President Trump Delivers Remarks at an Operation Warp Speed Summit

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President Trump Delivers Remarks at an Operation Warp Speed Summit

The Vice President: You told the American people that we would have a vaccine before the end of the year, and some scoffed at that timetable Male Speaker: The vaccine by the end of this year, is that possible in your view? Male Speaker: Oh Brian, you know, it’s another day of ‘POTUS in Wonderland’ here It is preposterous Male Speaker: Could be January, could be later. We don’t know Dr. Fauci: There’s a whole process It’s going to take a year, a year and a half at least Female Speaker: They’re certainly not going to be ready to start poking people in the arms real soon Male Speaker: I still think 12-18 months is an aggressive schedule And I think it’s going to take longer than that to produce one Mr. Biden: There’s no prospect that there’s going to be a vaccine available for the majority of the American people before the middle of next year Male Speaker: It is impossible to get that done by the end of the year The President: Operation Warp Speed is unequaled and unrivaled anywhere in the world The single greatest mobilization in U.S. history, pioneering, developing, and manufacturing therapies and vaccines in record time Male Speaker: Operation Warp Speed is doing something that’s never been done before in history Female Speaker: The first Americans will get shots in arms in the second half of December Female Speaker: That’s incredible, Elizabeth The timeline has just been jaw-dropping Male Speaker: We were able to and empowered to make all the right calls and decisions Male Speaker: Well this is a rather remarkable moment, because it is true This is warp speed Warp speed is being run in a non-political way, in a way that we can be proud of Male Speaker: We believe we’re going to have people getting vaccinated — millions of people — before Christmas this year It’s just unheard of in the history of public health, this accomplishment Male Speaker: Ladies and gentleman, the President of the United States, Donald J. Trump ♪♪ (Presidential music) ♪♪ The President: Thank you very much Please (applause) Thank you very much Appreciate it very much I’m honored to welcome doctors, scientists, industry executives, and state and local leaders to our historic Operation Warp Speed Vaccine Summit It’s been some journey for all of us It’s been an incredible success We’re grateful to be joined by Vice President Mike Pence, who has done an absolutely incredible job on the Coronavirus Task Force Mike, thank you. Stand up, Mike (applause) Great job We’re here to discuss a monumental national achievement From the instant the coronavirus invaded our shores, we raced into action to develop a safe and effective vaccine at breakneck speed It would normally take five years, six years, seven years, or even more In order to achieve this goal, we harnessed the full power of government, the genius of American scientists, and the might of American industry to save millions and millions of lives all over the world We’re just days away from authorization from the FDA, and we’re pushing them hard, at which point we will immediately begin mass distribution Before Operation Warp Speed, the typical timeframe for development and approval, as you know, could be infinity And we were very, very happy that we were able to get things done at a level that nobody has ever seen before The gold standard vaccine has been done in less than nine months On behalf of the entire nation, I want to thank everyone here today who has been involved in this extraordinary American initiative I also want to recognize members of my administration who have worked tirelessly in this effort: Alex Azar Please, Alex. Where’s Alex? Thank you, Alex. Great job (applause) Moncef Slaoui Where are you, Moncef? Thank you very much Great job (applause) A man who’s now going to be very important, General Gus Perna I have no doubt about it, right? (applause) Logistics. Jared Kushner He’s worked so hard Where’s Jared? Jared, wherever you may be Thank you Thank you, Jared (applause) Dr. Deborah Birx. Deborah? Thank you very much, Deborah (applause) Admiral Brett Giroir Where is Brett? (applause) Great job you’ve been doing, Brett Surgeon General Jerome Adams (applause) Jerome, thank you very much Terrific. Dr. Robert Redfield (applause) Robert, thank you very much Appreciate it Administrator Seema Verma Seema? Thank you

(applause) Dr. Peter Marks. Peter? Where’s Peter? Thank you (applause) Paul Mango, Adam Boehler, and Brad Smith, thank you very much Great job (applause) Thank you all very much Incredible job And many others, also Many, many others We’re also grateful to be joined by Governors Greg Abbott Where’s Greg? (applause) Bill Lee. Bill? (applause) Thank you. Thank you Thank you, Bill Ron DeSantis. Ron? (applause) Thank you, Ron. Thank you Thank you very much Great job, Ron And John Bel Edwards John Bel. Thank you (applause) Thank you, John Bel Thank you very much As well as Senator John Barrasso, who is a fantastic doctor, also, by the way, I have to say (applause) When we — when I need info on that subject, I call up John Thank you, John, very much Senator Steve Daines Congratulations on a great win Great win (applause) That was easier than you thought, it turned out, right? It was a little easier than you thought Great going. We’re proud of you Congressman Greg Walden Greg, thank you very much (applause) Thank you very much And Congressman Brad Wenstrup Thank you, Brad (applause) Great job And many, many others My administration provided a total of $14 billion to accelerate vaccine development and to manufacture all of the top candidates in advance — long in advance As a result of this unprecedented investment, we are exceedingly proud that both Pfizer and Moderna have announced that their vaccines are approximately 95 percent effective, which is a number that nobody expected to be able to get to, far exceeding anything that, really, we — that anybody thought We went out and we said, “What do you think a maximum would be?” And I think doctors — we all came up to the conclusion that something like that would be really incredible And we have other candidates looking right now We have some big ones that we’re going to be announcing very soon We have some companies — great, great companies out there you all know about: Johnson & Johnson and — and others And they’re all coming in, and they’re coming in very quickly We expect to have some news on that very shortly And we have worked very well with the companies, but if for any reason we have any problems, we will be instituting the Defense Production Act, and we will make sure that we don’t have any problems for very long We’ve instituted it before Two additional companies, AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson — as you know, the Johnson & Johnson is a one-dose, one-shot vaccine, so we’re going to see how that works That would be very helpful if that all came out, and I think it probably will Also, they’re showing tremendous — tremendous promise, all of them Tremendous promise We’re very hopeful that the FDA will authorize the Pfizer vaccine within days We got to get it moving And Moderna vaccine almost immediately thereafter Large numbers of tests and samples have been done, so hopefully that’ll go very quickly If authorized, tens of millions of vaccine doses will be available this month And we’ll get it distributed very quickly We have that all set And hundreds of millions more will quickly follow Every American who wants the vaccine will be able to get the vaccine And we think by spring we’re going to be in a position that nobody would have believed possible just a few months ago (applause) Yeah. Amazing. Really amazing They say it’s — they say it’s somewhat of a miracle, and I think that’s true The plan we put forward prioritizes the elderly and patients with underlying conditions, as well as healthcare workers and first responders The ultimate decision rests with the governors of the various states — and I hope the governors make wise decisions — who will decide where the vaccines will go in their state and who will get them first We urge the governors to put America’s seniors first, and also, I think those who work with seniors, which obviously you’re going to have to do that I think they have to go together And doctors, nurses, first responders, et cetera This will quickly and dramatically reduce deaths and hospitalizations And within a short period of time, I think we want to get back to normal A very standard phrase We want to just get back to normal, get back to where we were a little more than nine months ago We were doing incredibly And in many respects, we’re still doing incredibly with our stock markets and everything else, which are hitting all new highs We’ve already finalized a partnership with Walgreens and CVS, whose executives join us today Thank you very much for being here Thank you very much We appreciate it very much (applause) And they will deliver vaccines directly to nursing homes

as soon as the states request that they do so Later today, General Gus Perna will outline the detailed plan to rapidly distribute the vaccine to every state, territory, and tribe States have designated over 50,000 sites that will receive the vaccine We’ve worked very closely with the states Actually, we’ve had very good relationships with the governors — I almost think all of the governors — at least in those conference calls that are somewhat secret, other than sometimes on occasion, Mike, the press will break in, which is fine too (laughter) It’s amazing how you leave those rooms and about 10 seconds later — there wasn’t even time for a leak — they were on the call (laughter) But that’s all right So you assume that You always assume that But they’ll be going through pharmacies, hospitals, healthcare providers Through our partnership with FedEx, UPS, and McKesson, we’ll ship doses from warehouses directly to the designated sites And we’re thrilled to be joined by representatives of those, really, great American companies Those companies have worked with us, and they’ve been incredible to work with And I want to thank you all for being here Please, thank you very much (applause) Thank you. Thank you very much As I’ve stated all along — and I guess as you saw pretty vividly I heard about the — I heard about what they — we’re going to show prior to my coming You saw that very few people thought that this was possible Of course, they’ll be saying now, “We always told you it was so.” But we have them saying a little bit different But it has been incredible And it will end the pandemic It will end the pandemic And we’re working with other nations As you see actually by looking at your screen today, we’re working very closely with other nations also to get the vaccines out to other nations And that’s very important We work with the world We’re working with the world We have great companies, and we’re working with the world In just a few minutes, I’ll sign an executive order to ensure that the United States government prioritizes the getting out of the vaccine to American citizens before sending it to other nations Now, if necessary, I told you, we’ll invoke the Defense Production Act, but we don’t think it will be necessary If it is, it’s a very powerful act, as you know, because we’ve used it very, very successfully While we begin to swiftly deploy the vaccine, we’ll continue to expand the availability of groundbreaking therapies Since April, advances in treatments have already helped reduce the mortality rate by 85 percent Think of that: 85 percent (applause) It’s an incredible number I’ve delivered on my solemn promise to make the antibody treatments — they’re brilliant; they’re highly successful — available to every American, and we’re doing that free of cost — totally free of cost So we’re making them available, and they’re available now And if somebody gets sick, it works, where they go and they get treatment if that’s what the doctors are prescribing And it’s been incredible, the success And when you hear 85 percent, that’s some number To me, that’s a number that goes along with anything else, including the vaccines, when you think about it As well as we’ve done with the vaccines, when you hear “85 percent,” people — people find that one hard to believe But you look at the stats, and you see what’s happening And you look at other countries; they’re having tremendous difficulties in Europe — tremendous. Beyond — relatively beyond what we’re having They’re having them all over the world But this will vanquish the — the problem, this horrible scourge — as I call it, the “China virus,” because that’s where it came from The virus has really been looked at and studied all over the world, and our scientists, our industrial and economic mobilization has been like nobody else in the world could have done And it’s very important that we share that with others and other nations I’ve worked and invoked the Defense Production Act over 100 times to manufacture essential supplies in the United States Despite the grim projections from the media eight months ago, where they said this was impossible — they actually said — and you saw that a little bit, but I could give you two hours’ worth of it But they said it will never happen; you could never do it; it was a pipe dream But we did something that nobody thought was possible And we also did it where no American who has needed a ventilator has been denied a ventilator When we — when this first came out, we weren’t equipped for that Nobody was equipped for that And we’re now making ventilators And we have all we need in this country, but we’re sending them to countries all over the world We’re making thousands and thousands of ventilators a month

The United States has also created the largest, most advanced, and most innovative testing program in the world by far We’ve conducted over 200 million tests Think of that: 200 million tests — more than all of the European Union combined It’s not even close Just 10 months ago, none of these innovations even existed The tremendous progress that we’ve made is a testament to what our nation is capable of When America is faced with a challenge, we come through, and we always come through to overcome every hardship and surmount every obstacle And I think you’ll be seeing that over the next few months; the numbers should skyrocket downward We are the most exceptional nation in the history of the world Today, we’re on the verge of another American medical miracle And that’s what people are saying People that aren’t necessarily big fans of Donald Trump are saying, “Whether you like him or not, this is one of the greatest miracles in the history of modern-day medicine” or any other medicine — any other age of medicine American companies were the first to produce a verifiably safe and effective vaccine Together, we will defeat the virus, and we will soon end the pandemic, and we will save millions and millions of lives, both in our country and all over the world And we’ve already started Thank you again to every person here today and for the incredible achievements that you’ve done You’re going to be very proud of this day, and you’re going to be very proud of this period of time because nobody thought this was possible Nobody thought it was even remotely possible to do what we’ve done in a period of less than nine months — something that — just not even thinkable And we took a lot of heat when we said this is our goal, and we, frankly, weren’t even quite using the numbers that we used We far exceeded what we thought If we would have said “sometime next year,” I think most people would have said, “That would be great That would be a miracle.” But we did it long before sometime next year So now I want to ask several leaders who have been crucial in this effort to join me on stage as I sign the executive order to ensure that American citizens have first priority to receive American vaccines And then we’re going to be working with other countries all over the world, and I think we’ll be able to start doing that almost immediately also, because we have millions of doses coming in So thank you very much Thank you. It’s a great honor (applause) So, let’s see here I guess we have to do our Vice President, right? (applause) Audience Member: Thank you, Mr. President The President: Thank you very much (applause) Thank you very much, everybody Thank you (applause) Any questions, please? (applause) Thank you. Thank you all (applause) Any questions, please? A question? Yes, please The Press: Mr. President, it’s clearly a success, this vaccine I’m wondering, though, what your message is to the American people, given all of the increasing cases right now, about what they should do over Christmas and the hardship that they’re all facing as this virus does get worse The President: Yeah, well, CDC puts out their guidelines, and they’re very important guidelines, but I think this: I think that the vaccine was our goal That was number one because that was the way — that was the way it ends Plus, you do have an immunity You develop immunity over a period of time, and I hear we’re close to 15 percent I’m hearing that, and that is terrific That’s a very powerful vaccine in itself And just tremendous progress has been made One of the reasons we do show so many — and I say this, and I’ve been saying it for a long time — so many cases is because of the fact that we have 200 million tests

