Classical Biocontrol Summit 2020

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Classical Biocontrol Summit 2020

welcome to the weed bio control summit in 2020 we would want to begin by acknowledging the indigenous people of this continent and recognize that we are sitting on an ancestral and unseated territory my name is jennifer andres i’m with washington state university and i’m the director of the integrated week control project my name is carrie brown lima and i’m the director of the new york invasive thesis research institute which is based at cornell university in ithaca new york we are the co-chairs of the naisma biocontrol committee which is the host of this summit we would like to thank everyone who helped pull the summit together this summit is sponsored by the bureau of land management wyoming weed and pest council and naisma members and partners and our support allowed this to be a free event open to the public we’re pretty excited we have 570 people registered for the for the summit which is um really fantastic interest in the topic as you can see on this slide this is our naisma biocontrol committee if you are interested in joining that committee you’re welcome to and you just need to be a naisma member to do just a real quick word for those of you that are coming into this without knowing much about what maisma is it’s a north american invasive species management association and it has a mission to support promote and empower invasive species prevention and management in north america so this event sharing information on bio control possible bio controlled weeds is a outreach opportunity for namesled to share information with all of you if you want to join you go to the website and join there’s different levels of membership and you can see which one fits you but it’s a great way to get involved to be able to have access to all of the resources that nisma provides that you can see on the website and also to join committees like uh in the summit today bell bergner the executive director asked me to point out we just wrapped up the 2020 conference which was virtual due to 19 pandemic um but if you missed it that’s the great thing about it being virtual was that it was all recorded and for would you see you can have access to all the presentations so there’s still a chance to go back and take a look at all the great information that was shared there with the advanced and also it included uh bio control 101 workshop and other buyer control sessions they asked us to remind you all that the next conference will hopefully be in person which is a great opportunity to meet other folks dealing with invasive species throughout north america and that will be in missoula montana september 27th through 30th 2021 so keep an eye out for that and safely so i just wanted to let you know usually what you’re going to see today is the summit and usually this is actually part of the conference and so it would be tacked on usually at the end of the conference but because of this uh virtual world we’re living in right now we’re doing it virtually which is a great opportunity to bring in speakers from all across north america and europe they normally might not even be able to attend in person although we have a lot of updates these are actually we don’t even consider this a comprehensive list so we apologize if there’s anyone out there that wish they had a chance to share their update but uh weren’t aware of it or aren’t on the agenda please reach out to us so we can make sure we keep you in the loop for upcoming opportunities um and we also really like the purpose of this is to share information but we really want to strengthen the bio control community throughout north america and have these opportunities to bring all of our work together so this is our agenda today it’s pretty tight as you can see we have a lot of really awesome speakers this agenda is available online for you to look at more in depth we will move straight into our european update where we will have um both cabbie and bbca providing presentations on all of their good work my name is javier tins and i’m leading the kebbi operation in switzerland and the americas and we’ll give you an overview of our activities for the us and canada on the picture you see our building in switzerland on the right it’s a two-story building including a quarantine for quarantine rooms not only for wheat fire control but also our support bio-control agents that resource from asia then adjacent to that several greenhouses to grow our test plants and target weeds in the middle garden beds for the same purpose and on the left quite a large garden space to conduct experiments and open field tests before i started on wheat biocontrol let me see a few words about cabbie we were founded in 1910 as a purely uk based organization we became international in 1988 we are also not not-for-profit and intergovernmental our 50-member

country is basically ocapping and they have an equal role in our governance and can also direct our strategic we have about 480 staff worldwide cabbie is mainly working for the developing world so in switzerland are a little bit different in that over half of our work is for the developed world kevi deals with global issues such as food security and food safety we are also a major publisher of scientific information maybe you’ve come across the cap abstracts or our books ebooks or compendia for instance there is an invasive species compendia freely available on the internet these are member countries canada is a very long-standing active member country the u.s is unfortunately not a member at the at this point in time switzerland joined in the year 2000 this is our this is not our complete global reach but only our 11 research centers which are mostly located in asia and africa also with two centers one in the uk and switzerland in europe and two small operations in latin america i now come directly to the weeds team at cabi switzerland i’m still responsible leading the mostly organizing the finances and the overall organization of projects but the main work is really done by our five research scientists patrick schizlin sonja phillip and ivo trusevsky are located in serbia we have two garden technicians philosophy and one permanent technical assistant cornelia kloska apart from that we work a lot with temporary summer students interns this year we obviously have had to reduce their number quite a bit and we’re not able to welcome any north american students for them it’s really also a great opportunity to see how the weeds are growing in the native range and they usually come for a couple of months to help with the practical work for instance between their bachelor and master degree our weeds team in the uk is slightly larger they have 13 scientists led by marion zayer on the top row these are all pathologists so our pathology expertise really lies in the uk center in the middle row these are entomologists and then they also have a socio-economist two modelers and a garden technician and they also have about two interns per year a few words to our funding so this is the funding for the uk and the swiss team from north america in 2020 about 940 000 us dollars about two-thirds of that comes from the the us so that’s the red and the blue pies then 28 from canada that’s the green pies and about five percent from australia our five main donors which would be usdafus the army corps the two states montana wyoming and british columbia made up in 2020 over 80 percent of our funding now most of the 20 projects that we currently work on are funded by a so-called consortium approach that means that several entities with the same weak problem get together with the advantage that each entity does not have to invest too much and our advantage is that the financial yeah risk is is reduced these different projects are in in different state in different stages we have for instance very old projects like houndstone toot flakes that have been ongoing for for many years where we only rare age and ship them to north america and help preparing petitions now only doesn’t mean that it’s not a very important part of our work especially developing effective rearing protocols is very important if you then want to rear the agent in quarantine in north america and have a sufficient number of specimens available for release we then have projects that let’s say they’re in full swing such as flowering rush oxide daisy or common tendency and then projects that we just started on like tree of heaven that francesca will talk about in a moment and or parrots feather where we do feasibility study for british colombia overall we work on about 45 different

agents on these 20 projects and just to mention our uk center also conducts two projects for hawaii on wild ginger and blackberry on five of these projects we collaborate so the ones in green with bbca in italy and especially on swallow wards we also collaborate with the usd ars lab in southern france in red you see here the the cabbie centers so one in the uk switzerland then we have one center in pakistan they also used to be quite active in wheat bio control exploration in the 70s and we have also center in beijing it’s a little bit off the start but then the blue star is the usdars lab the green star in italy’s bbca and we have lots of other collaborators in the countries that we go to not only to facilitate field surveys collect insects but also more and more to help us acquire the necessary permits to export living organisms from their countries by the way on the bottom that’s francesca from bbca and to the left massimo christopher leading the bbc operation in italy gabby has 60 years of experience in classical wheat biocontrol basically we started with agents for uh thistles canada’s sister nodding thistle then there were the leafy spirit insects tote flags so a lot of these insects that have been successfully released against leafy spiritual flex networks purple loose drive and others were researched and developed by cappy in total 47 agents were released based on our work which consists obviously of the foreign exploration finding insects mites and fungal pathogens but then our main work is obviously to determine the environmental safety of the agents quantify their impact develop rearing protocols i already mentioned how important that is ship the agents to north america which has for obvious reasons become quite difficult in recent times and quite expensive our end product is our petitions for field release to submit together with our north american collaborators petition for field release and obviously eventually to release the agent as if they’re not in our hands of course so in the next slides i will concentrate on these end products let me start with the recent release in the us of gold forming weevil venusa pelosa on yellow tutflex a joint petition has been submitted by rosemary claire float from agriculture agri food canada and charlene singh from the u.s forest service in montana at the rocky mountain research station in 2012 take recommended release in 2013 canada made first releases in 2014 and i believe that rose in her talk will give you more detail on that in the u.s the release permit was issued in 2018 and charlene together with david weaver from msu was able to conduct first releases in 2019 this year she was able to rear close to 5000 pillows based on a shipment of 1000 insects that we sent her this spring and she continued releases but obviously these were limited to montana to covet 19 kairozia ubana is a root feeding fly on hogweeds mostly meadow hog wheat and orangehawkweed but not only so it’s less restricted in its in the heartbeat species it attacks than the the gall wars that was released a couple of years ago again a joint petition by rose in canada and jeff littlefield at msu in 2015 it’s the same patcher in uc tech recommended release in 2016 canada released in 2017 as you can see canada is usually faster to release the insects that’s why we also take advantage of joint petitions of course it needs to make sense that the weed is really also a problem in canada and in the u.s in the u.s the insect has to go through several additional hurdles and environmental assessment needs to be prepared it needs to go through a seven consultation with the fish and wildlife service through tribal consultation public comment so that’s why the us things usually take a bit longer releases were foreseen for 2020 but again they had to be postponed to covet 19

