonitis this is common but predominantly in non-smokers this is the first time we see this everything else is smoking but this is non-smokers because this is more of an allergic reaction to something particular okay what can you tell me about Occupational lung diseases very good so this is foreign objects that are chemicals that are inhaled particles okay that can be inhaled into the respiratory tract okay very good and what else anything else you can tell me about Occupational lung diseases when it gets inhaled it damages something in the respiratory tract something in particular very good cilia it paralyzes the cilia there are I think one or two other respiratory diseases

that paralyzes Sylvia and I will tell you to make sure you look those up just in case you see a question which of the following paralyzed silly so just make sure you know which ones share that physiology what can cause a RBIs what can cause an acute respiratory distress in shock what else drama what else sepsis what else back in the line burns anything okay so and not to trick you but a lot of things can call shock okay excuse me a lot of things and cause the ARD s okay because either it can cause it directly or indirectly through shop okay so just please keep that in mind that there are a number of things that can call the ARVs there is also a table in your book okay that goes over all the different types and that’s table 23 dash one oh no that’s different Oh Oh box not table bombs I’m sorry fox23 dash one is there box fox23 dashboard not table the box is too it’s a green box and lastly what is the issue with irds with infants impressa Tory distress syndrome what does the pathogenesis here with infants why they have a respiratory distress syndrome something that happens at the AVO line level okay pressure that’s part of it but it’s something something in particular with the AVO like that they’re not secreting or they’re not producing that’s the issue the issue is they’re not producing something that’s causing the AVO light’s not be functional very good surfactant these babies are not producing the surfactant that they should okay therefore causing an issue with the alveoli and then the pressure and all that goes along with it okay hence the reason why the treatment is surfactant surfactant it’s a treatment okay if we talk about pneumothorax Oh I think this now trying to go over everything that I can go over but if you see that I’m missing something please make sure that you read all your powerpoints read even the sections in your book that go in that particular topic so you can get a full understanding ok so now week 6 we did chapter 36 well for you guys 36 31 and 33 okay the other two classes work ball okay so 436 GI disorders um I believe that this chapter is very very straightforward this chapter really some of the other chapters can kind of piggyback with each other so like

cardiovascular respiratory can you know kind of in to get intertwined obviously vascular disorders can get intertwined but when we talk about GI g is pretty much on its own the only thing that can get sort of intertwined here with GI is cellular adaptations ok those are present in some of the GI disorders and when we talk about necrosis the process can also be present we talked about the torsion of the intestines so one major thing I just want to kind of throw out some questions to you when we talk about gastritis chronic gastritis ocean chronic gastritis peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma what is the number one risk factor very good h pylori don’t forget that gastritis chronic gastritis gastric or peptic ulcer and also gastric carcinoma okay they say the number one risk factor is h pylori don’t forget that honestly as I got told I look at a lot of different nclex books to make questions and I saw that question in every in collects book that I took a look at okay so make sure you know that h pylori is the culprit for that what is the complication of GERD yes the reflux our asses but what’s the complication the other condition i should say with the esophagus Verica Barrett’s esophagus so various esophagus is a complication of GERD and if a person gets various esophagus what is the complication that could happen after that metaplasia which could lead to esophageal cancer okay so metaplasia which they’re concerned of that leading to esophageal cancer very good what is a hiatal hernia you don’t have to tell me the different types but what is it okay when the stomach pushes up through the hiatus and this comes from the diaphragm being weak okay now what could cause the diaphragm to be weak old age very good heavy lifting and abdominal pressure sometimes obesity of pregnancy okay so just keep that in mind those are some things and I believe that’s in your PowerPoint what’s the difference between also the colitis and Crohn’s disease did go obvious effects of almond and consistent expiration of them very good very good it’s the location please don’t forget that also no colitis and Crohn’s disease have two different locations okay so also the colitis affects you just a mucosal layer of the colon and rectum whereas Crohn’s disease affects is an inflammation of all four layers but it’s the terminal ileum and portion of the colon the proximal portion of the code so it’s right with the sequel the small intestines meets the large intestine let’s both have yes they both have bloody diarrhea all sort of colitis has more bloody diarrhea but chrome could have it but if you see bloody diarrhea let me just say this though if you see a bloody diarrhea think of all sort of colitis because usually in those books it’s usually more for all sort of colitis okay what can you tell me about appendicitis right now McBurney’s point yes right lower quadrant pain okay what else what are the types of symptoms when these patients have other than pain in that area fever very good very good nausea vomiting they will be very sick