And you take — I think India is actually in second place with just a fraction of that number So, we’re many times greater than the second country — and India has 1.4 billion people — where our testing program has been incredible And we actually are also coming out with new tests very shortly that will make the process even easier And you won’t need doctors necessarily to do the test So, we have some incredible tests coming out in a very short period of time Yeah, please The Press: Mr. President, but some of the scientific officials here in this room have encouraged Americans not to travel this holiday season, not to go to large gatherings Across the street you’ve been holding holiday parties with hundreds of people, many not wearing masks Why are you modeling a different behavior to the American people than what your scientists tell? The President: Well, they’re Christmas parties And frankly, we’ve reduced the number very substantially, as you know And I see a lot of people at the parties wearing masks I mean, I would say that — I look out at the audience at those parties and we have a lot of people wearing masks And I think that’s a good thing Yeah, please The Press: Mr. President The President: Over here Go ahead The Press: The next administration will be the one, ultimately, that implements a lot of the distribution of this vaccine and will oversee much of the future of the way Operation Warp Speed goes forward Why not include members of the Biden transition team as part of this summit that you’re hosting today? The President: Well, we’re going to have to see who the next administration is because we won in those swing states and there was terrible things that went on So, we’re going to have to see who the next administration is But whichever the next administration is will really benefit by what we’ve been able to do with this incredible science, the doctors — all of the people that came up — the lab technicians The work that’s been done is incredible And it will be incredible for the next administration And hopefully, the next administration will be the Trump administration because you can’t steal hundreds of thousands of votes You can’t have fraud and deception and all of the things that they did, and then slightly win a swing state And you just have to look at the numbers, look at what’s been on tape, look at all the corruption, and we’ll see You can’t win an election like that So, hopefully the next administration will be the Trump administration, a continuation — which has led us to the highest stock markets we’ve ever had, the best employment numbers we’ve ever had, a rebuilt military If you look at — the tax reductions are the greatest in history The regulation reductions, the greatest in history It leads us to Space Force, which nobody thought was possible All of the things we’ve done, and we were rewarded with a victory Now, let’s see whether or not somebody has the courage, whether it’s a legislator or legislatures, or whether it’s a justice of the Supreme Court or a number of justices of the Supreme Court Let’s see if they have the courage to do what everybody in this country knows is right I received almost 75 million votes, the highest number of votes in the history of our country for a sitting President, 12 million more than the 63 million we received four years ago President Obama received 3 million less in his second term, and he won easily I received 12 million more, which by the way, is a record Twelve million more And they say that when the numbers came out — and the numbers came through machines And all of those ballots were taken away and added All you have to do is turn on your local television set and you’ll see what happened with thousands of ballots coming out from under tables, with all of the terrible things you saw, all you have to do is take a look And if somebody has the courage, I know who the next administration will be And I’ll tell you what, life will be much easier for this country because of what we’ve done right now And because of a lot of the people in this room, the job you’ve done on the vaccine together with a lot of others has been a modern-day miracle And it’s really been acknowledged as such And I want to thank you I want to give you my love and I want to give you my thanks because you’re very special people And now, good luck You distribute that, General, and really set records. Okay? Set records, just like we’ve been doing for four years Thank you very much Thank you, everybody. Thank you (applause) Mr. Mango: Good afternoon, everyone I’m Paul Mango, I’m the deputy chief of staff at the Department of Health and Human Services And I’ll be your host for the balance of the afternoon I thought we’d begin by reinforcing with a quotation, The President’s sentiments, just a couple of minutes ago You may recognize this “We were successful at Normandy because we didn’t know it was impossible.” From the President to Secretary Azar, to Dr. Slaoui and General Perna, down to the ranks of every participant in both the public and private sectors, their focus was singular Save American lives No one in this team ever knew bringing millions of doses of even one,

not to mention two, vaccines safe and effective to the American people before the yearend was impossible This was the principal reason today why we are where we are, in the verge of doing just that But as the President noted, this is what separates American from the rest of the world We take the impossible and we make it possible Make no mistake about it though, today is not a declaration of mission accomplished, rather it’s a glimpse into mission impossible, an extraordinary effort to successfully confront what many of the world’s experts and pundits believed could not be done We have three objectives for this afternoon, the first is to build understanding We will describe how the Trump administration plans to equitably distribute safe and effective vaccines to any American desiring one Second, we seek to build confidence, describe how the Trump administration is following data and science in the develop and evaluation of the vaccines And third, we’re going to recognize achievements, celebrate the private sector innovation, commitment, and the American spirit Those working with the Trump administration have demonstrated every step of the way to achieve the fastest development and distribution of vaccines in history The round of show today will be as follows Dr. Slaoui will discuss the strategy in process behind the investments and cultivation of our vaccine portfolio, while General Perna will provide some insights into the task of shipping vaccines within 24 hours of FDA authorization Adam Boehler and Dr. Peter Marks will discuss the rigorous gold standard process the FDA is using to ensure the vaccines are safe and effective Admiral Giroir and the executives from FedEx UPS, McKesson, and Thermo Fisher will discuss cold storage handling and delivery logistics We’ll then have a 10-minute break about an hour and a half in, then Brad Smith will be moderating a panel with CVS and Walgreens to discuss vaccine administration with the focus on long-term care and senior living facilities And then Secretary Azar who’s been the architect of Operation Work Speed from the start will interview Governors Abbot, DeSantis, Edwards, and Lee about the critical role of states in jurisdictions in the vaccine prioritization and administration process Finally, we’ll hear from Vice President Pence, whom you know has been leading the White House Task Force for the last nine months He’ll offer some reflections and closing remarks Implicit in this agenda are three vital partnerships animating the success of Operation Warp Speed First is HHS and the Department of Defense, second is Federal State, and third is public and private The Federal Government is enabling success But we would not be here today if not for the set of collaborative partnerships You will gain more insight into each of this over the next couple of hours As Dr. Slaoui and General Perna come up to the platform, I’d like to briefly describe the paradox that’s inherent in their roles Dr. Slaoui’s role has been to evaluate in advance from over a hundred candidates what became a portfolio of six vaccines having the greatest probability on a risk adjusted basis of achieving our objectives At the same time, General Perna’s role has been to create a distribution and administration architecture ensuring any or all six of these vaccines translate into actual vaccinations So, while Dr. Slaoui’s odds of success improved with every vaccine in the portfolio, the complexity of General Perna’s task grew exponentially Some vaccine requires two doses, some require one Some need an adjuvant, some need a diluent Some objections are 21 days apart, some of 28 apart Some needs small needles and syringes, others need large ones Some need to be stored at minus 80-degree Celsius, others at room temperature I think you get the point Nonetheless, General Perna and his team from the army logistics command, along with the Centers for Disease Control and Dr. Redfield, are meticulously working through these issues But it’s best that Dr. Slaoui and General Perna describe all these in their own words Dr. Slaoui? Dr. Slaoui: Thank you Thank you, Paul Apologies I guess, it’s getting more complicated But thank you very much, ladies and gentlemen It (inaudible) to Operation Warp Speed in the development of vaccines against COVID-19 for the American people and for the world However, obviously there is still much more that needs to be accomplished before we can effectively take control of this pandemic and get back to our normal life Mr. Mango: Hey, Dr. Slaoui, I’m sorry You just need this microphone Sorry to interrupt you here That one’s not working Will somebody turn that on?

Yeah. Sorry about that Dr. Slaoui: So, I thought today that what I’d do is summarize where we are in the development of COVID-19 vaccine How come we have been so fast? Why I believe it’s very important that Americans and people around the globe trust the effectiveness and safety of this vaccine And of course, I also want to acknowledge and thank the many participants from the private sector, to the academics, to the U.S government employees, to the volunteers who participated in the clinical trials, and the hundreds and thousands and tens of thousands of people across various industries that have enabled and made possible where we are today So, over the past seven months what we have done is to say let’s select a portfolio of vaccines rather than bet on only one or two And let’s drive all six — in fact, at the initiation we thought we could have eight — let’s drive them in parallel safely and as securely as possible And we designed that portfolio by selecting what we call platform technologies — and I’ll explain that more in a second — and decided to take two exemplars of each platform technology in order to increase our chances to succeed Because failure is a normal life of research and development, and success is rare And success in this case not only meant that we would have a vaccine, but that we would have a vaccine on time and that we would have a vaccine that can be manufactured in tens of millions And then very quickly, into hundreds of millions of doses These were all enormous challenges And as we stand today, I think we are beginning to have some successes Two of the vaccines using one platform technology called Messenger RNA, have demonstrated I believe exceptional efficacy Ninety-five percent efficacy on average against disease Importantly, they have both 100 percent efficacy against severe disease They are equivalently efficacious in people over the age of 65, and importantly also in the diverse population that constitute our nation I think they are very important achievements And these two vaccines, one by Pfizer and one by Moderna, remarkably gave similar results, even though they were completely independently and designed completely independently In fact, at the onset, competitively These two vaccines will be reviewed by the FDA, as you know, on December 7 for the Pfizer vaccine and on December 17 for the Moderna vaccine And we hope — I read today the comments from the FDA that are encouraging, that we hope these vaccines are likely to be approved and made available into several tens of millions of doses very quickly to the U.S. population Two other vaccines from the portfolio using a different platform technology — which are a virus that’s unable to replicate, that cannot infect you but is able to deliver to you the vaccine — are in advanced phase three trials One of them by Johnson & Johnson has already recruited more than 35,000 subjects in the phase three trial And Mr. President explained that that vaccine is a one-shot vaccine, which in the context of a pandemic is really a major advantage Because people can achieve protection quickly after having received one dose, and we don’t have to rely on them coming back for a second dose I’m not saying two-dose is bad I’m just saying one dose is even better than two-dose That vaccine is likely to complete its efficacy trial in terms of assessing efficacy of the vaccine probably early in the month of January and hopefully would file for emergency use authorization either late in January or late in February That’s important because we are likely to have a third vaccine somewhere in February, hopefully if the appropriate efficacy and safety profile of course are achieved And there’s a second vaccine using similar platform technology by AstraZeneca That vaccine is also being tested in a phase three trial here in the U.S where 17,000 plus subjects have already been recruited and where we project that efficacy may be achieved somewhere in the end of January or early February

And maybe by late February or early March, that vaccine could become available if approved by the FDA to further increase the number of vaccine doses we have to immunize the nation and the world And finally, we have two more vaccines using a third platform technology, which is a more classical platform technology, using recombinant proteins And these are vaccines by a biotech company here in the U.S. called Novavax And another one by two large pharma and vaccine companies that put their efforts together, Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline These vaccines are in phase two trials and should be starting the phase three trials in the next few weeks or days And if proven efficacious, they may before the middle of the year, again, be able to apply for emergency use authorization and further add to our menu of vaccines With hopefully, comparable efficacy and various advantages in terms of cold chain requirements and storage and other features So, in summary, I would say we have two in the hand substantially, the two RNA vaccines, two close by, and two to come We plan to manufacture enough of these vaccines to immunize about 20 million of our citizen before the end of this year, about 30 million in the month of January and about 50 million in the month of February Those would be immunization that require two doses of vaccine And we hope to either have more vaccine doses of the Messenger RNA vaccines and/or more vaccine doses from the other portfolio vaccine that I cited to complete the immunization of the rest of our population, which we project could be done by the month of June — if everybody accept, which we hope, to be vaccinated So, how come we have developed so many vaccines so quickly? Well, really this is what the operation has achieved And there was a visionary I think decision to put together the academic sciences, the industry experience — biotech or pharmaceutical — the U.S. government entities in terms of the Human Services Agency, and the Department of Defense The logistics, the capabilities, the project management, the deep science, the industrial experience were all put together, financed, freed from bureaucracy, and empowered to make decisions And I have to say, it has worked remarkably well Yet that was I think the necessary context in which speed was able to be achieved But specifically, why were we so fast? Three main reasons The first reason is we were able to cut the front part of the discovery and development process of a vaccine from years to literally weeks, thanks to the use of what’s called platform technologies It’s a little bit like if you had — imagine a cassette player can play classic music if you put a classic music tape, or a rock and roll if you put a rock and roll tape Ninety-nine percent of the cassette players of course is the same, only the tape changes, and you have a very different outcome It’s the same with vaccine Platform technologies are a mean by which you can produce a vaccine that induce the right immune responses, and you put a different cassette in it to make a different vaccine against a different virus So, when we knew — we as the industry and the academia — what the virus that causes COVID-19 is and its sequence, companies were able to take that sequence, plug it in the cassette player of their platform technology and went to the clinic within two months from the discovery of the virus This is where we cut, I would say, most of the time Those platform technologies have been invested into for decades for some of them And at least for 10 years, for instance, the Messenger RNA They have been into the clinic with other vaccine They have been developed for industrial manufacturing Their toxicology and safety in animals was described We didn’t cut corners. We used what was done and built on it And I think that’s really super important

for everybody to understand The second thing that allowed us to accelerate was that we took every possible operational and financial risk We planned everything in parallel; we spent all the money before we knew whether things were going to work We planned Phase 1, Phase 2, Phase 3 trials in parallel, of course we didn’t progress in parallel, we only progressed when the FDA said it’s fine, it’s safe to progress But we selected hundreds of sites for clinical trial, for instance, well before we knew we could ever run the clinical trial, that’s not what you do normally That cost a billion dollars, effectively, those clinical trials We also invested enormous amounts of money to tune or build, equip, and then scale up the manufacturing process for these vaccines Even hire people and train them into the manufacturing facilities What we need to realize is no industry has idling manufacturing capabilities waiting for the next pandemic to happen So there was a huge challenge, frankly the bigger challenge, to be able to find those manufacturing capabilities, source the raw materials My colleague General Perna and his team have done an unbelievable job in enabling the access to the raw materials, to the equipment, to the engineers, to whatever it is that was needed to be able to drive the speed of manufacturing That’s how we were able to have millions of doses of vaccine before the vaccines are approved That’s never how it works in real life And then the third reason why we went very fast was that we ran very large trials for the efficacy — to assess efficacy of the vaccines In the context of a pandemic, running a very big trial actually accelerates the speed with which you run the clinical trial, because it allows you to accrue more cases in the trial And having cases in the trial is what allows you to assess whether the vaccine is efficacious or not Unfortunately, also, the speeding up of the pandemic and transmission of the virus has helped And we were able to achieve, thanks to that, a much faster completion of the efficacy trial As a second objective of having very large clinical trials, is that we have a much larger database to document the short-term and midterm safety of these vaccines Normally, 6 to 8,000 subjects in a clinical trial is what’s required for approval of a new vaccine These are the key reasons why we have been able to accelerate the development of these vaccines We did not cut corners, and these are the reasons why I really have a plea to all of us to keep our minds open, to keep our ears open, to remain receptive to facts, to science, to information that will be made available transparently You will witness that as of Thursday through the FDA process, where every single bit of information and data that has been generated will be available and accessible to everybody to look into Identify those experts that you know and that you trust and ask them what they think of the data Listen to the data yourself and make up your mind We have 95 percent efficacy almost an insurance against this pandemic, and 100 percent efficacy against severe disease A disease that killed more than 200,000, almost 300,000 people, killing more than 2,000 every day Those are the risks we know, and they are happening every day I hope most of us will accept to be vaccinated, because that’s the way through which we will be able to control this pandemic Otherwise, vaccines that are not used are useless Vaccination is what’s important Finally, while great progress has been made, as I said in the beginning, we still have a lot to do We still have vaccines that are being tested in Phase 3 I told you today that Johnson & Johnson vaccine has recruited 35,000 subjects, we need to get to 42,000 That’s our objective The AstraZeneca recruited 27,000, we need to get to 30,000 And the two protein vaccines are going to start their Phase 3 trials in the next few weeks So we need all of you, please, to volunteer or continue to volunteer, to participate in the clinical trials, because it is thanks to the 44,000 volunteers who participated in the Pfizer trial and 30,000 volunteers who participated in the Moderna trial that we have been able to assess that these vaccines work

It is your generous action, and I would call on your civic sense, to please continue to participate in the clinical trials, even if two vaccines may very well be approved in the next few weeks And I would say there’s in that, not only an action that will help our country and the world, in that it defines that more vaccines can be shown to be efficacious, but that action is also frankly helpful to you You’ve heard me say we can have, we can immunize 20 million people in December, 30 million in January, 50 million in February If you participate in a clinical trial, you have a 50 percent chance to have the vaccine now And from some other trial, depending on how randomization is done, you may have a 66 percent to have vaccine now And these trials are running so fast, when the trial completes, you will have also a chance, if you received the placebo, to get vaccination immediately once the trial has read out So please, continue to participate, continue to help We are continuing to drive as fastly and as safely as we can, the development and the manufacturing of this vaccine And I know General Perna is working very hard with his team to ensure that they make it to the location where you will be able to be immunized General, up to you now Thank you (applause) General Perna: Can everybody hear me alright? Audience Member: Yes, sir General Perna: Great Well thank you and it’s a great honor to be here, and it’s a great honor to co-lead this effort with Dr. Moncef Slaoui, a world renown scientist, and I just tell you, a personal friend, and somebody that’s helped me grow personally, professionally, over the last 6 or 7 months And again, Dr. Slaoui, thank you so much (applause) Okay, so it’s clear to everybody that I am not a scientist, I am a soldier And I’m very proud to be a soldier, serve under Secretary McCarthy and Chief of Staff of the Army General McConville And I just feel obligated to say that it is an honor to serve our country and our nation as a soldier And I just want to say thanks to all the service men and women that are out there every day sacrificing for what we do (applause) Since the moment I’ve been appointed as a co-leader of this task force, every waking moment is about one purpose, and Dr. Slaoui and I have this purpose together, right It is about saving American lives There is nothing else that has our focus but saving American lives And we’re doing that, right, by delivering safe and effective therapeutics and vaccines to the American people And how did come to fruiting as quickly, as said earlier by Dr. Slaoui, it’s come to fruiting because of our approach Our approach being a whole of America effort Right, it was led at the government, at the highest levels of the government, by Secretary Azar and Secretary Miller of the Department of Defense It is been supported and collaborated by our great industry partners that are represented here today, and I’ll call some out in the future But trust me when I tell you we couldn’t do it without them And then it is been contributed through great academia, conversations about innovation, how do we are able to act in an agile and adaptive way to the, to the COVID, and achieve success of what we’re trying to do So it was this collaboration on this effort that I just cannot express enough to all of us how important this way Future problems facing us need to always have this type of collaboration if we want to ensure success It’s been a herculean effort, as Dr. Slaoui talked about We have focused, we have built brick and mortar capability and capacity, expanded already capability that existed so that we could ensure that we had vaccines when they were approved We have prioritized materials from around the world into our industry partners We have prioritized medical equipment into our industry partners to achieve the success that we’re talking about today