we collect and ship adults and eggs in this case the insect cannot be reared under confined conditions that’s also that also happens females readily lay eggs in confinement but we cannot get the insect to mate so what you have to do is to collect rapid fertilized females in the field which as you can imagine is not obvious so when schisland the project scientist manages to send 10 gravity females to rose we are already very happy there have been a two ahana monster shoot mining knocked with moss on common reed that we worked on we determined that they can develop on the native reed but females highly prefer invasive fruit for egg laying and eggs survive less well on native reed based on that take recommended release in april 2019 and shortly after a voucher also from agriculture agri-food canada was able to release them in field cages in ontario again cabbie is maintaining a rearing and shipping eggs patrick the project scientist was able to rare infect 11 000 eggs of one of the the two species and there is also trials on going rare these insects on artificial diet to make the wearing even more effective the other counterpart in the u.s is ben blossom from cornell university and yeah we’re still waiting for the release in in the us pseudorandoscopy collis is a root mining weaver on garlic mustard and the story here is a little bit longer maybe first to mention that the larvae are highly destructive they can kill overwintering rosettes and this insect has been predicted based on the model to be really the most successful agent on on garlic mustard it was first petitioned in 2008 after several resubmissions take finally recommended release in february 2017 first release occurred in ontario viral voucher in 2018 and we actually just two days ago i saw very nice pictures that indicate that the insect most probably established in canada and i’m sure rob will talk more about that again we’re waiting for the approval for the us is an insect a sabsa king solid or knotweeds that our uk center worked on actually for europe notweeds come from japan and are not only invasive in north america but also in europe so in the uk this insect was already released in in 2010 first releases in canada happened in 2015 it did successfully over winter and produces multiple generation in summer but there’s no outbreak densities yet and a lot of research has gone into finding trying to pin down the factors that limit the population buildup of this insect our the scientists from our uk center collected a new population hopefully better climatically adapted and more aggressive in 2019 and fritzi griefstead from oregon state university who on the picture on the right was able to release 34 000 in june this year at 27 sites in eight states in the east and western u.s as she she wrote that at least that five sides absolutes were seen over summer the insect is very small so it’s it’s quite hard to find it back in the large we um have also been working on an aerial fight might on russian olive which reduces heat output we concentrated on specifically on agents reducing seed output not killing trees in order to avoid any conflict of interest with the people that still value russian olive as a tree we did this work in collaboration with scientists in italy turkey and serbia again a joint petition was submitted this time by tim collier from the university of wyoming and and rose take recommended release in may 2020 but then strangely enough the the canadian food inspection agency which is the control to avs ppq so the permitting entity in canada did not approve release not because of environmental not because of specificity concerns but because they felt that we don’t have enough quantitative data on the impact of the mind so that was quite unusual there were also some comments to be addressed from the u.s side

so all of these comments are currently being considered to further go through the permitting process then again a bit of a longer story the goal forming we will see drinkers cardaria on holy quest was also first petitioned in 2011 where tech requested additional tests that we we did and in conclusion we found that this insect has a relatively broad physiological host range so in tests under no choice conditions but likely a very narrow ecological host range so under more natural conditions based on that a petition was resubmitted in collaboration with mark schwarzlender from the university of idaho in january 2020 in august we received a tech response that said that at this point in time tech cannot recommend the release of this agent without reservations uh so basically there are reservations to release it that need to be addressed and we will we will reach out to tag and the hsppq to hopefully find a way forward for this very damaging insect on our request mogalones borreganus is a seed feeding weevil on hound’s tongue this one is very specific so the specificity shouldn’t be a problem both adult and horrible feeding reduce seed output and it we do know that houndstone is seed limited so the insect should have an impact on the population of houndstone again mark we submitted a petition together with mark very recently at the end of september so obviously we have no reaction yet and just to mention the petition for mogulus crucifer a root mining weevil on houndstown which is already established successfully in canada will follow shortly several petitions at least five are in preparation again you see a lot of the weevils are a very diverse large group within the the beetle fam order and a lot of them have been shown to be very successful over proportionally successful control agents we have a belief and rise on feeding weevil on flowering brush a seed feeding weevil on garlic mustard another seed feeding weevil on dyer’s a root mining methanol oxide daisy and a gold-forming weevil on dalmatian toadflex so i’m estimating that everything goes as planned all of these should be submitted during 2021 then i would like to take the opportunity to just make some publicity for one of our project that is that could really profit from additional consortium partners it is this project field bindweed is currently only funded by usda aphis the current consortium chair is john gaskin we do have two very promising insects one an fly the library of which mine in the shoot and root crown which occurs at highly distributed sites so that could really be advantages to establish the insect in more agricultural settings and a root boring cessate month the larabee are super destructive they can kill plants uh in fact evo who works with this insect in serbia had problems to to to just get the rearing going because the larry we were killing the plants prematurely so in case you’re interested in this project please please let us know potential future targets we are currently in discussion to to try and join the the cheat cross initiative that bbca and ucars are already working on we have been discussing with ray callaway and chica lucia from the university of montana to submit a proposal for biogeographic study not emphasizing biocontrol but more to elucidate the invasion mechanism of this very highly invasive grass as i already mentioned we are currently conducting a feasibility study on parrots feather for british colombia so we will see whether that continues and we have also been talking years back about a potential project on blue wheat at the time we did not start a project because of potential conflict of interest with beekeepers that highly value this plant this situation might change if you’re interested if you have a new invasive species for which no bio control effort exists yet feel free to send me an email and we can do a quick feasibility study or at least

give you our opinion let’s see it like that whether this could be a good potential target for biocontrol or rather not finally let me say something about reporting we produce a progress report in august each year that i send around as a pdf to a distribution list if you’re not on the distribution list if you like to receive this report let me know basically we summarize the results of the current year of all of the project we actively work on and we also produce at the beginning of each year detailed project annual reports these are not available on our website so you would need to because they do contain a lot of unpublished data but if you email us we are happy to share and yeah you see also our website there is also information about all of our projects and i’ve started to send around news emails with more general information about cappy good morning everyone i’m francesca marini from bbca we are a private foundation which work about biological control since beginning of thousands we are a small group of people visiting rome in a private land where we office a laboratory a small greenhouse and space enough for performing field gardening experiments here you can have an idea of which is our annual budget and how is easily to understand most of the phones are used for salaries but the second largest item are the traveling expenses most of our phones comes from usda rcbcl and the rest is covered by many different donors mainly from from us unfortunately during the last three years we are having contraction of the budget which however doesn’t correspond to a reduction of the number of the project in fact just speaking about wheat without mention pests we managed something like more or less 20 project for which we perform different activities you are probably wondering how such a small group of people can manage this amount of work and this is possible just because we used to work as a network in fact we cooperate with many different centers of the research almost all around the world in us many in europe asia africa and so this network allows us to to be able to manage this amount of of projects for today i would like to give you an update just about three weeks because of course i cannot speak about all of them and but i selected them with we did here to give you also to share with you how we work about biological control because in fact all three targets at the moment are at a different stage in the process of in the long process of the selection of a biological control agents starting with the cheap grass we work on this project together with the university of belgrade usa usda hearts nevada usdars ebcl and as harriet just mentioned we are starting a cooperation with cabi as well that has been recently accounted by two donors from wyoming and british columbia which are interested in the possibility to use a biological control approach against cheatgrass starting from the beginning of the process during the last years we collected many samples of different population of cheatgrass in the hold in the new world these give us a huge amount of samples of material thanks to which we started an extensive molecular analysis and we almost complete the genome sequences and the genetic study comparing the whole world a new world the cheatgrass population in this way we will have the background to try to study the invasion mechanism of cheap grass so as harriet mentioned in cooperation with ray callaway and czechoslovak lucero from university of montana we are in the process of preparing a proposal about it our idea is to perform a biogeographic study comparing the native and then introduced the range in order to figure out how this wheat should be managed and which rule the biocontrol could have the main goal is to identify the driving factor of cheatgrass invasion in north america and figure out if the top-down pressure from the biological control