very ill okay Tendo very much tinder in that spot and what happens there’s a test I’m office on here rebound tenderness did I put it oh yeah there’s a test I don’t think it’s not on the PowerPoint but there’s a test for rebound tenderness if you put your hand in and pull out they’re going to feel a lot of pain okay now say for example just to kind of get the juices going if you have a patient that has an appendicitis and that appendix verse so say it ruptures now keep in mind the appendix appendicitis they do believe that it could be caused from maybe fecal matter got stuff in the appendix okay and causing this sort of inflammation process now if it bursts what happens now to the abdominal cavity it will get infected very good these patients will have what is called a peritonitis okay so now all of that if stuff that came onto the appendix is now floating around the peritoneum and they have a pair tinnitus that peritonitis all of that infection ocean say infection well it isn’t infected peritoneum with maybe let’s just say bacteria or whatever if that goes untreated just to kind of let you know this could lead a patient into having a sepsis okay because now that can spread all through the body okay it begins to that point that usually doesn’t get to that point now we all know what a diverticulum is right okay now what is the issue with IBS irritable bowel syndrome what is the cause of it that they say is the main cause stress anxiety okay so I BS dressings I make sure you remember that now quite sure you know the difference between a mobile dissonances exception you guys know the difference between that okay now silly act disease or silly X Bruce what is the issue here very good so people are intolerant of gluten containing foods okay and the reason for that is because of what that lacking on the intestines what is it that they’re lacking in the intestine wall that doesn’t allow them to digest gluten lack of enzymes and in particular which type of enzymes brush border enzymes brush border enzymes does that sound familiar physiology brush brush border enzymes brush border enzymes just to remind you I don’t know if you went over this in physiology those are the enzymes that help break down cars okay in particular your disaccharides so this is the enzyme that is the issue here with patients that have gluten allergies make sure you go over the treatment for celiacs crew behind that yes they have to stay away from gluten foods which we know that but because of that they do have to supplement okay with a whole bunch of vitamins because they’re lacking a good amount of nutrition ok now the cancers are pretty easy i’m not going to go into that the last thing i’ll go over with you is dumping syndrome what is the issue here with dumping syndrome very good these patients have a malabsorption issue okay which means what so say for example you have a patient that went in had the Lap Band done okay so they had lap band and once they’re done having the lap band what would you do how would you manage even though you guys haven’t had any classes yet with protocol but just when you’re common knowledge what would you do in a

patient as far as telling them what to eat and how to eat that just had this type of surgery small meals small illness number one okay number one obviously patients that have the lat bank and only eat small meals but they definitely have to eat small meals because of this whole dumping syndrome now the dumping syndrome process if you don’t remember they’ll eat the food Lukose will spike okay very high but then what happens is that they call this dumping because they don’t have an absorption of the nutrients in the glucose as they should so that it just kind of goes right through the GI tract and then they have what is called the hypoglycemia so rebound hyperglycemia so the glucose levels drop really really low when the person has a very low glucose level and this is where I’m adding into glucose testing tube for this as well why I told you to highlight that when a person has very low glucose as you know when patients go into a hypoglycemic state what happens they get fatigued okay very good they get what else they shape they get jittery okay you guys should have hoping probably going over this a little bit of physiology I don’t know but these patients can really get very ill once they get into a hypoglycemic state ok so then what happens here again you would have to instruct them on eating small meals ok and the small meals are every one two three hours okay to make sure that they get the proper absorption number one and not to make sure the glucose levels are regulated okay so that’s the reason for the small meals at every hour or so okay so just make sure you go through that okay so that’s it with 36 36 i think was everyone comfortable that was your test today I looked at the braids what happened okay please make sure and this is one of the reasons why I’m giving you guys extra time for the final and also another reason why but I have them printed exams for you so you can write on and do whatever you need to do please make sure you take your time you make the question I honestly feel let you guys in olin material I the materials not hard I think it’s just being able to answer the question so take your time with the questions don’t rush don’t rush your try to get the answer i am giving you an extra 30 minutes to get through the final okay so you’ll have time to go through and take your time with whatever questions you need okay and when I say take your time with the questions go over the answers to sometimes people pick answers that if you see an answer that is what it’s called like the negation so say for example the answer has let’s say the person into question the answer says the person has low blood pressure high blood pressure well that’s awesome or run I can in a high and low time so we know that that should be xed out okay and then you go to your next answer the next answer okay so even if it’s one part of that answer that is correct if you see another part that’s wrong that’s not the answer okay so it’s just a matter of breaking it down okay so the last two chapters that we’re going to go over which we went over last week 31 and 33 so well and female reproductive disorders now this information should not have been that difficult I don’t think it’s hard let me just point out the topic that you should be focusing on because there were some things I cut out so I just want to make sure you have the right thing so with male reproductive disorders we the first thing we talked about those crypto kid ism now with cryptorchidism which we know is hidden testes what is the complication with this infertility along with cancer very good so infertility and testicular cancer those are the main complications with Kurt tokenism we went over hydrocele and we also went over sperm at OC hydro seal is format OC okay so those two things are easy to understand and know what they are but what diagnostic testing could be done to distinguish the difference between the two something I talked about in class