Initial doses in the hundreds of millions, right — or excuse me, in the tens of millions, right, in December But we will quickly expand every week, every month that goes by, until we have enough vaccine for all the American people That was our mission, safe and effective vaccines to the American people Now we’re at a stage, as Dr. Slaoui said, we’re on precipice of having vaccines approved So what is next, because we don’t want to get out in front of ourselves As my father used to say, you can only spike the football when you’re in the end zone Well what is the end zone described as here? Shots in arms Right? And so we want to make sure that we have a distribution plan that is capable, right, of taking the vaccines that are available on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis, and ensuring a distribution to the American people How do we do that? Three cornerstones to our plan First and foremost, we went to the CDC Experts, right? Not part time, experts in managing vaccines and medicines and distribution to the American people We collaborated and we partnered with them, led by Dr. Butler, supported by, excuse me, led by Dr. Redfield Supported and providing leadership through Dr. Butler, Dr. Messinger, Dr. Patel, and hundreds of others that are true professionals in how to manage and distribute this vaccine Very, very important to our success Second, we went to private industry. Why? Private industry knows how to do this, they do it every day They do it quietly, they do it professionally, they do it with expertise Vaccines and medicines flowing throughout our country every single day, right And who’s doing it? Private industry We went to them, we collaborated with them, we took their good ideas, we put them into our plan The CDC integrated, synchronized, coordinating their capabilities and capacity of industry to ensure that we have a well-nested plan for distribution Right, and then what was the last thing key to our success? It’s not our plan that needs to be implemented perfectly, it is the governors’ plans that we want to enable, that we want to empower, that we want to make sure that we can execute according to their priorities and guidance They know their states, they know their people They are being informed by highly professional medical personnel that know their people and their states Our position is to enable them So it is this trifecta, the CDC, commercial industry, and the governors and their states, that is going to make us successful at the end of the day Trust me, it is about collaboration, it is about unity of effort It is not about command and control This is what the operation’s been able to synchronize and integrate So as I said earlier, right, what is our goal? Our goal is upon EUA, Emergency Use Authorization, which will be determined by the FDA, we will start moving vaccines within 24 hours We will move them throughout the entire United States of America 50 states, eight territories, six mega cities, and five federal agencies We know, right, based on the allocations that were available to us for Pfizer vaccine, and our allocation process was by pro rata to the population of each state, territory, or city, above the age of 18, to ensure fair and equitable distribution of vaccine every day We know that for Pfizer vaccine based on our allocation, we know exactly, as of last Friday, where the states want the vaccine distributed to We know the locations by address, we know the populations based on the amounts that they want at each location We know this as a fact We are already sharing this information with industry, which I’ll talk about in a minute, what they’re going to do with it, so that they can plan, package, and prepare to distribute This week, we’re working on the Moderna vaccine

initial allocations with the states, and by this Friday, we will have all the locations for the Moderna vaccine allocations from the states We’ll know where they want it and we’ll know how much they want it So within a one week period, we’ve been able to accumulate, process, inform, and collaborate where the vaccine’s going to Key to our success So now, we have EUA, we have the information we need, where it’s going, how much is going, so how is it going? First, the Pfizer vaccine as depicted up front, topper half of the chart, their goal is to deliver vaccine to the right side of the chart on all those places and locations that we want it to go, go to Pfizer vaccine, Pfizer has chosen to do their own delivery of vaccine, right, in collaboration with us and in prior — our priorities, to distribution capabilities Right, FedEx and UPS, right, and they will distribute to FedEx and UPS, and FedEx and UPS will break down the vaccine by location and then distribute it to the final locations accordingly The Moderna vaccine is going a little bit differently Moderna chose to have a distributer come in and help them McKesson is going to take responsibility for that; they’re going to break down the vaccine, they will repackage it, then they will distribute it through FedEx and UPS down to the final administration sites as directed by the governors At the end of the day, whether it’s Pfizer or Moderna, excuse me, right, our capability and capacity is a — is something that we know how to do, and we know how to track and how to implement it and how to make sure that the vaccine is delivered, it is delivered safely, it is delivered to ensure the stability of the vaccine, and it is delivered securely to the locations that we said Right, this is why we put this all together It will be a herculean task, but I am confident, as I said, the planning by the CDC, the collaboration by our partners, McKesson, FedEx, UPS, CVS, Walgreens, right, that we will be able to execute this vaccine very efficiently, but more importantly, effectively As we start to deliver the vaccine, we will be able to track every single vaccine from start to finish We have worked in great collaboration with commercial industry, we have developed a capacity, or a capability, to track every vaccine We will see from point A to point B, we will understand how the vaccine is being administered in arms, and we will continue to flow vaccine to support the use at the lowest — at the administration sites The key is flow of available vaccine We are not waiting for a monthly cycle of delivery of vaccine Every day, every week that vaccine becomes available, allocations will be provided to the states, and we will start, and we will execute a predictable and consistent cadence of vaccine delivery We will do that by providing allocations to the states, states will tell us where they want the vaccines to go, and then we will deliver the vaccines in accordance to the process that I told you What is the greatness of this? It is about making sure that we get the initial doses out, following EUA within 24 hours, and then providing a steady case — cadence of vaccine so that planners can plan And then people who are going to have to administer understand the timing of administration where we can notify persons to come get shots and be available It is the flow we’re trying to create that will determine our success I’m very excited about this, I’m very excited about the amount of work that’s gone into this Somebody said to me the other day, oh I heard there’s EUA coming about, are you guys going to start planning? I said, start planning? (laughter) We literally started planning as Dr. Slaoui talked about seven months ago Right? It was in parallel that we executed this We assumed success so that we could get ahead of the problem It was because of the great efforts by the CDC, the collaboration of commercial industry,

and the states’ herculean effort for plan for the people to receive shots that we’re going to be successful So, with that said, I will tell you I am 100 percent confident that we will be able to implement this That with our collaboration of the trifecta there, we will be successful, and we will start to have shots in arms within 96 hours of EUA That’s what I believe with all my heart, and I am counting on it, because I, for one, have told my mother, right, get the vaccine I’ve told my sons get the vaccine That’s how confident I am in this So, I ask for you, as Dr. Slaoui said at the end, right, all of us, the American people, we can beat this only together, right We can do this if we do it together, right Be informed, right Don’t be led Understand, do your research, hold yourself accountable to hearing both sides of the story and then make an individual decision that’s best for yourself, and your family, and your community, right, and if we do that, we will be successful, and we will defeat, right, the enemy, which is COVID So, with that said, thank you everybody for your time It’s a real pleasure (applause) Mr. Mango: Okay I’m not sure there’s two more humble, selfless, confident leaders in the country So, congratulations, gentlemen It’s been a pleasure working with you I have to tell as short anecdote about Dr. Slaoui He’s pretty reticent about telling folks he’s the most successful vaccine developer in the world today So, after he decided what his slate of six vaccines was going to be, we took him through a little exercise We said, “There’s three criteria we want you to evaluate the probability of: Will it get through phase 3 clinical trials and get an EUA? Will it be effective in persons over 65? And will we have tens of millions of doses of each?” Six vaccines, three criteria, 18 total factors We came out with, if you remember, this was last summer, 75 percent probability we’d have at least one of those, about 30 percent probability we’d have two, so choosing that slate was so vital to our success today and Dr. Slaoui was once again spot on (applause) Okay, so now we move onto objective number two, which is building confidence, and you will have Adam Boehler, who has been one of the Operation Warp Speed board members, have a discussion with Dr. Peter Marks, who is the Director for the Center of Biologics Evaluation and Research For those of you who don’t know that it’s the agency that will actually evaluate and hopefully approve the emergency use authorizations for the vaccines And they’re going to talk through the truly gold standard process that the FDA has utilized over the last several months They’ve had input into the clinical trials They’re obviously vital to evaluating for emergency use Now, Peter’s been very gracious He’s literally has staff working three shifts 24-hours a day, seven days a week He did not want to leave his staff today to come down and talk to you, but we thought it was much more important for the American people to hear from him briefly about the rigorous process, the exciting process that he is taking his team through to evaluate these, and when he’s done, he’s going to head right back out to the FDA, so thank you for that, Dr. Marks And Adam Boehler and Dr. Marks, come on out (applause) And, Adam, it’s all yours Adam Mr. Boehler: Thanks, very much, Paul Can you guys hear me okay? Is it working? Well, thanks so much for joining me, Dr. Marks And, I’ve had the pleasure of getting to know you over the last number of months, and you lead an unbelievable team of physicians and scientists at to the FDA, and I know the American people owe it to all of you for your hard work So, first, thank you very much for being here Dr. Marks: Thank you very much Mr. Boehler: Let me start Obviously, this has been an unbelievably rapid development cycle from a vaccine perspective So maybe take us through what is the difference between this approach versus the traditional approach

which would take so long So, take us through that Dr. Marks: Right. So, I think Dr. Slaoui alluded to this, but I’ll just, kind of, try to stay it in a different way You know, normally vaccine development is something that is de-risked so that one completes each step, stops, looks, then goes to the next step, stops, looks, then goes to the next step, and at the end of the process, one really ramps up manufacturing What was done here is, instead of that serial one after the other process, many things were collapsed and done at the same time, and I think General Perna noted that instead of waiting until the very end to decide how you’re going to distribute the vaccine, instead of waiting until the end to decide that you’re going to manufacture large amounts of vaccine at risk, these were done at the same time, and what to means by doing things in a parallel manner is that corners were not cut here This is a vaccine that’s gone through — these vaccines are going through the large kinds of trials that we would expect from prophylactic vaccines, preventative vaccines that are going to be given to large numbers of people Just to give you just a number, the average vaccine development program for the kind of prophylactic preventive vaccines that we are talking about is about 21,750 people enrolled So, these programs with from 30,000 to 45,000 — 44,000 patients, or individuals enrolled, that’s a pretty nice size program, and so, that’s giving us, kind of, the gold standard types of a clinical trial program that we’d like to see for preventive vaccines Mr. Boehler: Thank you, Dr. Marks Yeah, one question that’s circling and Dr. Slaoui just talked about it is whether Americans should take this vaccine So, let me ask that question to you is, why should Americans trust these vaccines? Dr. Marks: So, the reason why I’m sitting here today and the reason why we’re going through the process that we’re going through at FDA is so that Americans can trust a vaccine that they’re going to receive The FDA is known around the world for its regulatory rigor We are one of the only regulators in the world where we don’t just take the data that’s handed to us from companies and look at it, we actually take the data listings, the raw data that gets sent to us and do analyses ourselves on that, and it’s a group of over 150 people working right now at FDA to go through and do these type of analyses to make sure that the vaccine is what it says it is, to make sure we fully understand the side effect profile, to understand sometimes we learn things that the manufacturers didn’t even know about their own vaccines by doing our analyses, and so, by doing that hard work, the folks are making sure that we’ve — when it comes through this process, we’re going to have a vaccine that has efficacy that we can trust, safety that we can trust, and quality that we can trust, which is what Americans deserve Because all the people working at FDA right now are thinking about this vaccine is if it’s one that they want to take, they want to have their families take, and then have our extended family in United States take, and this is really important, that we’re only going to get there if we do this altogether by taking vaccines together This is a time where we have to rebuild our trust in vaccines, and we hope, by the transparent process that we’re using, by going to an advisory committee in the public view where people will see the data that’s being put forth, where there’ll be a discussion among academic experts of the safety, effectiveness, and the quality of these vaccines that people will see, nothings being hidden, that these are vaccines that when we say at FDA they’re safe and effective, I means we’ve done our best job to make sure that they are safe and effective for all of us to roll up our sleeves and take Mr. Boehler: Thank you, Peter Could you expand and little bit on the clinical trial process? I mean, the size, the scope, give me a little sense of that Dr. Marks: So, these clinical trials that involve the randomization, so flipping a coin and putting one to one person getting a placebo or an inactive product versus the active vaccine, where we have 15,000 people in each arm to compare them, means that we have a very large size trial which not only lets us get to the efficacy quicker, as Dr. Slaoui noted, but also gives us a very nice size safety database And although normally we’d like to have longer follow up of individuals, perhaps, than we’ll have right now,

we’re able to make up for that by following the people who are in the clinical trials for longer periods of time, and by the fact that over the past 10 years in the United States we’ve developed a very robust safety surveillance system which uses large databases covering hundreds of millions of lives to be able to look at specific adverse events to make sure that there aren’t problems coming up after these vaccines are given to people And we wouldn’t let them out there in the first place if we thought that there was any significant chance of that, but we are going to make sure by monitoring them that there aren’t things that emerge as they’re used Mr. Boehler: What happens next? I mean, I know, obviously, the FDA is going to go through their process A lot of people are expecting — we all hope for authorization So, assuming that happens, assuming you went through and issued the EUA, what happens next? Dr. Marks: So, after an Emergency Use Authorization is granted, we — well, there’ll be several things that will happen, but the Advisory Committee of Immunization Practices will make further recommendations about use of the vaccine, vaccine will then get into General Perna’s hands, and they will get it out there and we will activate our safety surveillance system There will actually then be, in the coming months, additional trials that will be done on these vaccines, because there are populations that we still don’t have information on that we have to get information — children, pregnant women, among them — that we’ll get more data on these vaccines so that we’ll be able to ultimately, hopefully by late spring, start to vaccinate the entire population and get to children so that we actually then stop the entire COVID cycle Mr. Boehler: And I know once it gets into General Perna’s hands — was it plus a day? (laughter) Less? That’s it General Perna: Not me, industry (laughter) Mr. Boehler: One final question for you, Dr. Marks, which is, expand a little bit on how important it is for every American to get this vaccine, or not, feel free to say Dr. Marks: I think it’s really critical here to understand that what we’re doing at FDA is trying to make sure that people have the confidence to use vaccines Vaccines have been an incredible public health advance Our agency has been regulating vaccines for over 100 years, since actually before the Center for Biologics, the precursor, actually predated the Food and Drug Administration It was established by the Biologics Control Act of 1902, for anyone who wants a history lesson, and so, we’ve been doing this for a while The first or second biologics license was for a smallpox vaccine, so we’ve been doing this — and so, we’ve get a pretty good sense of what safety looks like for a vaccine And we’ve seen what vaccines can do — eliminated small pox It’s — polio is something that nobody sees anymore in the United States because it’s gone, pretty much Even measles we don’t see, because as long as we keep getting our children vaccinated, we don’t have measles outbreaks in the United States So, it’s a huge transformation from vaccines, and we would not allow vaccines to go out there if they weren’t safe and effective, and when we see safety signals, we deal with them So, it’s critical here that we all trust in the outcome of this process, because we all need to bring this crisis to an end together and getting vaccinated is kind of the first step there You know, what we have right now is we can wear masks, we can wash our hands, and we can stay social distance With a vaccine, we can finally help drive this away just — and have it go the way, hopefully of smallpox, to being something that’s only in high biocontainment laboratories And that’s only going to happen if a large fraction of eligible people take the vaccine Mr. Boehler: Thank you, Dr. Marks I mean, Washington can be a difficult town, but you and your team and the group here show that this is not a partisan effort, it’s an American effort, and so, as an American, I want to really say how much I appreciate all your work and your teams’ work Dr. Marks: Thanks very much I have to say, I have an incredible team of diverse individuals who are so committed to this that they have worked tirelessly, and they’ll continue to work tirelessly with these vaccines and additional vaccines until we have what we need to beat COVID-19 Mr. Boehler: Thank you Dr. Marks: Thanks (applause) Mr. Mango: Okay, so I think we’re going to call this the Show and Tell panel, but just a little story about Dr. Peter Marks A little-known fact, he’s actually he one who coined the term Operation Warp Speed