could potentially control these weeds getting the option of the biological control on cheap grass at the moment we have in our hand three interesting candidates an area of it might a midge and a weevil regarding the office might we we found them on sheepgrass many times in a different country kazakhstan turkey but we always found oliver’s pieces but thankfully we didn’t give up and in 2017 we recorded a new species on cheap grass we found two population one in bulgaria and one in serbia near belgrade what is interesting is that in the site in bulgaria both chitras and medusa had occurred the same sites but on each of them we found two different species of mites what i mean is that the new species looks similar from the morphological point of view to aqualodus another area of it might that we are currently evaluating as a biological control agent of mendoza head but our new species on on cheap grass is genetically different from these mites and even if the two wheats occur at the same site we never find found on sheetgrass and these new aerophytic mite species on medusa head in our opinion is a good indication that these new species of variofit might could be really specific for for cheatgrass regarding the niche also in this case is a new species we recorded three population in greece and one in bulgaria most probably is a asteroid diplosis species and this genus usually is associated only to grass species according to what is known about cogen that attacked the larvae of these genus attacked the flowers and then they grow into pre-pupils pupid which conclude the development inside of the seeds so this could be a good indication of the potential impact that this niche could have on on sheetgrass we are released at the beginning we just found uh for the first time last year at the same site in greece where also the midge is present and we are currently trying to identify which is the species it could be a gestapian species but we are really at the beginning so i cannot say anything more next step will be for sure the description of the two new species and the identification of the weevil since almost nothing is known about these three candidates we will probably start from the evaluation of the impact that they can have on cheap grass in the meanwhile we will submit the proposal regarding the invasion mechanism of cheatgrass and we are also preparing the list of the non-target species which should be considered in the evaluation of the host range for these three potential candidates changing subject and moving on three o’hale and also in this case is a teamwork we work together with cabbie university of barrie and belgrade and usda as ebcl in france we are working almost five years on that we recorded for the first time in europe in 2015 in a site just near the lab here in rome and uh a couple of years later we performed a service in europe and we realized that actually the might it’s quite widespread last record is from this year when ebcl found a population in paris for example thanks to field observation we realized that the impact that that this might can have on trio heaven is quite impressive here you have some picture that can give you an idea of the uh shape of the leaves completely the format or how the the might can practically killing the apical part of the new sprouts on the base of these this preliminary observation last summer we decided to perform some preliminary impact tests working on potted plants which we cut the ground level in order to induce the plants to produce the new sprouts which usually come from the roots or from what’s the remaining of the tree trunk we inoculate 1515 mites on some of the new sprouts and then we follow test inoculated the sprout and uninoculated during the day grow and this is what we have seen just one month later as you can see the shape of the leaves of inoculated plants is completely deformed and after two months the leaves are quickly going to become dry

and and then die in the meanwhile we are also evaluating the host range of this area of it might and so far we performed two open field tests testing eight and six species closely related to trio heaven they have been selected for their economical value and because maybe they are ecologically close to 3011 and maybe they share the same the experiments that we performed this year ended at the beginning of september but unfortunately due to the covet situation we couldn’t provide the material to the specialist so we don’t have the final results yet but as far as we could see the results are consistent with what we we obtained the year before and in particular in 2019 after 50 days first inoculation we recorded the presence of few mites on some non-target species but we collected i have to specify that we collected just 29 mites despite of having infested the 15 might on each plant and only five of them were alive and there were two on one entry on hallmark while on 307 the number of aerofit mites was already almost 10 000 just 10 days later we collected only three mites on walnut tree and hallmark but all of them were dead while on 3011 the number of the refit might was almost a double of the 10 days before after 50 days post inoculation we didn’t find oculus masoniensis on the non-target species so this means that what we inoculated on the plants at the beginning was was left or but on trio heaven we got a really huge infestation you can have imaging from these photos and we realized that the 90 percent of the might collected on 300 during the experiment were alive and we also observed that the number of the female increased during the season while the number of male degrees this is the typical path for the refit might where the the female is usually the sex that goes to overwintering regarding the impact we didn’t record any any symptoms of the presence of thereof it might on the non-target species but here you have an idea of what we have seen on trio heaven so we recorded the first symptoms in only 10 days and after one month the plants start to lose the lift less after 50 days the most of the leaves were completely gone and the apical part was going to die and this is what remaining after uh more than two months so our plan is to expand the list of the non-target species to test especially because some stakeholders and donors from us and and canada show their interests so at the moment there are u.s species growing at the ebcl facility and cabbie is preparing the least of the species so interesting for canada we also plan to increase our knowledgement regarding the biology of this area of it might in order to increase the possibility of success of potential release of these agents and we are also taking in consideration the possibility to include the might in an integrated managed approach our idea is to to do something similar about of what’s i explained you of regarding the preliminary impact test so our idea is to cut back the large tree and inoculate the might on the sprouting plants and see if they are able to keep in control of the new sprouts last but not least is a russian thistle project in cooperation with the university of bari and belgrade because also in this case i’m presenting you data about might usda hearts california usda hearts ebcl in france we work on this area of it might since more than 20 years so the mite was discovered in 1996 and we evaluate the impact that the mites can have on the plants in laboratory and on field condition and we recorded a reduction of the 60 percent of the size of the plants in controlled condition but this is even more stronger in field condition where the reduction reach the 80 percent in general infested plant remaining stunted and less spiny and also the seed production

is drastically reduced we also evaluate the fundamental horse range of diesel of it might and thanks to this experiment in laboratory condition we had a confirmation that aceres also is highly specific specific for russian distal but we also discovered that it can sometimes persist on some non-target species so for this reason we move into an evaluation of the ecological host range in order to verify if if the fundamental of us range was an overestimation of the realist range of the aerofit mites and and in fact we recorded that the non-target species are are not suitable for as serious also in the field as in laboratory condition but in any case a few might have been found on some non-target species even if they didn’t build up a population on them and and for this reason we set up another open field test where we inoculated if it might on on the plant at the sibling stage and we run the experiment for the wall season giving the possibility to the plant to reach the mature stage in order to have the possibility to eventually evaluate the the potential impact of the might on the critical non-target species we set up also a field plots where we locate the non-target species on which we in not inoculate any mites and the end of the experiment we found asherah sole only on one non-target species atrium but i have to say that we collected just 18 might in total which only six were alive and we didn’t record any juveniles from coronata even among the dead specimens while on russian thistle we collected a thousand of mites juveniles males and females so this means that what we collected from a triplex coronata was probably what was remaining from what we inoculated at the beginning of the experiment regarding the impact that these few might could have on a triplex coronado we didn’t record any symptoms anything of damage and even we didn’t record the significant difference in the plant size while on salsa tragus we observe extensive galling already so in conclusion sure serious alcoholic can have a low reproduction of some non-target species under a laboratory condition which for the of it might means no choice condition but he is not able to multiply on on this plant species underfielded condition and moreover in both case controlled and field condition he is not able to induce any damage or have any impact on these species so we strongly believe that solid doesn’t pose risk for any of the u.s species closely related to salsa here you can have a brief summary of the story of the permit process regarding these disarray of it might at the moment the situation is in a kind of pending mode and our next step will be to present the data the results from the last field experiment and check if any additional information are needed in order to to finally get the approval for the release of these let’s say biocontrol agents again on behalf of bbc and whole how are a cooperator i would like to thank you for for the attention we have just a minute for a question and there is one in the box for you which is what taxonomic support can you access to identify new biocontrol agents it depends from from which is the agents for the project that i presented since more of them are about aerofit mites we are supported by rico de lilo from university of barrie and from university of belgrade then we have a specialist for weevil and it depends really from the agents and then we have the support of molecular identification mainly from merry cloud from hebcl great thank you thank you harriet and francesca at this point we could jump into the next session so i will hand it over to kerry i would like to start off the north east section of the summit so i’m lisa tewksbury from the university of rhode island i’m the director of the uri biocontrol lab and i’m just giving you a couple of quick updates about our projects so the big one that we’ve been working on for quite a few years is biological control of swallow warts

and this one started for us back in 2005 with a phd student aaron weed working with dick casagrande and aaron worked with cabbie doing the foreign exploration and actually did quite a bit of work at cavi and then brought some of the potential agents back to the university of rhode island quantum facility and he started off with five agents and after a couple of years we focused in a little bit on hypina opulenta as the most promising candidate and another graduate student alex hazelhurst completed the host specificity testing for us and all of us submitted a petition for release of hypina opulenta which um tag technical advisory group approved in 2013 and canada rob archer was able to make a release in canada of hyping up lenta in 2014 and has had some successful recoveries of that we in the us as has been mentioned at least in the question and answer our process of getting the permit was a little bit longer and so we made our first releases in the fall of 2017 2018 is where we got this damage rating in the graph here in the upper basically i just show that to show one of my comments is that our field releases have confirmed that hypina opulenta has improved performance in the shade we see adult emergence around june 1st in rhode island we started with larval releases inside cages like the large field one here and moved to adult releases which were more successful based on rob archer’s recommendations and we seem to need to keep moving our releases earlier we’ve had overwintering but not establishment yet the next one i want to just mention a little bit about a mile a minute we’ve worked since 2009 releasing the weevil i call it our latapies it was all of the work was done through judy huff goldstein’s lab in delaware and a couple of comments that they’ve made uh summary from their research is that uh seems to be more effective in the sun than the shade cool wet springs do increase the mile minute growth and limit the weevil population growth and the efficacy of the weevil seems improved in combination with plant competition i spoke to a number of people listed at the bottom from new york new jersey connecticut about their success with the weevil on mile a minute and everyone has had very successful establishment and dispersal the adult feeds on the tips lays its eggs in the larvae feed and kill the stems it can reduce percent cover and seed production but doesn’t seem to be able yet to reduce large mile minute populations and then carry the last slide rhode island was one of the eight states that did make the first release of the psyllid for japanese knotweed this year and we had three release sites we released about 2 400 total about 800 in each site and we did see adults all the way through and actually fritzy grevstad who’s coordinating this program from oregon suggested to me that i go back out in october and check to see if we could see adults that were getting ready to overwinter and we did find about 10 adults still on one of our sites these were all released in kingston and narragansett in rhode island and we’re going to follow it up next year thank you lisa for queuing me up i’m going to follow up what uh lisa was talking about with the new york program for biological control of swallow work using hyping opulenta and this is a very collaborative effort i want to acknowledge my co-pis and a lot of partner agencies and particularly the new york uh state dot for funding the project and christine coley for her excellent management of our project so just a little bit of brief background anyone who’s worked with hypina opulenta has experienced its sensitivity and a lot of rearing mortality and that has really inhibited scaling up for large scale releases and so one of the things that we first did is took a recipe for artificial diet from rob orshay and we modified it and have been rearing individually on artificial diet after the third instar and this has allowed us to produce uh large numbers of larvae with relatively low mortality less than 20 percent as opposed to 50 plus on plants alone so in central new york where we’re doing this research we’ve established 10 long-term plots this is all in pale swallow work as opposed to a lease of tewksbury’s which is mostly black swallow wart we utilize three habitats open field forest and highway rights of way and at each one of these release sites we did a full native plant