very good ultrasound okay so an ultrasound will be able to distinguish if that is actually fluid or if it’s firm we also talked about testicular torsion and we went over in detail the treatment for that we also went over epididymitis what is the causative agent for epididymitis very good so the STDs so the SUV bacteria weather is chlamydia or gonorrhea we talked about horn ears gangrene and we talked about testicular cancer and we talked about bph I think most of the stuff that straightforward make sure you know the treatment for bph it’s a possibility that could put the meds on here and the meds are actually quite easy to memorize it’s alpha blockers and 5-alpha reductase and if you know what an alpha blocker does you know what the outfit actually we’re blocking the Alpha receptors of the mechanism there we’re actually blocking the muscle okay contracted sort of reduced attention the other things we went over was prostatitis and with prostatitis make sure you go over also the roots of entry so remember prostatitis is mainly like a bacterial infection to the prostate gland but there’s different routes of how that bacteria could get there and then the last thing I think we went over was prostate cancer and that was it for males with prostate cancer the tests that is done for that as a PSA okay so remember the PSM along with the imaging ultrasound and things of that nature did anyone have any questions with that chapter well any other chapters guess that corresponds to test yes fortunately it gives options for the singer today I guess it’s oxy to me frequent our for school and slow okay will the state ends I have to look at I don’t know from what the answers were but I’ll pull it up I’ll pull it up just give me a sec let me just finish this and i’ll put it up okay now chapter 33 we went over female reproductive issues and so we started right in the beginning here and I think we stopped at endometriosis okay so amenorrhea so in the beginning there’s just terminology and I do need you to know the terminology and I think we had one or two questions on today’s tests with those two so make sure you know what it means with amenorrhea dysmenorrhea manraja materia medica or cancel all of the Ria’s and Rajas the other thing that we talked about we went over in detail uterine prolapse so obviously go over that and I will possibly have pictures of the three different types for the three different levels displacements of the uterus which we had today on the test so we had a picture of one of those displacements know the difference between a system seal and a rectocele PID and what is PID what is that usually associate it with STDs okay so they usually associate PID with STD so chlamydia and gonorrhea much like when I talked about prostatitis okay that is more associated with the I’m sorry not prostatitis

epididymitis thank you epididymitis not proselytize epididymitis is associated with the STD whereas prostatitis is more bacterial infection okay so PID for females and that’s also for gonorrhea and chlamydia and vulva vaginitis what is the issue here what is the cause most common cause well most most common calls but it is a that could be part of it thank you thank you yeast infection see on the candida albicans and they have some other things like gonorrhea herpes and other things could cause it to but that is the most common okay is Candida albicans we talked about Martha no license and then we also talked about fibroids okay what is the issue here with fibroids what is the cause what do they think what did they think causes fibroid production very good increase estrogen so they believed that increased estrogen is the cause of this and then we also talked about ovarian cysts then we also talked about endometriosis please make sure you know that endometriosis has to save an adaptation of metaplasia okay so it does have a sailor abdication a metaplasia that they believe that happens in the uterus then I think that’s where my stock any questions about the material I tried to give you a detail as I could let me say this please make sure that you review all of the powerpoints okay please make sure you review naughty not only the power points but even in class when you guys take notes make sure you review all the side notes that I give you for that subject make sure you review all the pictures obviously all the laboratory values how would tell you to study for this same way you’ve been studying so far please try to get creative and make it your own case studies that can incorporate or maybe one or two diseases because that’s what I’m going to do for questions use the questions from your book I don’t know if any of you are using them but go to the website and use those questions is practice if you need practice questions I think the only material I think you guys have all the practice material for the chapters maybe with the exception of reproductive if you need that I can go and get them for you do you have practice questions for 36 for GI some of you may have got it from