so many months ago and was actually very involved early on in the initial aggregation of the candidates — the vaccine candidates — from around the world that were eventually screened, and as I said, we determined there were six that would be good candidates So, we’re going to now turn to the topic of logistics, the logistics of vaccine distribution, and we’ll have the Assistant Secretary of Health, known pretty well to many of you, Admiral Brett Giroir He’ll lead a panel comprising Shawn Seamans from McKesson, Richard Smith from FedEx, Wes Wheeler from UPS, and Marc Casper from Thermo Fisher And I think just — it is a good time to reinforce again the vital role that the public/private partnership in Operation Warp Speed is playing and we’ve made the statement before, with the exception of a very few federal agencies, such as Veteran’s Administration, maybe the Indian Health Service and a couple of others It’s highly unlikely that a federal employee will touch a vaccine dose before it’s injected into American’s arms Highly unlikely a federal employee will touch that dose, and that goes to General Perna’s point about this public private partnership and all of our great partners We’re going to depend on them, and they possess, we believe, the most well-developed inventory management, transport distribution logistics, and vaccine administration capabilities in the world We’re simply building upon their foundation We’ve already delivered close to 200 million flu vaccines just this season in the last four or five months in conjunction with the CDC and companies like those you’ll hear from shortly So, this is, again, a great group of companies, our public/private partnership And I’m going to hand it off to Admiral Brett Giroir to take us through the next panel (applause) Admiral Giroir: Well, good — can you hear me? Is it on? Okay, great Good afternoon, everyone I’m very honored to be here, and I do want to say we are here representing many individuals: Surgeon General, Vice Admiral Adams, Rear Admiral Weahkee, and myself are members of the United States Public Health Service Commission Corps, 6,100 men and women, all health professionals who’ve been at the frontline of this pandemic, 4,300 have been deployed, the other 1,800 are on the frontline in the Indian Health Service, Bureau of Prison, so, shout out to all of them who are currently deployed (applause) I am here with four great companies We’re talking about their role in Operation Warp Speed, but they have been essential to our efforts to bring PPE, to distribute therapies like monoclonal antibodies, to bring tests throughout the country What you’re going to hear here is only the tip of the iceberg of what they’ve done to support this pandemic response in our country You heard their names, but, Shawn Seamans, President RX Crossroads, Executive Sponsor Enterprise COVID Vaccine Program with McKesson; Marc Casper, Chairman, President, CEO of Thermo Fisher; Wes Wheeler, President UPS Healthcare; and finally, Richard Smith, Regional President of the Americas for FedEx So, I’m going to lead with a few questions My first one I’m going to direct at our colleagues from McKesson So, let’s talk generally, what is your role, and you saw it on in the board earlier, in distributing vaccines including kitting of the needed supplies, like syringes and needles? Mr. Seamans: Well, thank you, Admiral, for your leadership and I want to thank all of our public and private partners in Operation Warp Speed It’s both an honor and a privilege for McKesson to play such an important role, at this time, for our country For those of you who are not familiar with McKesson, we’re one of the largest healthcare companies in the world We are — do lots of things Our primary role is distributing pharmaceuticals and medical-surgical supplies to end sites of care: hospitals, physician office, clinics, et cetera We also have an extensive background in vaccines, been the proud supporter of the CDC’s Vaccines for Children’s Program for the last 13 plus years, and we are the largest distributor of seasonal flu in the United States We were also the centralized distributor for H1N1 during that pandemic And we stand ready to meet this moment right now in the time of COVID vaccine delivery for our country So, we have two primary roles The first is centralized distributor of vaccines and ancillary supply kits; the second is the producer of those ancillary supply kits And that’s where I want to start I’ve actually got an example of the kit here that I can show on this very crowded table

You can see, it will come in a box like this We have produced enough of these kits to administer over 150 million doses of vaccine at this point We’ve been well at work manufacturing these kits for the better part of the last two and a half months, and that kit right there will have enough supplies to administer 100 doses of vaccine, which is what will accompany most of the vaccine deliveries as part of this program We’re also doing another kit specific to Pfizer which has the same supplies in it — needles, syringes, face masks, face shields, alcohol wipes, swabs, et cetera — and in enough quantities to meet the Pfizer minimum, which is 975 doses So, we will be shipping, as you saw in the schematic, the Pfizer kits directly to the onsite administration either in advance or at the same time to meet up with that Pfizer vaccine And then we will be distributing that kit there, the 100-dose kit, to our vaccine facilities so that we can ultimately marry them up with the vaccines to send out to the onsite administration So that leads me to our second role, and that is as the centralized distributor So there I just want to point out a couple quick things as you saw in the schematic and heard from General Perna We are not making any allocation decisions, that is all done by the CDC, Operation Warp Speed, and the states and their plans Our program — you heard 50,000 sites — this program is set up to ship to any number of sites We can do hundreds of thousands of sites if necessary Effectively anywhere where FedEx or UPS can go, we can get a vaccine So let me just quickly talk you through Moderna and how that process is going to work So Moderna will ship us bulk pallet of product We will ensure that temperature integrity was maintained during that shipment We will quickly get it into a specially designed and custom-built freezer in one of our multiple facilities that we have built to support nothing but COVID vaccines These freezers have specialized monitoring and alarms to ensure cold-chain integrity during the entire time it’s with McKesson From there we will take the orders in from the CDC In terms of numbers of doses and where they need to be shipped, we will pull those individual orders from the pallet, pack them into a specialized shipper This is the smallest frozen shipper These are also custom-designed for this program And then we will put in specialized cooling packs We will not be using dry ice for any vaccine that McKesson ships as part of this program, so Moderna and any of the refrigerated vaccines And the last thing we’ll do is put a temperature monitor in so that the first thing the onsite administrative sees when they open it up is that there was no excursion on that product So, that is the program We are ready to start shipping both vaccines and ancillary supplies today And as soon as there’s an EUA Admiral Giroir: Outstanding, thank you very much I want to turn the next question to Mr. Smith as well as Mr. Wheeler, FedEx, and UPS So everyone knows and you heard the logistical challenges that were brought up by General Perna and everyone, particularly the cold-chain requirements for Pfizer Walk us through a bit on how each of your companies approach this problem, and what steps are you doing to meet the challenges of this distribution and cold chain? Mr. Smith: Sure, Admiral, happy to take that, and I’ll tag team it with Wes I’ll start at the macro First and foremost, this is who we are and what we do This is not foreign to us Between us and UPS, we move millions of vaccines every year So, we have the network capabilities connecting 220 countries and territories, 99 percent of the world’s GDP, and servicing every zip code in the United States of America We have the cold-chain infrastructure, particularly in the event of some sort of delay, where we can stage product Even ultra-cold freezers, which we’ve been adding and UPS has been adding, to support some of the MRNA vaccines that have those deep-frozen or ultra-cold requirements And, we plan for surge events every year with our customers And these healthcare companies, the manufacturers, the distributors — they’re already our customers So we know them well, we know they’re business well We work well together, and we plan for these things every year We jump into action and use our networks in times of disaster relief and deliver for good, as we like to say at FedEx, into affected communities when that happens So, we’re well-versed in planning for this So, we spent a lot of time on that I think a lot of the onus on protecting the vaccine is on the packaging side, and I know Wes is going to talk a little bit to that so I’ll hand it over to you, Wes

Mr. Wheeler: Sure, thanks Before we talk about the packaging, we’ve been involved with the pandemic since the very beginning with the movement of over 20 million pounds of PPE into the country from China and all over the world We were very, very much involved all the way through the process Of course then we got involved with the clinical trials In fact we are there principle supplier of the logistics for Pfizer’s clinical trial, and some of that trial is still ongoing for some of the ancillary components later on We have worked — as soon as April, we started a full-time vaccine taskforce Started to look at all the various components We mapped out tens of thousands of lanes across the country, across the world, very similar to what FedEx has done, to make sure that we had the capacity across the United States in every single jurisdiction of the U.S. plus the world So that’s been what we’ve been doing to get ready for this I think temperature control is something that’s very, very important We can talk about, perhaps, Admiral Giroir, in the next segment Admiral Giroir: Fantastic I didn’t know if you wanted to show us now — Mr. Wheeler: Sure Admiral Giroir: — about your equipment, the shipper boxes you brought I think it’s a good time to do that Mr. Wheeler: Okay. I’m going to ask Charlton to come up for a second Okay, so we have two boxes here This is Pfizer’s box will be shipped Pfizer has designed this package exclusively for them and for the Pfizer vaccine There’s four components in the box It’s a thermal shipper In the bottom there’s dry ice In the middle there’s the payload, and on top is more dry ice And on the very top of the box you’ll see — and you can show that here — is a controllant device that can track the GPS location of this box Plus, there’s a thermal temperature probe that goes into the payload to make sure the temperature at minus 70 degrees Celsius is actually maintained throughout the journey So this box will be ready They will be shipped from two locations: Michigan and Wisconsin They’ll come to our locations in FedEx and also at UPS in Louisville, Kentucky, and we will have all the data that comes from this box streaming into our command center We have a 24/7 command center in Louisville, Kentucky, and all the data streaming in from that box will come into us in addition to our own tracking device, which you’ll see here This box actually went through a couple of tests recently, so you’ll see there’s a tag on here Where’s the tag? Sorry? On the other side? I’ve got the wrong side This tag here has multiple radios built into it Every box will have one of these tags attached And this tag is actually communicating to our command center every time it hits a UPS location So we’ll have that data, we’ll have the Pfizer data, and on top of that we have a Century device, which I’ll ask Charlton to pull out This will also be attached to every trailer load that comes out of the Pfizer location, and the Moderna location, and the McKesson location, to give real-time GPS data, as well as temperature and shock and light exposure So we have three ways of tracking the data every time a shipment moves Now, on top of that, once this arrives at each dosing center around the country, UPS will be shipping dry ice to replenish the box So, this will start to sublimate after a few days, which means evaporate, and we will be shipping in this box, dry ice — about 42 pounds of dry ice — the day after This has been something that General Perna has asked for, something we’ve designed, and we we’re prepared to do this from Louisville, Kentucky And on top, we will be manufacturing 24,000 pounds of dry ice per day We expect at peak to be shipping about 60-70,000 pounds of dry ice per day in total So, that’s how it’s going to work Admiral Giroir: Truly impressive. Very impressive I want to get to Richard in just a second, because I want him to talk about his tracking mechanisms And, also when people ask me, this is the busiest shipping time of the year It’s Christmas How are you going to deal with saving the world with a pandemic and delivering at Christmas at the same time? But I want to get to Marc Casper now from Thermo Fisher As the testing guy, Thermo has been involved a lot, making the machines that do PCR, making the full-service test in the tens of millions of tubes of viral transport media So, we’re on each other’s speed dial But you’re here in a different role, because you have a big company and you make a lot of the hardware to keep stuff really cold Tell us about your ultra-low temperature solutions,

and some of the devices that you’ve brought here Mr. Casper: Sure. So Admiral, thank you for hosting the panel, and for all that you’ve done in the response to the pandemic And I’d also like to thank President Trump, Vice President Pence, and the entire administration for being in a position that we can be talking about vaccine distribution in so few months That’s a pretty amazing opportunity to do so So, Thermo Fisher scientific has been very involved in the pandemic response, as you said In fact out microscopes were used to actually identify the spike protein And spike protein is what the vaccine ultimately was able to target all the way through the testing with PCR, and in many aspects of the vaccine in therapy, in terms of using our factories to produce the product as well as raw materials in the product But today, when you think about vaccine distribution, it’s really about ultra-cold storage We, in the 1950s, actually started in the process of supplying laboratories with ultra-low temperature freezers, minus 80, minus 86 degrees temperature freezers so you could store these vaccines and other biological samples And our team around the world is ready In fact, we have made significant investments in our facilities in Ashville, North Carolina, Marietta, Ohio Adding American jobs and millions and millions of dollars of investment, to be ready for this day In fact, when we heard about Operation Warp Speed, we started the hiring Because we knew that we needed to be ready so when a vaccine was ready, Thermo Fisher was ready And in this vaccine storage unit, this ultra-low temperature unit made in North Carolina, effectively you can store about 5,000 doses In the typical ones you can store up to about 300,000 doses And I will keep it safe and just open up so you can get a sense of at least the scale of it, which is here Inside you can store those 5,000 doses So, we’re ready, and as the requirements are needed, we’ll be there to support the efforts of the government Admiral Giroir: Thank you much for that So, I’m going to get back to Mr. Smith So let me rephrase the question, how are you going to keep General Perna and Santa Claus both happy at the same time? (laughter) Mr. Smith: Sure, well, you may have noticed when you see our trucks running around your neighborhoods, some of them say FedEx Ground Some of them say FedEx Express The FedEx Express network is the original Federal Express Company that was founded in Memphis, Tennessee in 1973 and pioneered absolutely positively overnight delivery That is where you ship time-definite, critical shipments, like vaccines Our ground system is where the bulk of your Christmas presents, and most of the online commerce surge that we’ve seen, that’s who’s out there delivering that So, running discrete networks gives us the focus and the ability to make these vaccines a top priority for us Secondly, you touched on our tracking and monitoring solution This is our patented SenseAware ID, the latest and greatest in positive control It gives us real-time visibility to every shipment we pick up So, our couriers will affix these tags to every box Our priority alert agents will be sitting in a 24x 7, 365 command center monitoring them Based on both the traditional scan data and the real-time SenseAware ID node data But, even more importantly than that is what we call FedEx Surround It is a new platform that we launched in collaboration with Microsoft, which we announced earlier this year It uses all of that data that we generate every day to give us predictive analytics so that if package is in danger of failing, they can jump into action and intercede before a failure occurs That is a very profound leap forward, an evolutionary leap, if you will, in track and trace technology And I think it is the future We’re very proud of it, and we’re debuting it and using it in conjunction with this vaccine distribution Admiral Giroir: So, I think we have time for a couple more questions I’ll just ask generally, we know this is your business, all of you, this is what you do But did you have to do any special training for your employees, your pilots, anyone in the system, to get ready for this mission? Maybe we can start with McKesson first Mr. Seamans: Yeah, sure, you know as you mentioned, this is something that we’re quite familiar with Very extensive experience in vaccines Although this is a unique environment, so it’s a couple things One, the Moderna vaccine given it’s need to be stored and distributed at negative 15, negative 25 range, we had to specially train — get equipment and specially train our employees to work and operate in that environment Because we are actually taking the doses from that bulk pallet, and putting it into the packages within the freezer So you can imagine, you can only do that for a certain period of time, maybe 15-20 minutes You have to rotate out But, other than that, the rest of the program is really as we do We’re just doing it at a bigger scale