inventory invasive plant inventory and then metrics on swalwart dominance and density as a baseline for our efforts going forward in 2020 we did two releases an early june release using adults 30 males 30 females in the 6×6 cages and one of the cautionary tales about doing insect research is if you start patting yourself on the back bad things will happen our first generation releases did really well and unfortunately they were the third laboratory generation because covid i started brewing very early and by the time we got to putting second generation in the field a lot of our insects went into diapos even under very long days so we had much fewer insects to work with in our generation too but we put those out as i said our first generation results were really good we had complete defoliation in half of our plots we had significant defoliation in the others interestingly we had good results in all three habitats and it was a very hot and exceptionally dry summer and i was very skeptical that they would do well in open field environments but all of our populations did very well you can see in the bottom corner the outline of a plot a cage that was lifted and red and you can see that the caterpillars moved out into the surrounding forest and had completely defoliated swallower at a considerable distance from the plot we’re cautiously optimistic that we can continue to release large numbers of hypina in 2021 our core objective is to see if we have any overwintering survival which would indicate perhaps establishment and we’re also going to continue to do large-scale releases at all of our sites and we’re also trying to estimate overwintering mortality of the pupae to figure out where a lot of the populations seem to disappear during the winter and that is all i have thanks hi my name is mariana such i’m an assistant professor at michigan state university and my graduate student brianna foster is working on swallowed biocontrol and this project is funded by the michigan department of natural resources so the establishment success of wheat biocontrol agents is around 60 percent worldwide so there is quite a bit of room for improvement and we know from most laboratory studies that the two most important factors for establishment is the founding size of populations but also the genetic background of those releases in a previous lab study we found that those with higher genetic diversity established at higher rates at all founding sizes and also in the seventh generation those same releases with higher genetic diversity had higher population densities so genetic diversity can have both a short-term and long-term impact on establishment and population growth and the new release of a biocontroller agent provides a great opportunity to test the importance of these factors in the field and we use the factorial design for our field releases where we crossed founding size with genetic background so we had two different founding sizes relatively lower five pairs of adults or higher with 20 pairs of adults and for each of these release sizes we used either individuals with standard or lower genetic diversity that consisted just from our lab currently that was a long-term colony so probably a little bit inbred and to create higher genetic diversity in individuals we crossed our lab colony with individuals from canada and so that yielded four treatments that you see on the right and we released it at 18 sites these four treatments with four or five replications for each of the treatments and brianna my graduate student will take over from here who is doing actually the work thank you next slide carrie okay so you guys can see that we’ve set up our sites in a randomized block design space to avoid our treatments for mixing and we have five blocks we released in one meter squared cages and we released our adults corresponding to each treatment of founding size and genetic background we removed the cages after two weeks and then at that time we saw larvae as you see in the pictures and defoliation by the larvae as well and then after returning later for data collection we did see evidence of dispersal of the larvae beyond the cage site so for post release monitoring we set up eight

half meter by half meter plots at each site for serving as bio control plots in green and for serving as control plots in white which will be treated with insecticide to exclude the bio control agent uh in each plot there are five individual swallower plants marked where we will be taking individual level data by collecting percent defoliation about once per month and then the number of seed pods at the end of the season we’re also taking plot level data which will be taking stem density at the beginning of each season and the end of each season and these are permanent plots so we plan on taking this data for at least three years and hopefully longer so far it’s too early for us to have seen significant damage in the field but in our common garden experience experiments where our cages are left on we’ve been seeing good defoliation with about with five pairs of adults released in in a cage and from our data we hope that we can understand how to maximize the establishment of biocontrol agents thank you so i’m just going to take one minute dylan talk a little bit about our research program that’s happening here in new york city to advance uh swallow work bio control with hygiena vilenta i just wanted to take one minute to mention that communication research institute where i work and it’s also looking to translate that into implementation and so we actually have an outreach program on and the objectives are of this are to inform land managers and land owners about swallower and shallow water fire control working with the research students to develop a simple standardized monitoring protocol to assess whether a dream is surviving and is effective in the field we’re establishing demonstration pages across new york to work with managing agencies and show them how to release you know monitor for hyping impacts you know the establishment we’re developing training materials for these uh releases and we’re also working with our database here in new york to make sure that managers who are releasing this can actually enter that information both on the release and on the monitoring into a database where we can uh bring all the different agencies data together and look at the effectiveness of the program so i just wanted to highlight that i’d be happy to talk to you more about it i just wanted to point out my collaborators on this project are from the cornell property extension league and eric county also the private coordinator is audrey beau and if you have any questions or want more information you can email me up below and also thank our funders from the usda nifa on this new uber project all right hi everyone my name is wade simmons i’m a graduate student working with dr barron blassie at cornell university on water chestnut biocontrol and for those of you who haven’t had the pleasure of interacting with this really interesting plant water chestnut is an aquatic annual that can transform freshwater ecosystems by taking over water surfaces and so the insect that we’re working with as a potential biocontrol agent is the water chestnut beetle this is galaricella vermonica it’s a leaf feeding beetle and a few characteristics that make it particularly promising is that this beetle is capable of multiple overlapping generations per year a female in a 30 to 50 day life span can produce up to 500 eggs and when these eggs hatch the larvae start immediately feeding on the water chestnut so we get this combined feeding damage of the larvae and the adults so when we combine this feeding damage impact with the life cycle of water chestnut what we get are predictions of some sharp water chestnut population declines mostly through the reduction of the number of seeds that are able to be produced in the presence of this insect so this is looking really promising as an effective biocontrol agent but what about the safety so we have finished the host specificity testing of this insect we tested 57 native species of those we advance nine to these more sophisticated multiple choice testing and in these results we find the majority of feeding damage and eggs are on water chestnut which is exactly what we want but we have a minority of feeding damage and eggs on this native plant water shield and this was unsurprising to us in the native range of the insect which is asia this plant water shield is also native and we know from studies there that this plant is occasionally used by the insect and what we do know is that when this insect feeds on this plant is incapable of producing sustaining populations on a diet of water shield alone and so we are continuing to explore these impacts on water shield but we do have a good amount of evidence already about water shield so like i mentioned in the native range these two species this native plant water shield and the bio control