Admiral Giroir: Fantastic Anyone else? Mr. Wheeler: Yeah I’ll add to that Of course we have 3,000 pilots in the U.S We land up to 500 flights per day, and takeoff every night from Louisville, Kentucky We ship 60 million flu vaccines a year We’re very good at this We know how to handle biologic drugs This happened to be a very specialized biologic drug because it’s kept at very, very, very low temperatures So the one thing we’ve had to do is make sure that we have enough dry ice capacity on the aircraft and that we know exactly how to handle the special tracking devices that I explained earlier on that box Mr. Smith: Yeah, similar to Wes, we worked with the FAA over the years to safely raise the threshold in terms of how much dry ice we can carry on our aircraft We’ve installed CO2 monitors, and the crews are well-versed and trained for all sorts of eventualities We have DG specialists in our operations who are trained in handling dry ice and dangerous goods packages So this is not new to us, just like our esteemed competitor over here, we handle millions of vaccine shipments and biologics and other things that have tight temperature control requirements every year Admiral Giroir: Marc, anything from your side? Mr. Casper: You know, we — because of the ramp up of hiring, over 5,000 new employees this year in the response The training efforts have been monumental, and we have a phenomenal team I couldn’t be more grateful, because it’s their work that’s actually put me on the stage, right It’s all their hard efforts that has given us the opportunity to play a role in this response Admiral Giroir: Fantastic (inaudible) did you have something else to add? Mr. Smith: I’m just going to mention in terms of scale, remember, this is a peak period for us For both FedEx and UPS, we shipped 34 million packages yesterday So we’re estimating that the number of shipments required — Male Speaker: My wife ordered most of them actually (laughter) Mr. Smith: — for vaccine in very small amount This is a small fraction of what we do every day Admiral Giroir: On the next panel, and we know this is — the goal is to get needles in people’s arms Get them safe, save lives We’re going to be working with retailers like Walgreens and CVS And I think it would be interesting to the audience to understand what kind of interactions, if any, you have with them on a daily basis What you’ve had to build And I bet Thermo is supplying something to them as well So, maybe we’ll start with Thermo and then go around Mr. Casper: Yeah, we prepared our cold storage products to be ready to support the distribution networks and the retailers So we’ve had you know, close contact with them, and we’ll supply whatever they need Mr. Smith: Yeah, they’re our customers We know them well We partner with them for onsite pickup, and they actually act as retail access points for our networks where you can pick up and deliver your packages at Walgreens or CVS So we know their business well We’re going there every single day Mr. Wheeler: I think we have 10,000 CVS stores in our database, and we’ll be delivering starting, General Perna, hopefully in the next couple of days We’re prepared. We’re ready And we’re excited about that And on behalf of the half million UPS’ers in our company, we’re extremely proud to be part of this operation We really thank you very much Mr. Seamans: And just to end, you know, CVS is our largest customer actually We also work with Walgreens We deliver pharmaceutical products and supplies to those companies every day So we have an extensive relationship with them Admiral Giroir: I can tell you, this discussion, I had great confidence But it also reinforces that, this is what you do, right? It’s like me as a pediatrician looking in a child’s ears This is what I do every single day And this is what you do And the scale is larger, and the complexity is higher But I have great confidence, as the American people should Let me just ask the last question And a couple of you said you might want to take this And if you don’t that’s fine Any myths you want to bust? Male Speaker: Oh man (laughter) How much time do you have? Admiral Giroir: We only have, I think, about five minutes left But myths to bust Because I think it’s very important Because the rumor mills get out there You know, the Twitter machine is kind of crazy So let’s bust some myths Mr. Smith: So let me start with the one that’s probably most in our wheelhouse as an airline Obviously, there’s other’s out there There’s not enough dry ice in the world There’s not enough gloves But there’s not enough air cargo capacity out there to handle this So I’ve seen some studies that say you’d need 8000 jumbo jets, some say 777s, some say 747s Those are very different units of capacity, by the way But let’s just say wide-body aircraft At FedEx we operate 8,000 flights a week, 32,000 flights a month Of those, half of those are wide-body aircraft So, if we dedicated our network to it, we could deliver all the world’s vaccines, based on those studies Which, by the way, are very flawed, because they use a lot of assumptions that aren’t valid because of all the different vaccines

and different packaging dimensions, but let’s assume they are By that — by those studies, we could deliver all the world’s vaccines using just our network in a couple of weeks Because you don’t fly an airplane just once, right? You fly it multiple times So that is a huge myth that’s out there There is plenty of air cargo capacity in our network, in our competitors’ networks, to handle this, and remember it’s not all going to hit us on a Tuesday It’s a function of time It’s going to come over time So, we’ve got this, relax It’s FedEx and UPS Admiral Giroir: I’ve seen that myth been propagated this weekend, so thanks for clarifying it You have one? Mr. Wheeler: Well, I think the perception that everything travels in a temperature-controlled vehicle or aircraft is — we have that of course, we do that every day with many, many products In this case, these vaccines, temperature is controlled in the box The box has been designed to maintain temperature for 10 days, and I didn’t show this before, but that’s a 2-mil vial right there, and we can put up to 5,000 doses in that box And so, the temperature will be maintained for 10 days, and we will have the dry ice to replenish if necessary So the myth that we can’t move temperature-controlled stuff in temperature-controlled vehicles is just not right This is how we’re doing it Admiral Giroir: Fantastic Mr. Seamans: They said it well Admiral Giroir: Any myths from you? Well, I just want to say, I want to thank all of you and all your employees When they get up in the morning, I hope when you ask them what they’re doing, you know, they’re out loading an aircraft, they’re out saving lives They’re saving thousands of lives Their contribution is as vital as anybody with a stethoscope or immunizing someone And I can just say, having worked with all your companies since really day one, this pandemic, I want to sincerely thank you on behalf of the American people, our service, and everyone you serve Mr. Casper: Thank you, Admiral Appreciate it (applause) Admiral Giroir: And I think we’re going to have back to Mr. Mango Mr. Mango: Okay, thank you, Admiral Giroir Thank you, gentlemen I think the point about we’re building on a foundation, we’re — the beneficiaries of investment and innovation has taken place for many decades with the best transport and package delivery companies in the world I think you got a taste of that Okay Not so bad, 4:10 on the dot, so thank you for being punctual There’s a sequence, an intentional sequence, to what we’re doing this afternoon We started with Dr. Slaoui and General Perna talking about the vaccine portfolio and distribution strategies at the highest level Then we had Dr. Marks talk about how those vaccines will be evaluated and approved, and what you just heard is how those vaccines will be stored and shipped and delivered So our next panel is really going to be how the vaccines are going to be administered, and for that we’re going to turn to Brad Smith, who’s another Operation Warp Speed board member He’s going to lead a panel with Rick Gates from Walgreens and John Roberts from CVS Health, and these stores, or I should say the stores of these two pharmacy companies alone will represent tens of thousands of outlets at which Americans will eventually be able to get vaccines But part of what we really wanted to focus on today is another vital role that these two companies are going to play, and that is they will deploy mobile vaccination teams into every long-term care and assisted living facility in the country at the direction, as you heard early on, of the state and with the permission of the nursing home And I think it’s somewhere between 80 and 85 percent of our 15,000 long-term care facilities have already signed up to have either CVS or Walgreens perform this role It’s an absolute turnkey service They’ll have everything that’s needed to vaccinate They’ll come back 21 days later or 28 days later depending on which vaccine it is, and they’ll record all of the appropriate information So, Brad Smith and panelists, why don’t you come on up? (applause) Mr. Smith: Well, thank you both for — can you guys hear me okay? Yeah, perfect Well, thank you guys both for being here We’ve had the pleasure of working together in a number of ways over the past eight or nine months, and you guys have been two incredible American companies Everything from in March and April, just keeping your stores open so that places — people had a place to go and get basic goods, to everything you’ve done to ramp up testing And now here talking about the vaccine that will hopefully over the next several months bring us an end to the pandemic So thank you for everything you guys have done

So this is Rick Gates, Senior Vice President for Pharmacy and Healthcare and the lead for the COVID-19 vaccine administration effort at Walgreens, and John Roberts, the EVP and Chief Operating Officer at CV — CVS Health So as Paul has mentioned, we’ve talked a lot today about how we’re going to distribute the vaccines to the insides, and this panel is really to talk about how, as General Perna said, we really get shots in arms And we’re going to specifically talk about two settings and dig in a little bit on both of them The first is the long-term care settings, specifically nursing homes, assisted living facilities And then we’re also going to talk about the retail setting and what would it mean for the average American to get a shot, and what does that experience look like for them So maybe we’ll start with talking about the long-term care facilities So earlier this week, the CDC under Dr. Redfield’s leadership made a recommendation for prioritization of who should get the vaccine first In that first year are healthcare workers but also long-term care residents And I know that many of the states, as Paul was saying, have contract with you all to reach out their long-term care facilities and to help administer the vaccine Maybe you guys can both start by talking a little bit about the investments you’ve made to be prepared for that, and then also just thinking about us who maybe have a family member in one of the nursing home facilities, what will that look like from an actual patient experience, family experience? But maybe Rick, we can start with you Mr. Gates: Yeah, sure thing, and certainly thank you for having me here today First of all, I am a pharmacist, 25 years now So I live and breathe pharmacy each and every day, and I can tell you that, you know, pharmacists, pharmacy, and Walgreens is as proud to be here as part of this build-out really to support Americans as we really look to get past this next challenging phase that we’re in right now, so we’re really glad to be here Secondly, I was a pharmacist in stores for over eight years, and I can tell you pharmacy’s embedded in the communities that we serve So not only do we work in the communities, we actually serve in the communities and live in the communities as well So it’s really important that that’s part of the nature that pharmacy really plays and that that plays as well, and immunizations are core to what we do And so I think, you know, General Perna, as you were saying, you know, it’s the expertise that’s there Just want to show everybody that immunizations and vaccinations are something that pharmacies have been doing for well over 10 years You think back to H1N1 and where we really leaned forward as a profession to really start to serve that as well And I had the pleasure of serving on the planning committee for H1N1 within Walgreens as well, so I think there’s a lot of expertise here to really help, I think, ensure that we get shots in arms, I think is what we’re trying to get as well And I think the other challenge we have is reaching the vulnerable and the underserved So I think a lot of work has to be done, and I think we have a lot of work to do to make sure that we get to areas that are more rural, underserved, and vulnerable And I think you can see that the industry’s really starting to do that Even with testing that you mentioned before, 70 percent of our sites are in (inaudible) So I think just from a framework perspective, I think pharmacies are well-placed to really step forward and really help in this process So to your question, I think that if you look at when we get vaccinations from the states, and I think that’s the first part of it, we are committed within a couple days of getting into the first long-term care facilities and ensuring that we’re starting to vaccinate Americans at that point in time And it’s really critical that we have speed of pace to really start the vaccinating process, and it still will take upwards of two to three months to get full vaccinations across, and I’ll talk a little bit about how we’re setting up the different clinics as well within long-term care facilities Up to this point, we’re — well over 30,000 long-term care facilities have chosen Walgreens at this point in time And whether they’re one block away from us or they’re 50 miles away from us, we will absolutely hit every single long-term care facility that has chosen us, because I think it’s imperative that we are supporting Americans that are asking to be vaccinated as well And just from an expertise perspective, I also want to just give assurances that off-site clinics are core to what we do Every year, we do off-site clinics for flu and pneumonia and others, and over the last five years alone, Walgreens has done about 150,000 off-site clinics to really support the communities that we’re in So, when you talk about the expertise and the comfort, if you will, this is really core to what we do I have a couple things here, and it really goes back to the importance of working in this great ecosystem I think that Operation Warp Speed has kind of set up, but working with CDC, HHS, the states, even the pharma companies to really start to build out an end-to-end solution that’s going to be comfortable for patients and obviously something that we can ensure that our practitioners and pharmacists can support in a very efficient and effective way as well So, I’m not quite as cool as all the last ones they had up there, but I do have a couple things here We have worked hard to build out an end-to-end process really for the consumer, which is going to be critical for how they look at really working with us So from signing up for vaccine to administration to follow-up communication, as well as how we’re going to set up follow-up —

the second dose, right, the booster dose, if you will We have to ensure that Americans get both doses, and I think that sits not only on the states, the health departments, but obviously on the pharmacy as well, to ensure consumers know when to schedule it, as well as that we’re going to follow up and ensure they actually get it as well and get the proper information out there So, a lot of work has been done in investment here to ensure that it’s a seamless experience for consumers as well, both in long-term care facilities, as well as for the broader general public as well But equally as important, you talked about distribution a little bit earlier We have worked as well — I didn’t bring mine with me today, but we have been working on hub locations for ultra-cold storage So this is most specifically for the Pfizer vaccine It will require us to have about 800 to 1,000 hub locations that we will actually put the Pfizer vaccine to ensure safety, safety of storage and then ultimately transport out into our locations as well So, we are deploying this as well as dry ice as a core part of what we’re doing And then kind of the last mile here, it’s not as cool, but it is something that once the doses are thawed, we have a safe and efficient way to get the last mile out to long-term care facilities, ensure that there’s safety for our team members, safety for, obviously, the public, and we have appropriate storage for the vaccines as well So a lot of work being done on the logistics of how we’re going to get it there as well, important that we kind of shared that with you When it comes to long-term care facilities, and we are actually working in coordination with them as well as the state, and what that looks like are a couple things Long-term care facilities are being scheduled for two to three clinics right now So we want to make sure that we have them booked, we have the timing set, we know what vaccine is going to be there, and we know when the secondary shots are going to be received so that we can ensure that there’s going to be the completion of that series as well It’s critical for the vaccine effectiveness, so we’re going to do that as well Second thing is we’ve got to work with long-term care facilities for appropriate space It’s got to be clean and organized, enough space for social distancing It’s got to be safe and clean, obviously, the way that we need to, but we have to ensure safety for the team members, for obviously the general public, as well as the employees of the long-term care facilities as well So a lot of work is being set up to really support the collaboration, if you will, with those long-term care facilities I think just to sum it up, I’d say that, you know, COVID vaccine itself does present some challenges different than what we’ve seen before, but it’s really not something we can’t do So we have dealt with frozen vaccines before; we have dealt, obviously, with off-site vaccines before All these things we just have to actually say how are we going to support the nuances to it So it’s a cold storage, it’s going to be, obviously, excessive off-sites, all stuff that we can do and will do And I’ll just leave you with this From a pharmacy perspective, and I’ll — still, I think the line that General Perna said, you know, this is what we do Pharmacy does this each and every day We do over 15 to 20 million flu vaccines every day — or every year, I should say, and you don’t have fanfare about that, right? So just trust that we have the infrastructure, and we are here and we will support this process going forward, so Mr. Smith: Thanks And John, I know you said you’ve had tens of thousands of long-term care facilities reach out to you as well Can you talk a little about your guys’ preparation? Mr. Roberts: Yeah, sure, and I’ll try not to be repetitive to what Rick said But you know, let me just start by saying how happy we are to be working with all the partners that you’re seeing at the summit today to put an end to this pandemic You know, it’s really important that we get this country back to some sense of normalcy And I also just want to recognize the 240,000 CVS Health employees that are very, very proud to be part of this effort Maybe just start by saying CVS has a lot of experience in the long-term care space So we’re actually the largest pharmacy services provider to long-term care through our Omnicare pharmacy This year alone, we’ve conducted 8,000 flu clinics at long-term care facilities, and we’re actually supporting 1,400 long-term care facilities with regular COVID testing So we’ve got a lot of experience, highly confident we know the space very well And you heard 15,000 long-term care facilities, that’s really nursing homes, so the sickest of the sick of our seniors, the ones that need the most support But there’s a bunch of other senior facilities like assisted living facilities, group homes And so the CDC did a great job of surveying all these facilities, and we had 44,000 facilities that selected CVS to give the vaccine, and that’ll be based on the states’ priorities And we’ll be putting 9,000 pharmacists, technicians, and nurses on the road that will actually go to the facilities to administer the vaccines And we’re ready to get going, so soon as the vaccines hit

General Perna, we’re ready to get going And depending upon which vaccine gets administered, we’ll be able to complete that cycle of two doses in six to eight weeks Pfizer is three weeks between dose one and two, and Moderna is four weeks, so depending upon which vaccine, that’ll determine the timeline And we’re going to be leveraging our existing technology platforms So we do this today to coordinate, track, and report to both states and the federal government about all the vaccine activity that takes place And we have the capability to safely transport the vaccines from where we receive them, and you heard that on the last panel, to these facilities, maintain them at the proper temperature control per the manufacturer’s requirements So, CVS is ready, and we’re ready to take care of this most vulnerable part of our population Mr. Smith: Well, thanks for all the preparation you guys have done with the long-term care homes So let’s think out to maybe February or March or maybe even April, when the vaccine becomes available to the majority of Americans across the country You know, many of them are used to going into your stores today I think you’ve both committed to having the vast majority of your stores be prepared to vaccinate folks Maybe John, we can start with you and you can talk through a little bit the preparations that you’re undertaking, but also more than anything, what would the experience be for the average American when they sign up and come into the store? Mr. Roberts: Well, listen It’s — you know, it’s something that I can’t think is more important for this country And we’ve got a lot of experience, you know, Rick, like you do at Walgreens, giving vaccinations And for this flu season alone, as an example, we’ve given 16 million flu shots already this year, which is double what we did last year So people listened to the CDC guidance to get their flu shot And we think, you know, providing access to the COVID vaccine to where people live will be very important to ensuring everybody who wants the vaccine can get it And so that’s why we think community pharmacy’s such a great — a great — a great place for consumers to get the vaccine So in our 10,000 stores, and Walgreens has something similar, we’re within 10 miles of 85 percent of the population So we’re in the communities It’ll be easy for people to get to our stores And 60 percent of our stores are in areas that are more vulnerable to COVID as well And yeah, we’re very well prepared to vaccinate the general public We have an established infrastructure to do this We are trusted in the community across the country Pharmacists are probably the most trusted person in their community We’ve got a lot of experience giving vaccinations, not only flu but other vaccines And finally, we have experience and are committed to addressing the health inequities with outreach, access, support, and education I think that’s going to be very, very critical So let me talk a little bit about what we’re already doing in COVID I think, you know, we’re doing a lot already, so we’re — CVS is currently doing 70 percent of all the COVID testing in retail sites across the country We have 4,700 stores where people can go and get a COVID test today We’ve also worked with states, and we have 14 community sites where we’re doing COVID testing in underserved communities And we’ve administered 8 million COVID tests so far I think you heard the number from President Trump that there’s been 200 million tests given We’ve done 8 million of those And we will have the capacity at retail to administer 25 million COVID vaccines each and every month across our almost 10,000 stores And we have 50,000 trained immunizers at CVS, and they’re ready to go So I think, you know, the — this whole notion of educating people on the safety and efficacy of this vaccine we believe is going to be critical So we are building and have built plans to do this So we have 4 and a half million people that shop our stores each and every day, so we’ll have material, educational material, that they can pick up in their stores or we can distribute through the drive-thru We’re going to leverage our trusted healthcare colleagues to educate people in their community, in the thousands of communities across this country where they live and work And we’ll also be leveraging a lot of our existing communication channels, so think of our circulars, our dot com site,, our in-store radio, or even our IVR when people come So we think education is going to be critical And as we think about distributing the vaccine, we’re going to build off our experience that we have with the annual flu vaccine So, we will distribute the vaccines allocated to us in the order of priority that’s determined by the individual states And we know the states are going to be using the CDC guidelines,

as their guide, as they decide on their priorities We have the ability to distribute both Pfizer and Moderna at retail So think of Pfizer as being the ultra-frozen and Moderna is being frozen And so let me maybe just start with Moderna So all of our stores have freezers; Moderna just needs to be stored at the regular freezer temperature Those freezers all have temperature monitors that we can monitor to make sure that the vaccines are kept at the appropriate temperature And so stores will be allocated vaccines based on appointments that are made and those vaccines will be shipped directly to the stores and put into the freezers For Pfizer, we have to do something a little bit different So we’ve identified 1,100 depot stores across the country They’ll receive the Pfizer shipper that you saw earlier You can actually keep that vaccine in that shipper for up to 15 days by replenishing the dry ice and then it can be kept at regular refrigerated temperature for another five days So think of it as these 1,100 depots will get the Pfizer vaccine and then they’ll deliver it to nine other local stores in a way that ensures that it’s correct at the right temperature and in and supports the vaccinations that they have scheduled We’ve also created a robust consumer experience, so Brandon, I’m finally getting to your question, to ensure it’s easy to schedule a vaccination So it’s going to be very easy A consumer will go on to our website They’ll pick a store that’s convenient to them They’ll pick a date that, you know, works in their schedule, and then they’ll pick a time And so these vaccinations will be done by appointment Now, when they make that first appointment, they’re also going to make their second appointment because getting the second dose, we feel, is critical and it needs to be done within a certain timeframe from when they get that first dose So think of it as is what you would do when you buy a roundtrip airplane ticket So once that appointment is made, reminders will be sent to the to the customer ahead of their scheduled appointments, both the first and the second; it’ll either be emails or texts In the case where somebody misses their appointment, we’ll actually make a live call for them, to them to try to get them back in to get that second dose Patients will arrive at their at their CVS And it’ll be a similar experience to going into your pharmacy to get a flu shot They’ll come in at their scheduled time They’ll meet with the pharmacist or technician They’ll get their flu shot They’ll get a record card with a vaccination that they — that they got We’ll also email them that record as well Now, we also think that there may be patients that want to only get their second dose at CVS So maybe they’ve gotten their first dose somewhere else And for some reason, they can’t get back to wherever they received that first dose So what do we do? We’ll actually have them go to the website We’ll ask them which vaccine they received on their first dose And only those stores that have that same vaccine will show up as options for them to choose Now, we also know that there may be customers that don’t remember what their first dose was And so what we’ll do in that case is we’ll either call the provider that gave them that first dose or we’ll also have the ability to query state records and find out what that vaccine is So — and then the last thing I would say is there’s no cost to the consumer So everyone that wants a vaccine should be able to get it Then we’re ready to go with CVS So we think we’ve made a very easy, seamless experience There’s not going to be lines because everyone will be by appointment There’s a lot of follow up to ensure they get the second dose up to and including a phone call if they miss that appointment And we’ll be able to do 25 million vaccines a month So we’re pretty excited about being part of the solution here, Brad Mr. Smith: That’s really helpful And I think it’s great to hear about the creativity you guys have had around the Pfizer vaccine I know one of our concerns was, will you be able to deploy the Pfizer vaccine in a retail setting? And I think when you see the innovation around the box and the storage combined with the innovation you’re having around one store serving and supporting nine others, that’s really helpful to see Mr. Roberts: Great Mr. Smith: Rick, what about on your side? Mr. Gates: You know, again, I don’t want to repeat a lot of what you did, but I think what John really emphasizes is the fact that pharmacy is really well placed, I think, to help with vaccine vaccinating America in the general population So I think it’s really exciting when you hear about, I think, all of the different things that — whether it’s CVS or Walgreens or broadly across pharmacy, is going to be doing to really ensure that great experience, a comfort level for consumers, as well as an understanding of the safety profiles

I do want to emphasize the fact that making sure that Americans understand the safety profile, and while it’s important to get the vaccine, is going to be a key part of what pharmacy must do when it comes to the general population So there’s a lot of education we should be doing, a lot of materials, working with the CDC, with the manufacturers, and others that we need to get out there and educate America So I think that’s a really important part of what we’re doing as we build out the infrastructure, so we can really support, you know, the throughput that may be necessary for all of America The only other thing I’d really emphasize here is that if you look at it, we’ve got to continue to improve the experience and make sure people feel comfortable with it, because even with the great numbers that we’ve had with the flu vaccine over the last couple of years, even between the companies like ours, there’s a ton of Americans that aren’t getting vaccines that should be getting vaccines And so we’ve got — it’s on us really to make sure that we make a safe environment They understand that cleanliness protocols, that we have private health rooms, that there are areas that are going to be safe and it is a professional that’s doing this for them and helping them make sure that they get the subsequent dose as well So there’s a lot of education, I think is going to be a part of what we have to do in the general population I think that’s core to what pharmacy can absolutely support And then all the ancillaries, making it easy, making it digital, all those pieces, I think, will just make it easier and simpler for consumers that they will actually want to navigate the pharmacy to really help solve that And our help get into primary care provider, whoever is going to be to ensure they get vaccinated as well Mr. Smith: That’s really helpful I know, John, you already hit on this a little bit And Rick, you mentioned it, too But I just think it’s so important to talk a little bit more about — these are the first two vaccines or two dose vaccines And obviously, it’s really important that folks who get the first dose get the second dose from the same company I know, John, you already spoke to this a little bit, but Rick, maybe add a little bit more color around that Mr. Gates: Yeah. And, you know, getting the second dose is obviously — yes, that’s not going to work — you won’t have the effectiveness, you won’t have the immunity that’s necessary based off of just getting one dose So getting the second dose is absolutely critical So if you think about it, dose serious completions are not new things at pharmacy have not done before Right. We have — we have shingles vaccinations that require some second dose We have some pneumonia based vaccine Nations where you have to get that yearly with a different type of dose; we have already processes in place to ensure that we get the second dose And so I think that it goes back to there’s expertise here; this is what we do every day, right In vaccinations and getting second doses is core to what we do We just have to continue to make it easier So there’s going to be a lot of work being done to make sure that we’re communicating to the consumer the way that they want us to communicate to them Is that texting? Is it a phone call? Do we want to send them a letter? It doesn’t matter We just need to make sure that they understand when their next dose is it’s automatically scheduled And then at that point in time, follow-up calls or whatever it’s going to take or necessary to get there We are working in tandem, and I know John said it as well, with state registries and obviously with the federal registry I know that General Perna talked about We’ve got to make sure that the data sharing is there so that we know who’s gotten the vaccine, what vaccine they’ve received, and we can ensure that they get the second dose And I think all of this is going to work together to help us ensure that we get to that point as well Mr. Roberts: And Brad, the only thing I would add is, you know, is part of registering on our digital site for the first dose will get their cell phone numbers I mean, just about everybody has a cell phone and we find that texting is very effective at getting people, you know, either in to refill their medication We think it’s going to be very effective in getting people into — for their second dose And so we’re really leveraging our technology communication platform to ensure people, you know, come in and get that second dose I think the first those helps But, you know, our clinical people say that, you know, you’re not going to be totally protected unless you get that second dose Mr. Smith: Well, I just want to conclude by saying again, thank you guys for everything that you’re doing When the doses arrive, you guys will become the front lines And you guys are both incredibly well prepared in the country and all of us are very grateful So thank you Multiple Speakers: Thank you Mr. Mango: Okay, our last panel before the Vice President sums things up Let’s think these gentlemen, though, from CVS and Walgreens, as we said, to other incredibly trusted brands that will play such a key role in vaccinating our fellow citizens So we’re just so privileged to have them as part of this (applause) So our final panel of the afternoon and Secretary Azar is going to actually moderate it, and I think we said a little bit earlier, he’s actually the architect of Operation Warp Speed And you heard Dr. Slaoui talk about some of the key success factors from a scientific standpoint and the technology platforms But if you look at operation warp speed, it’s also an enterprise If you think about that, it’s a business enterprise So we were sitting in the secretary’s office one day in March and we learned of a contract Dr. Cablik and others were beginning to engage in contracts to get vaccine development going And after we learned about that contract, he asked the question, well, when are they going to start phase one trials?

And having come from the pharmaceutical industry, he knew that was kind of a critical start to the whole development of a drug or a biologic in this case And the answer was September And that was completely unsatisfactory to the secretary at the time And he said we just can’t have business as usual at this point So we understood three aspects that had to change right away One, we need a different talent He picked up the phone, some of his industry contacts I was in his office and he said, who’s the best vaccine developer in the world? We got one answer, Moncef Slaoui, who’s the best manufacturing executive in the world Carlo de Notaristefani Both of them are core members of the team Next day, picks up the phone, calls Secretary Esper, “I need — I need a logistics expert.” That’s how we got General Perna So it was about talent just getting the team together that would actually do — the second he understood — you heard Monsef talk about manufacturing at risk Having come from the pharmaceutical industry, he knew there weren’t going to be many pharmaceutical companies that were going to manufacture 100 million doses before they understood where they were going to get an EUA or licensure from the FDA So that was a big part of the design And then lastly, we haven’t talked about it today, but governance, how do we cut through the bureaucracy? How did Operation Warp Speed cut through the bureaucracy? It was very simple, direct report from the board of Operation Warp Speed to the President of the United States as the sponsor, the President as the sponsor of this overall effort So when we say the architect of Operation Warp Speed, those were three key success factors That’s why we are where we are today We talked a little bit earlier about three partnerships We’re now engaged in that last one, which is federal, state And this is consistent with the principles we’ve used all along, federally supported, state managed, locally executed And I looked at the attendee list before we arrived today and am pleased to see that there several county commissioners and actually mayors in the audience And they’re the ones who are actually going to have to, at the end of the day, execute, so thank you for making your way here to DC All 64 states and jurisdictions actually have submitted detailed vaccination plans to the CDC Those plans were evaluated and among the best four that were evaluated were those from Louisiana, Texas, Florida, and Tennessee And we’re fortunate to have the governors from those states with us this afternoon, Governor John Bel Edwards from Louisiana, Governor Greg Abbott from Texas, Governor Ron DeSantis from Florida, and Governor Bill Lee from Tennessee So Secretary Azar and the governors, come on out (applause) Secretary Azar: Well, Paul, thank you very much for that introduction of the of the governors here and for some of that history on how Operation Warp Speed got going You know, it’s always if you’re a leader in business, if you’re a CEO of a cabinet department, you know it’s all about the people People is policy And you’ve gotten to see today some of the incredible people who have driven this to make this work and get these — I think, Paul, you had a really nice quote from Churchill It’s the people who allowed us to unlearn what was impossible and folks like Dr. Moncef Slaoui leading on the development, General Gus Perna, when I talked to Secretary Esper, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs, they immediately said, we got the guy for you, had an Army Materiel Command, and said, Gus is the guy for you, got to be there And I called around and I said, you know, I need manufacturing and Carlo de Notaristefani, a real talent We don’t mention as much who led global manufacturing for all of Bristol-Myers Squibb, a biologic manufacturing company branded around the world, but also for Teva, one of the world’s great generic companies, able to stand up 200 assembly lines and manufacturing processes per year So that kind of talent, they dropped everything These folks dropped everything that they were doing General Perna moved, gave up his command, moved These others volunteered They gave up their retirements They stopped the retirements They came and they served the country just in the greatest spirit of what people did in World War II, what people did with the Manhattan Project, what people did with the Apollo Project And I just want to express my public appreciation to the people who really are making this happen (applause) And I want to also express my appreciation to the folks on the stage with me here, you know, under the Vice President’s leadership, we have had an intimate and close connection to America’s governors Almost every single week,