insect coexist and there’s no evidence of population level declines of the native plant we also know that this is a sub-optimal host for the insect that we’re studying and here in in north america where water shield is also native this plant is heavily attacked by native insects yet have very robust populations so robust in fact that this plant is targeted for management because it is considered a nuisance so in conclusion we’re working with a really promising biocontrol agent it’s looking extremely effective in reducing populations of water chestnut and we also believe that the risks to native plants in particular this watershed plants are very low we have no evidence to suggest that the feeding damage will reduce populations of water shield which we argue should be the metric in which we evaluate the risks we’re compiling all this evidence now we hope to submit our petition to tag in early 2021 we have additional brazilian impact uh studies planned for the upcoming year and we’re also uh doing some research on interactions with native insects that also use water chestnut so with that i will conclude hi i’m stacey i’m a postdoc at cornell university and over the past several years i’ve had the pleasure of working with baron blossie and his team at cornell so the topics and the data that i’m covering today are the results of decades worth of work from baron’s lab as well as work with many collaborators a lot of whom are on the call today so i just wanted to jump right in into an update on phragmites australis biocontrol and as harriet mentioned there have been two highly host specific arcanara stem boring mosques that have been submitted to tag for approval for field release and unfortunately the update at least for the us right now is that right now we’re stalled in getting that final field release approval the good news is iran might touch base on this in a little bit but releases have actually already happened in canada so for us here in the us and in new york state we’re basically just assuming that assuming the insects established which we find likely the insects will arrive it’s just a matter of when so right now our focus is really going to be monitoring for insect arrival from ontario into the u.s and regardless of what pathway the insects get here perhaps we do get approval for us field release through aphis but the mass production of these insects has already been streamlined by our collaborators at cabbie as well as in europe so we’re ready to hit the ground running so in the meantime we’re focusing continuing to maintain and expand our long-term monitoring so we have sites throughout new york state and the region focused on looking at the effect of native versus invasive phragmites on native plant diversity and we’ve also been developing over the past several years bio-acoustic monitoring so putting out recorders into the field to assess baseline information about what the bird bat and frog communities look at like in native versus introduced phragmites and so really we’re playing a waiting game at the moment but in some we’re trying to make sure that we’re really well prepared for when the insects do arrive both in terms of rearing protocols but also in terms of being able to assess when these insects arrive if they actually effectively mitigate the negative impacts of invasive phragmites and the plants birds bats and frogs that we care about again as haria and lisa both mentioned another program where insects have recently been released is the japanese knotweed biocontrol and so the cylid afilari itadori as was mentioned was released in eight states this year again this is just some pictures of field releases but the general pattern seems to be that they can develop produce thousands of eggs when they’re protected in these mesh sleeves as you see in the center bottom unfortunately when we went back a week later we found no establishment our site so we weren’t able to find a single insect at any developmental stage and in fact that seems to be the pattern across most of the sites they were released at this year so i think it was 22 out of the 27 sites we weren’t able to detect the insects after returning to check on them and so for us that’s left us was this question of where do we go from here so we could hold out hope that maybe these cells will secretly build up larger populations over time but that’s also builds on the assumption that large populations of these psyllids will actually have a noticeable impact on the knot weeds and i would say that even rearing high numbers of these psyllids on small test knotweed plants we really aren’t able to see at least for us here on our hybrid not weeds any noticeable impact so this has really led a group of us to have a bit of a reality check and question how we want to move forward with this program and for us we’re thinking very carefully about all the different organisms that we’ve already found to feed on knotweeds and their native ranges for example there might be new insect species that we could discover

with field surveys in japan china and maybe even taiwan and of course all of this we’re starting to network and build collaborations but all this is a bit dependent on what the travel restrictions look like over the next couple of years but in particular there’s a handful of species that were identified early on in biocontrol development for this plant as potential candidates for biological control but were rejected and i don’t think i have time to go into the reasons right now why we think they deserve a second look but i just want to point out that we’re interested in the handful of species that go across multiple feeding guilds so we’re looking at leaf feeders root feeders and stem miners in general we just feel like there’s a lot more to learn about these species before rejecting them for example it could be that these populations we’ve looked at before actually represent multiple cryptic insect species and those species could differ in their host preference and feeding behavior so to pave the way for future biological control we are establishing a collaboration transcontinental collaboration as part of this we’ve already established three common gardens of knotweeds one in the us one in germany and one in china and each common garden represents 50 populations rhizomes that were collected across 2000 kilometer transects within each of these regions and so far this past season we focused on using these populations to better understand the variation in these plants whether that’s driven by local adaptation how differences in their defense and performance map out to herbivore preference but one of the things i’m really excited about is that we’re trying right now to ship plant samples from us and germany to china so that we can actually have a master common garden in china which will be super useful for conducting future impact assessments when we’re looking at additional complementary biocontrol for the psyllid that maybe will be a bit more high impact lastly thinking about complementary insects as biocontrol agents i just want to mention quickly that we’ve been assessing the success of biological control of purple loosestrife now that it’s been nearly three decades since these insects were first released in north america and as a refresher in the 1990s there were four different biological control agents that were released so there was two leaf feeders the galarusella species there was one root feeder the hylobius species and one fruit feeder the nanotheas and this has of course been a team effort as have all these other projects and the first thing that we’ve discovered in the past several years in returning to roadside surveys is that all these biological control agents are very well established and widespread throughout not just central new york but also the broader region we also are analyzing and finalizing data from long-term monitoring plots looking at the effect of purple blue strife on native plant diversity so these sites were established before biocontrol release at five different locations and represent more than 30 different sites and you can see just visually that there’s been a big difference in the landscape before and after biological control has been released and we’re starting to be able to back this up with data so the bolded lines are just averages across different locations but we can see through time purple loose strike density has clearly decreased the number of inflorescences and the number of flowers per inflorescences has also in general decreased through time and then most importantly we’re seeing an increase in plant species through time as well as the density of the purple blue strife decreases so far we look like we have some really good data about blue strife being a success story at least here in our region so the insects have been become widespread and they have successfully mitigated the negative impacts of the invasion and that we see this increase in native plant diversity so i just want to leave you with saying that it seems like purple loosestrife has become gone from an ecological menace to a roadside attraction and pulling this back together with all the biological control programs i think it’s an important message to think about needing the need for assessments over longer time periods and that we as course as all of us know we need patients success for biological control takes time and hopefully we’ll get there for all of the programs that we’re working on developing thank you i’d also now like to move and invite our south eastern speakers to start hi my name is rodrigo diaz i’m going to speak about biological control of giant slovenia in this case we’re using the salvinia whip this weeble is highly successful in the southern part of siena as you can see in these pictures it just takes a few examples for them to control the plan but much better thank you yes it is over winter

we maintain a mass reeling program of the salvinia weevil we use open ponds as in this case where people come and harvest the plants and they take the salvinia to the new locations at thalessio we have an extension program where we have educational materials for our stakeholders and actually we have an instagram account in research we are very interested in improving the bio control of slovenia in temporary regions we have severe winter mortality of these brazilian population in the north parts of the state we have compared the population dynamics of the weevil in the north as well as the southern parts of the state and we are finding that in the north of louisiana there is a delay in the recruitment of two individuals in the population as you have seen in this graph with a dotted line which represents the northern part of the state we have evaluated the use of fabrics to improve the micro climate during the winter we compare the cultures of the population of salvini was from argentina and is actually more called tolerant the population of argentina has greater survival compared with the population of louisiana so we’re very interested in bringing this population from argentina to united states and were working with the usda atheists to get a permit or release of this new population the final message is the biocontrol is the most sustainable method of control of this weed we need to fight the problem early in the season rather than the middle of the summer mass rearing help us having access to weebles to areas that are needed and research is focused on improving the bio control in temporary regions and with that i want to thank you for your attention hello my name is veronica manrique and i’m going to talk about biological control of air potato in louisiana this is a collaboration between southern university and louisiana state university here at potato bank yes korea boulevard is a native to asia and is an invasive species here in southern eastern united states little milioseries cheney is being used as a bio-control agent in florida since 2011 and has reduced the growth and the reproduction of this vine after the success in florida their potato beetle was released in louisiana in 2016. the next year in 2017 we found air potato beetles in all release site and it was the first report that air potato beetles can survive the winter in louisiana however in 2018 we found that beetles were absent in some of the release sites but that was a very unusual winter since we have snow here in louisiana and that could have affected the winter survival of the beatles releases continue in 2019 and 2020 and beatles has been found in all the release sites since then long-term studies have been conducted in three field sites in louisiana to measure the impact of their potato beetle and charity schaefer is conducting this study since 2018 this is some pictures of our field sites this is tutan park in june 2019 and you can see that we found a lot of feeding of air potato beetle and the plants are not growing as aggressive you compare this to another site in the same park where beetles were not found you can see how aggressive the vine can get this is the same site in 2020 and we see good control in the first side and the second side we found that beetles started feeding early and were able to reduce the growth of a potato vine we also want to understand how environmental factors affect air potato beetle and so felicia mentioned is doing some laboratory and overwintering studies to understand the cold tolerance of the beetle learn more about our program go to the lsu act center website or check our brochure at southern university thank you very much hello i am aj with usdars invasive plant resource laboratory in fort lauderdale florida today i will be summarizing five-year field resource outcomes from vascular bulbar biological control in florida please note that this is a team research effort in which many scientists from iprl and other agencies have sub significantly contributed to the success of this project since the introduction in 1905 the real potato plant has invaded all 67 florida counties and southern parts of