we have had an often multi-hour video conference with our nation’s governors, our territorial governors And we — it’s really been one of the great collaborations I’ve ever seen We are over 40 at this point, I know, of the of the gatherings that we have already had this year and the four governors on the stage here, I don’t think there’s been a weekly session that the Vice President hasn’t called on each of you to share your learnings, your understanding, and your expertise with your fellow governors And there’s a reason for that As we talk, as Paul said, about the three key partnerships that are part of Operation Warp Speed, one of them is the federal/state partnership And just on vaccine distribution planning, these four governors put together some of the best vaccine distribution plans, the real models for the rest of the country And that’s why we asked Governor Edwards, Governor DeSantis, Governor Abbott, Governor Lee, to be here with us But I just want to say, beyond vaccine planning, just throughout this entire pandemic, they’ve been incredible partners to work with on a bipartisan basis It’s been really an honor to work with each of you So thank you for that I want to kick things off As I mentioned, there’s a reason we asked you in addition to your general expertise and leadership, but it was that the CDC looked at your plans and said your plans really are exceptional Let me ask first, Governor Abbott, do you mind sharing with us any insights about the process you use to come up with your plan? And I’ll turn to the other governors real quick just to get any insight there Governor Abbott: Sure Well, first, thanks to you and thanks to everybody in the Trump administration for this Operation Warp speed It really is a feat of medical advancement But as you know, we’ve been working collaboratively with you, with your team, and with the White House Coronavirus Team to get us prepared So we began preparing for the delivery of these vaccines going all the way back to the spring And we have accelerated that over the past month or two And over the past month, we have already signed up more than 7,200 providers in the state of Texas that are waiting for these vaccines as we speak right now, ready to make sure that we do put needles in arms within 24 to 48 hours As soon as we get those vaccines, the providers that are signed up include hospitals and private health care providers, nursing homes, local pharmacies, and these large pharmacy chains Importantly, working with your entire team, learning the strategy and information that we need, we were able to set up a large number of these cold change storage operations so that we would make sure that we would be able to handle the Pfizer vaccine as well as a Moderna vaccine adequately Also, to be ready for this, we understand when we’re doing something this large, especially in a state the size of Texas, we needed to make sure that we were able to work out the kinks And to do that, we actually ran several mock distributions in advance to make sure that when it does arrive, we will have eliminated any of the potential missteps And then very important, we have established ways that we are going to remain in communication with the people who receive the first vaccine This includes when they do first receive their vaccine, they will be receiving a reminder card at that time, letting them know when they are to return, where they are to return, and the process about returning for the second vaccine But we know that may not be enough And so on top of that, we will be following up with text messages, with phone calls, with email reminders, and with a statewide communication plan to make sure there is an inescapable way for people to make sure that they’re going to be learning about exactly what they need to do to make sure that they get that second dose to make sure that they are fully vaccinated Secretary Azar: Governor, you — one quick aside, you mentioned the vaccine reminder cards And this is — this is coming up a lot lately We talked about myths earlier today That’s not a national vaccine card Right? That’s like when you go to the dentist and you get a reminder card, them saying come back in six months and here’s your appointment, right? Governor Abbott: Well, that’s true I’m going to take it a step further Because of the unique attributes of Texas now, there is no national vaccine card — (laughter) — and we’re not creating a national database or anything like that But as Texans know, in the state of Texas, people cannot be required to take a vaccine Most people want to and there’s going to be such a high demand for it, the — all of the supply will be used up But I would just want to make sure my fellow Texans know that we know that you are not going to be forced to take a vaccine against your will

Secretary Azar: Thanks, Governor Governor Edwards, you mind telling us a little bit about how Louisiana and you came up with your game plan? Governor Edwards: Yes, sir So we got started in the spring as well And I’ll tell you that by June, we created a vaccination action collaborative And we have 73 members, 36 different organizations, public and private, higher education involved And we created four work groups They’ve been meeting every week since then And every one of those work groups has an health equity interest that has been attached to it The National Guard has been attached to it And they’ve been working nonstop because we want to make sure that we have a way to do this that is equitable, but also we want to be organized in the way that we receive and distribute and actually administer these vaccines And so we’ve involved LSU They have the National Center for Biomedical Research and Training They’ve run two tabletop exercises for us Each one has been instructive because we realized we had some gaps that we needed to fill We similarly had some distribution exercises to make sure that that the hospitals, for example, would know what to expect And hopefully in the next number of days they’re going to actually be going through that We’ve got a memorandum of agreement You know, the public private partnerships are done at the state level, too So we have an exceptional pharmaceutical wholesaler in Louisiana, Shreveport area We have a memorandum of agreement with them And we’ve identified in advance all of these issues that we expect to have And just like we’ve heard from Walgreens and CVS and UPS and FedEx and McKesson, states, we’ve been in the business of doing this for a long time, too So it’s not anything new It’s just at a scale that we don’t typically have to do it at, right And so we have some really good professionals in the Office of Public Health in Louisiana working across the state with all these different groups And we want to promote the confidence of the people of Louisiana that this is going to be a safe and effective vaccination that they’re going to want to have And so you’ve got to have a good plan in order to, I think, foster that confidence Secretary Azar: Thank you, Governor. Governor DeSantis Governor DeSantis: Yeah, sure Well, first of all, this is I would always tell my folks we hope we get a vaccine, but you should definitely not count on it because it’s ambitious It hasn’t happened before So the fact that it is that’s a great testament to Operation Warp Speed and all the work that so many people have done So we could — as soon as the Pfizer news came out, I flew up and met with you at Warp Speed And I told my folks we already been planning for it But I was like, we got a better sense of the timeline Let’s make sure that we’re leading from the front We really wanted to embrace this I know other governors have said this may not be good We view it as a good thing, not force for anybody, but offer to all And we basically did our vaccine plan to flow out of our of our normal mitigation plan in terms of we focused on protecting vulnerable populations, whether it’s in nursing homes or the broader senior population We focused on supporting our health care system and then we focused on making sure kids were in school, people were able to earn a living And if you look at what we can do with nursing homes, we could have every resident of nursing home in long term care facility vaccinated in the month of December I mean, that’s within our grasp right now in the United States, the state of Florida, we have 4,000 facilities We’re working with CVS, Walgreens to be able to do that It’s important for saving lives because they’re the most vulnerable, but many of the most of them who get it do survive And then many obviously have not been infected But it has such a devastating effect They have mitigations going on in these Look, we allow visitors We, you know, but you have to take all these precautions You just can’t live normally And it’s taking a huge toll on these folks And so we see loneliness, despair, even with having some visitation So we need to get them back to normal And getting them back to normal is going to mean so much to those residents and their families And I’m just — I’m thrilled that we’re really on the doorstep there And then in terms of the health care system, look, the models that said we’re not going to have beds, tens of millions of hospitalizations, obviously, those were very, very wrong But what we found, particularly over the summer when we had a higher census, was it wasn’t that we had plenty of beds, but, you know, this is very labor intensive for health care staff with the isolation procedures, everything they’ve got to do, obviously, they’re testing everyone that comes in So someone breaks their legs They may be asymptomatic, but you still got to do the procedures And then an exposure could take out a half a dozen nurses at one time Well, to be able to get it through, offer it to our health care systems, their tip of the spear, high contact workers to be able to have them, well, they’re going to be in a situation where they’re going to be able to handle patient load going forward And so I think in terms of the most at risk population

will be able to target first and then simultaneously that kind of a high contact, which would have the most impact on our health care system And then we think based on the numbers at the end of December, we can start getting out into the broader senior population and then January really focus on vaccinating as many elderly people as we can And so we’re really excited about it You know, we really leaned into it and then we thank everyone for doing it This is a really, really significant achievement for our country Secretary Azar: Just imagine that every senior at a nursing home in Florida within the next several weeks getting protection That is that is something Well, Governor Lee, the Vice President and Dr. Redfield and I came down to visit you and our great partners, FedEx, just last week You mind telling us a bit about the great process you all used? Governor Lee: And we are proud of FedEx and the role that they’re playing, proud of Vanderbilt as well, the role that they’re playing nationally in this process So Tennessee is — we’re excited to be on the forefront here I want to commend your team too, many of them that we have been on phone calls You talked about the multiple phone calls we had One of the benefits of that is the interaction that we’ve had with the governor So many of the things that you’re hearing right now, we’re all doing in different ways And part of the reason is because we’ve been talking about the things we’re going to do because of the coordinated effort of the Coronavirus Task Force It’s been a part of the reason why I think the approach from this administration has been so effective It’s allowed us to get best practices But so Tennessee started several years ago with pandemic immunization preparedness by pulling up something we call Fight Flu TN And we do once a year, a broad immunization day across the state where we vaccinate thousands of people in every one of our 95 counties And that process gave us a blueprint for how to do what it is that we’re going to be doing in the next few weeks, because our public health officials, because of the Fight Flu TN process our public health officials had practice and the logistics of this and the communications of how it is that we get it out to folks So we’ve taken that blueprint recognizing that this is much bigger, pulled together stakeholders, groups that really advocate for Tennesseans, because we want to make sure this gets distributed equitably In order to do that, we brought in advocates for those with disabilities, AARP, our pharmacy companies, 30 different organizations to help us develop a priority population strategy that will include the most vulnerable in nursing homes, our health care providers and staff, for all the obvious reasons of making sure we have capacity in our health care system and protect the most vulnerable And a lot of that strategy has come through the infrastructure that Tennessee built in the very beginning to address this with a commitment to testing, free testing for every person in Tennessee, regardless of symptoms from the very beginning, a commitment to partnerships with our health care providers, and then a commitment to developing a real strategy for this vaccine implementation So for a few years, we’ve been preparing for it We have escalated that preparation this year, really, again, federally, you all have done an unimaginable job of doing — of bringing this to the states Now it’s our turn to do what needs to be done to get it out to, in our case, the millions of Tennesseans that will have the choice to take this We want to communicate it in a way that they are fully informed so they can make a choice and that they understand the safety and the efficacy and the certainty with which we think this has been delivered Secretary Azar: Thank you, Governor So next one, let’s do Rapid Fire round here I want to ask each of you, because it’s a question I get on T.V. all the time is on speed Just how quickly do you think you can get 100,000 people vaccinated in your state? Governor Lee, you want to kick us off? Governor Lee: So the director of our health department, Dr. Lisa Piercey is here She probably can answer that But I’m going to say, Dr. Piercey, that we can do it in 24 to 48 hours Secretary Azar: Wow Governor Abbott? Governor Abbott: Same thing Listen, we’re ready to go All we need are the test and the vaccines, and once we get them, they should be done within 24 to 48 hours Secretary Azar: Governor DeSantis? Governor DeSantis: Yeah, we hope so I mean, I don’t I would need to ask for sure,

but I think the hospitals was great because I talked to them and they were like, look, this is easier than doing the diagnostic tests We do this all the time We do shots So I think they’re going to be able to get their workforce done very quickly And what we did was we picked a certain number of hospitals that are huge, but we said, look, we want all the other systems And so they’re like, oh, absolutely So they’re all working together And I think they’re going to be able to deliver it, you know, pretty expeditiously because they know — and the first shot, it has protection from what we’re hearing That’s a huge deal and that’s really great Secretary Azar: Governor Edwards? Governor Edwards: Well, assuming that we’re on track with the Emergency Use Authorization and so forth, we expect 39,000 doses of Pfizer the first week, about 40,000 the second week So let me just tell you, within 48 hours of getting that second allocation, we will have administered those vaccinations with shots in the arm with medical personnel, not just doctors, nurses, and therapists — for sure them, but also people who clean the rooms, who deliver the food, anybody who directly or indirectly can be exposed to the virus and contract the disease in those hospital settings, including our EMS workers, by the way So we’re going to get it done within 48 hours Secretary Azar: And that last point Governor Edwards mentioned, I wanted to stress that a lot of times we use a term because we’re in a health care world, we use a shorthand of health care providers What we really need are health care workers And so as important as doctors and nurses, it’s the janitors, it’s the orderlies, it’s the aides, everybody who are providing that kind of help that make the system in the hospital, the nursing home, what have you, work and are just as important, if not more often than everybody else, to make sure they get protection also Governor Edwards: Yes, sir Exactly Secretary Azar: Along those lines, I wanted to raise the question of we have, of course, advice out of the CDC in the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices that — but you all as governors have the freedom to decide how you’d like to prioritize One of the key areas that I think we all worry about are the individuals who are underserved in our health care system, who may not have a lot of connection to it, may not have the frequency of interaction of others As you’ve been thinking about your vaccine distribution plans, maybe Governor Edwards, if you might kick us off here How are you thinking about reaching the more underserved in our community who in many instances have borne a very disproportionate burden of severe consequence from this pandemic? Governor Edwards: Yeah, well, first of all, that’s a great question And we realized in April, by the way, that although African-Americans, about 32 percent of our state’s population at that time, 70 percent of COVID deaths were among African-Americans So I created a health equity task force that then folded on top of the vaccination action collaborative that I talked about But we have a head start on these things because like Governor Lee was talking about, every year we do mass vaccination exercises around the flu vaccine, and we specifically target those underserved areas to try to promote flu vaccinations This year we’ve been especially successful, 42 percent more than last year And of course, part of that has to do with our outreach around COVID, too We don’t want flu patients any more than we want COVID patients in the hospital right now And so that that has been successful So we’ve been learning lessons about how to get into these communities But in addition to that, as part of our overall program, we have contracted with strike teams to go into specific zip codes, just like we targeted certain areas that we needed to be tested We’re targeting certain areas that we know we’re going to have to go in there with strike teams to administer these vaccinations And so we have some that are commercial, but we also have stood up the National Guard And by the way, I want to thank the administration for the extension of the Title 32 on the National Guard, because they’re doing thousands of tests every day in Louisiana But they’re also a big part of our vaccination program with distribution and the strike teams that we’re talking about So with all of that, and I think we’re going to get to this later, is the underserved communities that we really need to do the most outreach and communication with to build up the confidence in the safety and efficacy of the vaccines as well And so that’s a big part of reaching the underserved because we don’t just want the vaccine, we wanted the vaccination And so that’s what we’re working on Secretary Azar: Governor DeSantis Governor DeSantis: Yeah, I think communication is important And I know a lot of our hospitals are already planning on doing a lot of very robust outreach But this is the first vaccine It’s really been politicized, unfortunately I mean, you know, you guys remember the campaign and that’s going to be something that people are going to have to deal with And we obviously want to deal with it I think the fact that we’re not threatening to mandate it helps because we say, look, we think it’s important,

but obviously you make the decision But and then I also think just some of the bad messaging that’s come out over the course of this, quite frankly, is problematic I mean, when, you know, people are doing some of these shutdowns that are totally unscientific about, you know, this type of activity or being on a playground or schools can’t be open, then I think people look at that So I hope we could kind of get on the same page here, take the politics out of it, be very consistent, be evidence based on it, and I think people will respond positively Secretary Azar: Governor Abbott Governor Abbott: Sure So part of the job is to first identify the location of the underserved communities And in a state as large and diverse as the state of Texas, that’s a daunting task because some of the underserved community would be in our large urban areas Some of it would be in the sparsely populated rural areas, some of our rural areas, out of our 254 counties, there are some that don’t have access to any medical health care whatsoever And so we have to first identify them, then go to them, and the way that we are going to them as we have put together a bunch of mobile medical units that will be taking the vaccines to the people where they are in underserved communities to make sure that they will have access to these vaccines also And we’ll be making clear exactly one thing that Governor Lee pointed out, and that is the importance that they know that these vaccines are free That’s not going to come with any money out of your pocket Thanks in large part, thanks in total part to Operation Warp Speed, and what you all have done here So thank you for doing that Secretary Azar: Thank you Governor Lee? Governor Lee: We used our Office of Minority Health and Disparities Elimination That is an office within our Department of Health And we use that office to really advise us on testing, because what we found early on was that our minority populations, our ethnic populations were not — the uptake in testing was not as it should be So we tasked that group with really developing relationships to enhance our testing for those underserved populations We utilized relationships with our housing development agencies in our urban centers, migrant working farming communities that are a part of the agricultural process in the state We worked with African-American churches, Hispanic churches We utilize public service announcements on Spanish speaking radio stations So we worked really hard to make sure that those communities and those underserved populations we’re hearing from those that they trust about that testing population That is the same group now that we have developed those relationships And we’ve been very grateful for in particular, for example, the way the African-American leadership has embraced Operation Warp Speed and has communicated that Meharry Medical College, you all — it’s a nationally recognized HBCU that has worked with us to communicate with the African-American community to talk about the safety of this vaccine, the importance of this population and the uptake of the vaccine So really, it has been a continued effort from the first understanding that the barriers and the access to health care we’re eliminating or limiting the amount of testing We used that knowledge And by the way, frankly, one of the things we learned is it matters who delivers the message, very powerfully matters who delivers the message, not just to that community, but to every community across the state So attaching the trusted voices in whatever community we’re serving is going to be really important Secretary Azar: Great Thank you very much Governor DeSantis I know we’re going to have to wrap soon because the Vice President’s going to be arriving But do you mind giving us the last word on how you’re thinking about prioritization, how you’re thinking about which groups you try to stack as we roll vaccines out? Governor DeSantis: Yeah, so, I mean, obviously, you know, we’re prioritizing long term care residents and staff and then tip of the sphere health care workers as we get past that, which we think we can do with the first a couple of weeks of doses that were allocated, get into the broader senior population Now, we have obviously a lot in that regard in Florida So that would really take us in through the end of January And then we’re hoping the JMJ comes online with the one dose, they’re producing it at such a scale Then we get that out so teachers can get it Law enforcement can get it and really, I mean, hopefully we’d have enough for whoever wants to do it So that’s our hope But Moderna in the Pfizer, we think based on our allocations, we’re going to be focusing that on high risk populations and the front line health care workers

Secretary Azar: Well, I hope you’ve seen from this panel just how deeply engaged our nation’s governors are in this process The level of sophistication, understanding, depth of knowledge and the planning that they have done I think every one of you said, “since the spring.” You know, since the spring been planning on this And these four governors, well, some of the great governors are representative of our nation’s governors and the work that’s going on in every state and territory So we really appreciate their work and their partnership throughout this pandemic And we look forward to the weeks ahead when you’re going to be getting shots in arms So thank you very much Let’s give a round of applause (applause) Paul Mango: Okay, thank you, Secretary Azar and our governors As you can see, no one knows better what their communities will need than the folks who are closest to it And General Perna and I often share a phrase, and that is you can never let your reach exceed your grasp And I think the federal government understands where its reach ends and where its grasp ends and where we have to hand things off to our governors, our mayors, and our county commissioners As we said — before I introduce the Vice President, I think we started the session today by talking about three objectives Maybe just take a moment to review those One was to build a better understanding of how we’re going to get safe and effective vaccines to the American people, anyone who’s desiring one I think the second one is build confidence that the Trump administration is following data and science in the evaluation and development of these vaccines I think Peter Marks did a terrific job there And then the third was, again, the recognized achievement, which is all of the private sector innovation, all the commitment and the American spirit Those working with the Trump administration have demonstrated every step of the way to help us get these vaccines out safely and effectively I think I think I’m going to paraphrase Yogi Berra, believe it or not, I think he said you can see a lot by watching And as I introduce Vice President Pence, you know, here’s a guy who has tirelessly led the White House Coronavirus Task Force for the last seven or eight months And you can see a lot by watching him This is a multiagency response It’s the Department of Defense It’s the Department of Health and Human Services It’s the department — the Treasury Department, Secretary Mnuchin, the Labor Department, Department of Homeland Security And this needed someone who could bring all those folks together and get them to collaborate, get them aligned And the Vice President was great at that He’s also a former governor And what you just heard, Secretary Azar talk to the governors about their role has been in our response and will be absolutely crucial to successful vaccine administration And, you know, the guy is a — is an optimist and good leaders are optimists We visited a plant up in Wisconsin when GE converted all of its lines to produce ventilators at record pace Unbelievable And the Vice President just has a very, very special way of motivating folks in dark times And he’s done that for the last seven or eight months But I told this story before, and I’ll tell it once more When I first met him about a year ago, I was in the West Wing And anyone who spends time in the West Wing knows there’s some extraordinarily bright, energetic but extraordinarily young persons there And I was in a room and he walked up to me and he whispered in my ear, he goes, I’m glad there’s someone else with gray hair in the room So I’d like to introduce the other guy with gray hair to close out our summit, Vice President Mike Pence (applause) ♪♪ (Presidential music) ♪♪ The Vice President: Well, thank you all very much Paul, thank you for those kind words and for your tireless work at Health and Human Services To Secretary Azar, really our host for the day We thank you for your extraordinary leadership and your — I think I think he deserves a round of applause Secretary Alex Azar (applause) We’ve been shoulder to shoulder for 10 months in all of this and The President and I couldn’t be more grateful For the entire team at HHS and all the people that you’ve heard from today Especially want to express my appreciation to Governor Abbott and Governor DeSantis, Governor Lee, and Governor Edwards I hope in that panel that you just heard, you understood that that was just a sampling of a seamless partnership that we have forged with states across the country to put the health of America first

And governors, we’re truly grateful We’re truly grateful (applause) To other members of the cabinet who are with us today, members of Congress, to mayors and state and local officials, especially health officials from around the country, thank you Thank you for your role in bringing us to the precipice of a breakthrough in American medicine and in the life and health of the American people We are literally days away from the fulfillment of the vision of Operation Warp Speed And I want to thank you for participating And I want to thank all of you who’ve looked on from afar taking this vaccine summit As you heard today over the last several hours, thanks to the leadership of President Donald Trump, the tireless efforts of health officials at the federal level and at the state level around the country, the ingenuity of great research companies, military personnel, our private sector partners in the cooperation of the American people We are literally we believe, in all likelihood, just a few days away from the approval and distribution of the first coronavirus vaccine in America That is Warp Speed (applause) From the first day The President stood up the White House coronavirus task force and asked us to lead it We had one mission and that is to save American lives And I believe the advance that we’re about to fulfill, to begin to move out on will continue that mission apace and put us one day closer to the day we put the coronavirus in the past But before I reflect on all that we’ve heard today in the extraordinary professionalism and cooperation that you’ve witnessed, I want to extend my sympathies to the families that may be looking on at this very hour, families that have lost loved ones over the course of this year, even as we enter a time of great promise in this country I want families that have lost loved ones and those that are still struggling in the midst of this pandemic to know there’s not a day gone by that you haven’t been on the hearts of all of us working at every level And we will never forget your families or your loved ones as we hasten the day that we put this pandemic in the past Now because of the efforts of all of those that you’ve heard from today and frankly, countless others, we literally are on track to distribute tens of millions of doses of the coronavirus vaccine before the end of this month We’re about to make history Together we’re going to continue to save lives across this country with the approval of first coronavirus vaccine we believe is likely within days As I said, we are one step closer to the day that as a people, we will put this pandemic in the past And as The President said from this very podium today, that America will continue to do our part to help families and peoples around the world From the very beginning, I hope it is evident to all of you that President Trump’s vision to our nation’s response was not just a whole of government approach, but it’s been a whole of America approach, meeting all of the challenges that we face from early on We reinvented testing We saw the delivery of billions of medical supplies and equipment We developed new medicines and therapeutics And now just days away from the approval and distribution of millions of doses of this vaccine, I must tell you, having been working every single day over the last 10 months toward this objective, as an American, as your Vice President at the head, as the head of the White House Coronavirus Task Force I’m humbled and I’m very grateful for what the American people have accomplished I’m grateful for the leadership of our President, the tireless efforts of all the health officials that have worked every step of the way I’m grateful for the ingenuity, the great research companies all across this great nation and for the compassion of our people After today’s summit, I suspect more people than ever around the country will look at the progress that we are about to fulfill in Operation Warp Speed And they will say, as I have said before Only in America (applause) We are honored to have all of you to participate and all of you looking on to participate in this vaccine summit The President who wanted to convene this gathering to inform the American people of the progress that we’ve made in Operation Warp Speed, but also to give credit where credit is due And Operation Warp Speed is a modern American miracle,

but it’s an accomplishment of all of the American people It’s amazing to think that the average development timeline for a vaccine can take eight to 12 years But as you heard today, we’re on track to accomplish a safe and effective coronavirus vaccine in eight to 12 months Before Operation Warp Speed, the fastest prior vaccine development in the United States took over four years But as The President said earlier today, we’ve developed a gold standard vaccine in just nine months Only in America (applause) And the dates speak for themselves, January 10th, we received the first sequence of the coronavirus vaccine, literally the next day scientists went to work with private research companies and the National Institutes of Health to begin to develop a vaccine Within six weeks, which was also record time, we were already in phase one clinical trials With the support of many of the members of Congress that you saw here today, we were able to secure some $10 billion to develop a vaccine But it would be in May of this year that The President launched Operation Warp Speed that you have heard in great detail today The President said then that they were looking to get a vaccine by the end of the year But in August, President Trump made a promise He actually said, and I quote, “We will have a safe and effective vaccine this year.” And here we are The President’s promise was met with considerable skepticism, not only in the scientific community, but across the public debate But as we stand here today and we celebrate what we believe is the likely approval of two safe and effective coronaviruses vaccines, the American people deserve to know that there are actually four vaccine candidates in large phase three clinical trials as we speak Operation Warp Speed, we believe, is about to commence It’s about to save lives and it will continue to expand to the benefit of the American people and the world (applause) We’re moving at record speed, but the American people can be confident that while we have cut red tape, we’ve cut no corners And our standards for safety and effectiveness are just as rigorous as they have ever been, and the American people can be encouraged Those that will have opportunities in this initial phase to take the vaccine can be confident that the approval is ensured that this vaccine is not just effective but is safe And as you heard today as well, beyond the development of this extraordinary American medical miracle, that once the vaccine is approved, we are in a position with a great work of General Perna and the American military and our private sector partners to literally ship millions of doses across the country within 24 hours But ultimately, the decision about where the vaccines are distributed is up to governors And that’s why the final panel today was so important It’s important for the American people to know that from very early on we have operated against the philosophy that this is a national response to this pandemic that is federally supported, but state managed and locally executed And we’ve deferred in this instance, as we have throughout this pandemic, to the judgment of governors all across the nation, the states and the territories of this country who are best equipped to know the point of the need in their state And how about another round of applause for the governors that you heard from today? We’re truly grateful (applause) Operation Warp Speed, like all that we have done, has not just been a whole of government approach at every level, but it is, as I said, a whole of America approach And you heard today from some of the nation’s top logistics and shipping companies, one of which I witnessed firsthand visiting Governor Lee’s great state of Tennessee last week at the headquarters of FedEx But FedEx, UPS, and McKesson are going to serve as a critical link, getting the vaccine to the point of the need And what’s important for the American people to understand is that we’re not reinventing the wheel here These are companies that that have already in the past, particularly in McKesson’s case, been involved in distributing millions of vaccines across America We’re just building a bigger wheel but building on top of the experience that we have So how about a big round of applause for those great logistics companies that are about to partner for the health of the American people? (applause) As you also heard, we’ve called on companies like CVS and Walgreens

to be able to deliver and administer vaccines And we actually — it’s remarkable, I heard this at the White House Coronavirus Task Force just this past week We are in a position because of these great American companies and retailers We’re in a position to administer vaccines to 99 percent of America’s nursing homes on site free of charge the moment the vaccines arrive Only in America (applause) With Warp Speed, I want to say, as I close is really just emblematic of the approach that President Trump took from very early on in the midst of this pandemic, he launched the greatest national mobilization since World War II We reinvented testing from a standing start It’s amazing to think when I was tapped to lead the White House Coronavirus Task Force, we’d done less than 10,000 coronavirus tests in America Today we do roughly two million a day and have done more than 200 million coronavirus tests, giving us greater visibility on the impact of the pandemic and those who are in harm’s way We marshalled the full power of the American economy early on, not just in this project, but in the development of PPE and equipment We literally saw to the manufacture and delivery of billions of medical supplies And while we see cases rising and hospitalization rising across the country with our team on the ground here working closely with governors, we literally are able to track hospital capacity on a hospital by hospital basis And we’re going to continue to work around the clock to make sure our hospitals and our health care workers have the PPE and supplies they need to give any American family the same level of care that we’d want a member of our family to have (applause) The story of therapeutics is also an extraordinary one I remember in early March when we gathered all the great research companies together in the Cabinet Room and The President challenged each and every one of them not only to go to work on a vaccine, but to go to work on the development of medicines, therapeutics that would give people relief who were impacted by the coronavirus And as we stand here today, the FDA has literally approved dozens and dozens of lifesaving therapeutics And I’m actually told that we’ve already delivered 185,000 doses of therapeutics to coronavirus patients across America It’s extraordinary (applause) And the truth is, even as we see cases rising around the country and hospitalizations rising, I want the American people to know that we’ve never been better prepared to combat the coronavirus than we are today This is a time of great promise and hope for the American people But that being said, with the rising cases across America, it’s also a time of renewed vigilance And as we close today, what is, I know for all of us gathered here and all of those looking on time of great promise, a time of great encouragement for the American people should know that we all still have work to do and every single one of us has a role to play With cases rising and hospitalizations rising in virtually every jurisdiction around America It’s time once again to redouble our efforts to put the health of our families, our neighbors, and our communities first We all know what to do with the American people demonstrated in the early days of March and April, we know how to slow the spread We know how to flatten the curve We know how to save lives Practice good hygiene Wash your hands Practice social distancing or wear a mask when it’s not possible or whenever local authorities indicate that it’s appropriate So the way that we got through the early days of this pandemic and we flattened the curve, saved lives It’s the way we got through the Sunbelt outbreak and it’s the way we’ll see our way through to the months ahead between now and when the coronavirus vaccine that will likely be approved this week will be widely available for every American The President often says, and it’s more obvious today than maybe ever before, we are rounding the corner and we can see light at the end of the tunnel To reach the end of the tunnel and to save American lives, we just need to redouble our efforts We have a ways to go America So I just want to encourage you all to be patient in the days ahead My wife and I ran a marathon about 10 years ago And the records in that marathon were all intact

when we finished And I will tell you, they told us when we were running that the last five miles of a marathon are the toughest You come around that corner and after that 21st mile and you’re absolutely convinced that you never felt better in your life, you can see the finish line and then your legs start to tighten up You know, the truth of the matter is we’ve been running a marathon in this country, haven’t we? But I want the American people to know the finish line is around the corner, we could see it from here And by the spring, we anticipate or shortly thereafter, we’ll have what we believe will be multiple safe and effective coronavirus vaccines for every American that wants one Well, we got to get there And so I want to encourage you from the bottom of my heart to continue to be diligent To put your health, your family’s health, and your community’s health first I can’t help but think of that ancient verse that says do not grow weary in well doing, for in the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up Now’s the time for us to stay focused, be encouraged, because the extraordinary innovation, the dedication of health officials at every level, these great research companies, our extraordinary private partners We are literally on the cusp of putting the coronavirus in the past We are coming very close in the days ahead, I believe, to the beginning of the end of the coronavirus pandemic in America But it will yet be months to go We have miles to go before we sleep, and so we encourage you all to continue to do your part But I have every confidence, with the dedication of all the officials represented here so well at every level, the programs like Operation Warp Speed, the dedication of our health care workers and our first responders, researchers around the country And with the cooperation of the American people, we’ll get through this I have every confidence I have faith With your help and with God’s grace, we will heal our land and we will heal our land together Thank you all very much Thank you for being a part of this important summit And God bless you all (applause)