neighboring states vines blankets marble and kill other vegetation and produce large number of potent visiting proper yields called ball bills a vines since in late fall and in sprouting spring from ball bills and underground sugars in florida you have potato fine life cycle has four components vines uh cases from real flowers military propagules which are bulbous and underground tubers vines dry late fall bulb will drop to the ground a ball bills and ground tubers uh underground tubers sprout in lake spring produced vines no seeds uh being reported in north america so far uh your potato infestations are very difficult to manage since how decent mechanical and cultural methods are deemed in the efficient and pose uh collateral damage to the non-transit plants therefore florida exotic pest plant council recommended biological control as one of the appropriate methods for this with management in florida frequently uh during foreign survey in 2002 we discovered uh leadership chennai absolute feeding beetle in nepal and later in china in 2010 both bad types were found to be highly host specific nilio says chennai is multivoltain with four life stages adult steaks larvae and pupi and complete shift life cycle within 30 to 40 days another congenital urchins is enough specializing on volvo destruction recovered and discovered and imported from same areas lcd happens to be highly hostile specific as well it is in the pipeline waiting for final approval for field releases in the near future after obtaining field release permits iprl fdak and you have teamed up and mass produced and released eight hundred and twelve thousand veterans throughout the foot your potato distribution range uh in florida beetles populations have established in forex that were inserted application for other insects is frequent five years replicated field studies with control using granular systemic insecticide and brittle treatment in natural uh we had potato infestations in five sites and evaluated as i buy a control impact on the volvo ferra and associated plant communities in florida now we’ll talk a little bit a little bit about the impact the beatles statement mean percentage of airported divine cover uh gradually dropped during 2012 16 down to 21 and versus down to 34 percent in control my intent is remained uh above percent of beetle treatment while it remained below fifteen to twenty percent in control so fifteen percent mind damage appears to be the lowest access hole for negative impact occurring on vine cover so violence control was due to feeding frenzy by the spirit over beetles from adjacent areas where defoliated minds died prematurely so now back to the production at the onset of the experiment in 2012 bulbar density and biomass were similar in control and brittle treatments and by 2016 volvo density and biomass in brittle treatment decreased by 98 and 85 respectively in relation in relation to 2012 level also in uh controlled by all build density decreased by 75 but individual with sizes increased a ball will density decrease in control are attributed to the vine feeding damage by the spillover beetle from outside reduce bulgaria density and biomass will suppress the airplane for the dispersal and uh invasive potency now uh for additional information on this research please refer to the public’s letters and letters are listed on this slide i’d like to thank comprehensive everglades restoration project south florida watermelon majestic army corps of engineers miami-dade county dorm for funding and nepal agriculture research council chinese academy science for facilitating foreign surveys conducting preliminary research and shipping back into regions to our quantum facility thank you everybody this is greg wheeler usda airs in fort lauderdale florida we’ll be talking today about biological control of chinese tallow tridex subira it’s a member of the 4bac this has been a team effort with the chinese academy of science scientists dr jane dr wang dr zhang as well as matt purcell csiro lab in brisbane australia chinese telu is a an attractive tree that grows to 10 to 20 meters in height its leaves change color and fall and drop during the winter months and they recover of course in the spring produce fruit flowers and fruit again in the following fall and those fruit are bright white thus it’s common name of popcorn tree also known as

talent tree or florida aspen this first introduced in the 1780s and south carolina it now is distributed throughout the gulf states from houston all the way to south carolina it’s become one of the dominant woody species of many forests and wetlands those infestations impact attempts to recover the endangered whoopi crane and the atwater’s prairie chicken populations despite all of our efforts continues to have an expanding range we estimate that it’s going to cost between 200 and 400 million dollars to control over the next 20 years or suggest that biological control can be consistent this effort by being a self-sustaining cost-effective means of control the native range of chinese tallow of course is china where it occurs south of the yellow river to about hong kong it’s been a cultivated species in china for hundreds of years so there’s a lot known about the insects associated with chinese child colleagues there compiled a list of about 200 herbivore species which we could then use to decide species that might be suitable for bio control we imported many of these into a quarantine and fort lauderdale and began testing to determine which ones might be safe these included this leaf rolling beetle the crushed polaris flea beetle can drop the fusca defoliating caterpillar a leaf rolling member of the dicomerus genus and thesaurus geometric species upon further testing three of these species had to be dropped from further consideration so we focused our attention on the cost of polaris and goodreads and flesca but first i’d like to just make a mention of these galling species in the schaizo myelia genus this is they form galls on the tips and on the stems of chinese tallow there’s apparently a complex of at least three species but the kasha kolaris is the fleet beetle the adults feed on the leaves they where they also lay eggs those things that hatch into larvae which drop to the ground was already penetrated into the soil and fetal on the roots the larval stage takes about two weeks where they then put in them the adults emerge and then repeat the cycle feeding elements in this species it’s good earth infested it completes all of its stages of its life cycle in the foliage it goes through five inch stars completes development in about 25 to 30 days this latter species has an enormous appetite it can consume its entire body mass every single day and just to demonstrate the bottom or six leaves that were laid out a single larva was offered those in two days and left only small fragments so we wanted to do an impact study to determine how much damage this species would cost saplings that were about 50 centimeters in height so we introduced either no larvae as a control one larva or five water relative feed for two generations and we measure the number of leaves the biomass and as well as the growth of these trees we found that five larvae reduced the total biomass by about a half compared to the controls that had no larvae above ground biomass was reduced to about 40 percent of the control and leaf biomass was reduced to about five percent of the control so just to summarize we’d still would like to get back to china and continue work on these of my golf courses but until then we still have a lot of work to do on the insects that we still have in quarantine these are just awaiting a release permit from aethus once that’s granted we’ll be able to field release akasha polaris the philippines bonus goodness of leska thank you everybody for your attention i look forward to working with you soon ligonia microphone old wall climbing firm has a pan-tropical distribution in the native range it was first reported as naturalized in southeastern florida in 1965 range expansion is ongoing in peninsular florida and the search for natural enemies in the native range is focused on southeast asia and northern australia this invasive vine can out-compete native species in a variety of habitats it grows in the form of racuses or leaves that extend from horizons these rakeses are indeterminately growing up to 30 meters they can trail horizontally or climb vertically causing these tree skirts which can carry fire into tree canopies

this is really difficult to manage because herbicides and prescribed burns tend to top kill the plant but don’t necessarily kill the rhizome so you get rapid regrowth it also reproduces via tremendous production force this makes the plant especially difficult to manage in remote conservation areas such as tree islands in national loxahatchee national wildlife refuge and in habitats in everglades national park two agents are being mass reared and released in florida the brown lygodium moth neomusatima conspiracitalis is a defoliating moth that can outbreak and cause these expensive brownouts so all the brown vine has been defoliated by the moth however these outbreaks tend to be sporadic and ephemeral and they don’t necessarily kill the rhizome so like fire and herbicide you get rapid regrowth following a defoliation event we’ve released about three million of the moth and more than three million of the mic fluorocarous therapy this is an area fired that causes leaf roll galls the mites reproduce within the galls and they’ll also damage the apical meristems so here’s a healthy fiddlehead here’s one that’s been damaged by the mite and you can also get a loss of ethical dominance from this damage so the plant just produces a whole bunch of leaves but doesn’t grow vertically so we’ve documented up to a 75 reduction in radius growth rates from this mite damage however neither agent is causing enough damage in the field to reach management goals so my team is very focused on integrated weed management in collaboration with a number of agencies for example we have studied post-burn colonization of the agents this is a prescribed burn in loxahatchee national wildlife refuge additional burns were conducted in everglades national park where collaborators from florida international university tracked mite activity pre-burn which was about 50 to 70 percent of the focal plants had mite damage and within nine months of the burn we regained that level of damage by 15 months post burn nearly all plants had mite activity similarly in work with the university of florida and south florida water management district we’re documenting mic galling of tree islands that have been treated so about 24 months post-application more than 80 of the lygodium spoilings on islands treated with glyphosate have mite damage and again we’re seeing the same loss of apical dominance we have an extensive study running in the field now again looking at interactions between the two agents and herbicides where we have different levels of herbicide treatments and we are chemically excluding the agents and half of the plots we’ve constructed these artificial tree trellises so we have surface area that we can both measure ligonium growth on and harvest biomass cotton we’re also collaborating with the us army corps of engineers to use drones to release the agents in difficult to access places and plan to monitor the agents with drones in quarantine we have three candidate agents in different stages of testing the first the krambid libra misati mistria is another defoliating moth this agent is the closest to being petitioned we’re also working with a soft line neostrambuceras albacomas this insect is from thailand and it can reach outbreak densities in the native range and finally the noctua caliphistria exotica this is a pretty large caterpillar it’s a voracious feeder and 50 plants into the test plant list it is thus far proving to be a ligotium specialist and we’re pretty optimistic about that we thank the many people and organizations who make this work possible hello all i’m melissa smith a research ecologist with usda and i work on melaleuca in early facadia i do this work with carrie mentier matt purcell and phil tipping both melaleuca and early facacia are australian planets and arrived through intentional introductions in the early 20th century the most recent work with melaleuca is occurring at big cypress national preserve looking at the interaction of fire melaleuca and its biological control agents big cypress is north of everglades national park and encompasses several different habitat types including cypress domes and pine woodlands this preserve is a good representative of the interplay between water and fire that determines the vegetation in the everglades

melaleuca was once quite dense in these areas with conducive hydrology shown in the map in the dark shaded areas however it’s been drastically reduced through treatment removal and sustained control from biological control agents that is until 2018 when the raccoon buyer set off a significant recruitment event in areas with remnant melaleuca trees when we arrived and surveyed these plots biological control agents especially the midge and the weevil were in high densities on the seedlings as seen here in the photo the pink areas are midge damage and you can see the brown areas which indicates larval feeding from the weevil data from this and previous studies shows that even without biological control melaleuca goes through the three to five year self-thinning phase where roughly 96 of seedlings will not survive where biological control assists most is in the continuing control of these remote populations biological control decreases biomass and seedling height by 70 to 75 and stops seedlings from ever reaching reproductive stage an additional agent is being pursued because in extremely wet areas as seen here in the graph mortality decreases by 15 to 20 percent this insect another midge is currently going through the approval process purely focaccia is increasingly concerning in natural areas in south florida it lives in seasonal river ways in australia which are drier than melaleuca swamps but not zurich so it thrives in the seasonal seasonally wet areas of florida we began surveys throughout australia for suitable agents in 2016 these have taken us to extremely remote parts of australia and given us the opportunity to work with indigenous rangers for long-term insect surveys over the course of the last four years several promising agents have emerged the first biological control organism that we are investigating is callanila into murata it has a 23-day life cycle and beetles can live over six months in laboratory conditions adults lay several hundred eggs over their lifetime both adult beetles and larvae leave tips and tender foliage this insect is still in quarantine and has completed approximately fifty percent of its post-range trials with no signs of significant non-target damage the second biological control insect we’re pursuing for early fecation is this galling wasp and the trickle of gaster genus this wasp was particularly exciting to find because the khan jetter is used for biological control in south africa with great success we have established rearing protocols for this insect and a laboratory colony is established at the australian biological control lab hopefully these two insects continue to show extreme specificity and will impact the reproduction and spread of early facade in south florida and keep it from being as problematic as melaleuca or acacias in other regions such as south africa thank you all for your time hello everyone i am dale hallritter from the usda ars invasive plant research lab in fort lauderdale florida and i will provide an update on the biological control of brazilian pepper tree this is a collaborative endeavor and we work closely with the university of florida and the florida department of agriculture and consumer services on field projects and mass smearing and release of the agents since its arrival from brazil as an ornamental in the 1840s brazilian pepper tree has spread to over 700 000 acres in florida it is highly invasive in both natural and urbanized areas costing over a million dollars annually to manage getting this weed under control is one of the top priorities of a comprehensive everglades restoration plant in southern florida after years of foreign exploration and host specificity testing in quarantine two insects have been approved for release as biological control agents in florida pseudophyllothrips itchingy is a thrips whose larvae and adults feed gregariously targeting flushing stem tips and new foliage califia latta forceps is a silhouette whose nymphs form pit galls in the leaves currently only the thrips have been released as mass smearing is still in the development phase for the psyllid the rest of this talk will focus on the thrips when thrips densities are high enough feeding damage results in the death of the apical meristem and the shoot chip becomes necrotic and withered this can cause significant damage especially when conditions are ideal for high thrips densities such as in our colonies at lower thrift densities we often see more leaf damage feeding on young leaves causes crinkled

necrotic patches that become more apparent as the leaves expand and mature through the efforts of iprl uf and fdax over 400 000 rips have been released in florida since may 2019 numbers have significantly inc as we have continued to improve our mass murdering methods we began monitoring impact in planted garden plots at both iprl and uf data shown here are for the plotted iprl we began releasing thrips every month or so beginning in july 2019 baseline tip mortality was typically less than 20 before release after thrip’s release tip mortality doubled as mortality induced by thrip speeding contributed to overall mortality in another collaborative project with uf we have been monitoring transects of wild brazilian pepper tree shown here are the data for iprl’s transects in big cypress national preserve damage was assessed monthly on a scale from 0 to 10 with 10 being damaged in at least one of the three forms seen on branches across the entire outer canopy damage appeared to fluctuate both with season and timing of thrips releases the pie charts show the relative proportions of the damage forms observed our collaborators at uf have conducted tests to determine the ecological host range of the thrips to confirm the host specificity tests conducted in quarantine labs here thrips were released onto both non-target plant species closely related to brazilian pepper tree and the target brazilian pepper tree grips steadily declined on the non-targets and once brazilian pepper tree was cut to simulate plant death the trips on the dying brazilian pepper tree stems did not appear to move to the adjacent non-targets this further confirms the specificity and ecological safety of the grips agent we and our collaborators will continue to release and monitor thrifts populations and their direct impacts on brazilian pepper tree some future directions include studies on trips predation in both laboratory and field experiments assessments on the impacts of canopy thinning on understory plant communities and evaluations of the efficacy of incorporating thrips into an ipm strategy with herbicides i’d like to acknowledge our funding sources both internal and through external collaborators their contributions have been invaluable to the success of these projects on scales needed to achieve landscape and ecosystem level impact lastly if you have any questions about our projects and the data presented here please send me an email and i’ll put you in touch with the corresponding investigator i can also provide a list of recent publications on brazilian pepper tree upon request thank you for tuning in to this biological control update and stay safe out there okay thank you southeast presenters that was really great and we appreciate your your organization there and filming everything ahead of time so um we are moving into the western update and we have a number of different speakers here and we will go ahead and start with jeff littlefield i’m jeff littlefield from montana state university i want to just briefly update the status of the hori crest gall might serious dropping in montana also i want to recognize my foreign co-operators massimo francesca and javid who has helped on this project area the holy quest might as an area phy it might if you’re not familiar with area fires they tend to be fairly small not very typical of mites and that they’re elongated have reduced number of legs also they’re very small to give you a perspective we tend to use eyelash brushes to transfer mites and if you have one on the end of the eyelash you can just barely see it especially if your eyes are much younger than mine so they’re fairly small and being small they’re readily wind dispersed and hop rides on other insects being small they’re also somewhat difficult to work with in the lab many area fight mites produce galls in this case a cereal joby produces primarily galls and the flower buds and preventing seed formations and they come in different forms if the populations are high or the plants are susceptible a secondary stems might be galled up and stunted also the whole plant might be scented as well for the last two years we’ve been making releases a serious the first asian to be put out on hori crest we’ve been using three release techniques our primary release has been excising galls taking them out to the field

putting them at the tips of susceptible plants and parafilming them up this year we’ve tried some other techniques where we gather the plants together in a little teepee and put the gulfs and where they all join or we’ve blenderized galls and sprinkle them on plants and typically what we’ve done is use gps points and inoculate five plants per point also we go into the site and mow small areas to stimulate regrowth of plants later in the year mice are very particular about what stage they can induce galls so we can extend our release period by mowing these areas we’ve made two releases in 2019 last year and recovered galls at both sites this year our primary site is in broadwater county we’ve been working with that because this fairly extensive site white topic covers an area of approximately one section which is a one square mile in 2019 we uh observed gulls at about 14 of our point infestations about about three percent of total plants being producing galls interestingly this year when we went back plants that were infested probably about three times as many so we’re not quite sure exactly what happened the gauls of the mice would probably move down onto the roots or in protected areas during 2019 and just hung out there for the winter interesting at this particular site we had a really bad grasshopper outbreak and by mid-summer you know all the white tops were just just stems more than anything and all the galls were eaten this year we put out a comparable number actually a little bit larger number of galls and of our point infestations about 20 percent hat galls which is about uh four percent of total plants and inoculated it’s just a couple things that we’ve noticed no galls were produced in mode areas for some reason maybe we’ll find some next year and there’s no uh evidence of uh immediate dispersal almost all that we found goals on this year were inoculated last year what do we have planned for the future a lot of people are interested in the might and obtaining it we’re going to be using bozeman as an area to to bring in the mites move them to affiliate stations and nest purse and colorado and from there they go into more of a redistribution mode these will be redundant populations so with that i just want to acknowledge my funding partners and thank you for your time this is john gaskin i’m a a botanist with usda ars in sydney montana and i do genetics in support of weed control one thing we’re awaiting is for flowering rush cabbie’s doing a great job on developing the weevil for that and quarantine we’re growing flowering rush in there it’s growing very happily and we await some of those vagus weevils but apparently they’re a little hard to rear over in switzerland and we’re anticipating probably the same issue here but we’re going to give it a shot maybe next season we’ll be able to get some for rearing inside quarantine the meantime working on the genetics of flowering rush there’s a map of the u.s showing the different colors indicating different genotypes we have in the west we have a blue genotype one a triploid which is invading mostly over in the east around new york and everything they’re more of a genotype four kind of thing why do why does that matter it doesn’t really matter too much for the weevil but the uk is looking at a smut that attacks flowering rush and the smut that they found did not like to attack genotype 1. so we need to keep finding some origins of where genotype 1 the blue genotype flowering rush came from and luckily through lots of collecting by folks especially patrick cabbie this year he sent us some samples out of the netherlands which were an exact match to our genotype one which is our big invasive genotype in the west so now we have a location where they can go and take a look and see if there are any diseases or other biocontrol agents hanging out in those populations in europe and maybe develop them for bio control on another front natalie west who’s speaking next and i are revisiting leafy spurge and basically my question is what species is invading north america because the flora north america very recently said euphorbia escala is considered just to be a waif and really everything invading is euphorbia vergata and they’re supposed to be told apart by morphology mostly leaf morphology but other people have said in the past well leaf characters were of little value in separating these things so are we dealing with taxonomic issues here

is there hybridization between different species from europe going on and the big question are we matching agents with invasive species do you do we have the right agent for what’s really in the us so a genetic study just shows this cluster of different colored plants blue ones being north america pouring a big cluster and the main story is that euphorbia escula which is green dots from europe and euphorbia vergata which is red dots from europe are really quite similar to each other and mixed up even though they have different morphologies so we don’t know the answer yet gonna still be looking into that and see what the heck’s really here in north america because we can see some of the red dots from europe in our north american cluster and also some of the green euphorbia escuela from europe north american cluster so to be continued and the last thing i’m going to talk about is not even bio control so i apologize but the folks in oregon had found a carduous morphology they thought it was close to cardroos picnocephalus but they thought it certainly didn’t quite look like it it had these sort of elongated support for the flower heads that you don’t see in picnocephalus so some good folks worked with me this year and we published some information that there is a news piece of cardjuice in north america none of them are native and they’re all relatively invasive we determined it was different from picnocephalus using dna sequence data it showed about uh four to five percent difference from all other cardio species in north america so that kind of nailed it as being something else and it was very close to some things with badly named specimens out of turkey but it turns out it should be cardocenereus which is turkish thistle and right now turkish thistle is just found mostly in hell’s canyon between idaho and oregon right there and the green indicates where picnocephalous the italian thistle is that’s all i’ve got if you have any questions about genetics on invasions just to give me an email thanks very much hello everyone i am natalie west and i’m a research ecologist stationed with john at the uh pest management research unit out of sydney montana i’m going to talk a little bit today about a project that i’m working on with john and other collaborators who are also on this call looking at and evaluating the leafy spurs biological control program where it’s effective and can we improve the management recommendations we’re making to at a large scale using apsona particularly agents they were interested in teasing out some of the general limitations to biological control there’s a lot of was a lot of pre-release and early data on what was might be limiting agents but 20 years into the program we can we are now at a point where we can actually look across a broad landscape to see what are true limitations versus local or site level limitations so john is doing some genetics on this on the at the plant level there’s probably complicated genetics at the agent level but we can’t do everything so basically we’ve started this project in 2019 we managed to sample 96 sites across idaho north dakota and montana we used a modified sim sampling system so if you’re familiar with that program you’ll know what we were doing we looked at soil characters plant genetics we sampled the weed density plant community as well as beginning this year the roots to look for actual feeding at the sites and these things are all to give us a local scale evaluation of basically what the agent’s abundance is and what the weed population looks like and the things that are italicized we’ll be sampling over repeated sampling over a three-year period so we can look at how we can control for yearly variation in some of these parameters then we’re also going to link some of our local scale data to larger scale patterns i’m looking at landscape level patch abundance measured with drone sampling as well as large scale climate and landscape variables and gis so then we can try to start to partition what local scale limitations scale up to larger scale and more general patterns so what we’ve found so far after the first year of sampling in 2019 these are our sites and i’ve ordinated them based on the soil characteristics points that are closer together are more similar in soils points that are further apart are less similar and what you can see is that we’ve sampled a variety of soil conditions the point size reflects weed density so you can see that there’s very extreme variation in weed density across the sites we sampled what we did find is that there’s no clear patterns associated with soil characteristics and this has been one of the main points that’s been suggested to help you choose which apsona agent is and so we’re hoping i can tease that data in a little further

to see if there are any general patterns with soil texture or nutrients and so these are the beetle data and so we i’m just going to show you the axona beetles those are the most widely dispersed agents and was the focus of team leafy spurge distribution and education efforts in the 90s and 2000s that really implemented leafy verge biocontrol over a large scale what you can see is in 2019 that we actually found apsona at 92 of our 94 sites so the agent is very well um distributed across the landscape only four sites that we sampled did not have pepsona and interestingly enough two of those sites though they didn’t have epsona fleet beetles did have oberea which was another agent that was released but has been considered we don’t we know less about its efficacy over time what you can see is there is in the upper left hand graph you can see that there is a rel differences in the relative abundance of the black and brown beetles which is too kind of a coarse way to think about it in the landscape you can see some have more some have less a few of them have equal brown tends to have particularly larger populations perhaps in terms of the cover of leafy spurge this is a percent cover estimate in the lower left hand corner and you can see most of our sites where at a plot level the community it makes up less than 20 percent of the community cover so overall a majority of sites we’re seeing have less than 20 percent cover of the community and leafy spurge so what can i tell you in terms of our preliminary findings asian community is varied widely across sites but we we have yet to see a clear association with soil variables we do we’re able to collect four aftona species obrea and hylies which is the hawk moth released for leafy spurge however neither uh spurgia agent has been apparent but we don’t have optimized sampling for for those kinds of organisms beetles do vary in relative abundance but have similar absence rates around 15 to 20 percent of sites have one beetle or the other at highest spurge densities you do see low agent abundance however more agents are not necessarily associated with lower spurs density so this will require a little more work on our part and so in closing i’d like to say based on team with these courage recommendations we would expect maximum control to be a leaf dispurage density of five percent of the plant community and about 20 of the sites we’ve sampled so far currently approximate this cover so there seems to be considerable success and i just want to point out that you should document releases because that’s been a hard part of this program and i will end there i’m lincoln smith i’m a research scientist at the usda artist lab in albany california and i’m happy to present an update on yellowstar thistle rosette weevil sierra tapia ambassacorning this is a new agent available for yellowstar thistle that was proposed back in 2006 as a petition to tag and it got blocked back in 2009 so there’s 10 year hiatus but avis has approved it in 2019 the starting back again serotopian ambassador corny is a weeble for yellowstar thistle which is a new agent which was approved in 2019 so we have an aphis permit as the states also have to concur for releases within their states i have a permit for california and permits are being applied for other states including all those in which yellow star thistle occurs in the western usa so if you’re interested in the future to get these wheels i recommend collaborating with carol randall jennifer andreas joel price and colin park and dan bean who’ll also be involved in multiplying the insect in the future the life cycle of the insect is that it has one generation per year adults emerge in the early spring and they start feeding on the rosette stage making feeding holes in the leaves and laying eggs in the leaves and the mid-ribs here’s a split mid-rib showing what an egg looks like the eggs hatch in about 10 days and larvae tunnel down the midrib down into the center of the root where they feed as the plants growing during the spring more than one insect can develop inside a plant here’s a heavily attacked root of a mature rosette and the larvae pupate inside the plant and then they emerge as adults through exit holes usually around ground level at about the time the plant is bolting in the spring so that’s usually late may to early june adults then feed for about two weeks and then they disappear until the following spring so there’s one generation per year in may 2019 massimo christopher and his team went to greece to collect infested plants to start a new colony

because we stopped research for about 10 years and he was successful and we got adults into our quarantine lab and we multiplied generation last fall and so this is the first time that we’ve grown them out of season so we’ve learned how to produce two generations per year instead of one generation per year the current system is fairly labor intensive it involves taking an individual female that’s been fertilized putting her in a small cage on a plant so she can lay eggs in the leaves and then moving air each day to a new plant so we can control a number of larvae per plant plants are then held for about a month and a half and then put in bags to collect emerging adults and then we collect the adults and then put them in cold storage until they’re ready to be used last spring we made our first release in california with co-operators from cdfa and we went back about two months later and found that there were signs of attack although the plants were very small because of the drought in california our current research now is focusing on increasing reproduction or production for future releases now we currently have a good system for rearing our plants but we’d like to increase the efficiency of that but we’re also looking at other ways to maximize production the first is to increase the number of generations per year because normally it’s just one generation per year and we’re using cold storage conditions as well as insect hormones to break diapers early so that we can multiply the insects any time of year second we’re improving methods to stockpile the adults so they’re ready to release in spring so if you produce adults for example in the fall then they’re held until the spring for release and lastly we’re working on developing an artificial diet which would improve the efficiency and decrease the cost of production and much of this work right now is to be done by ichu park who’s working as a postdoc in my laboratory lastly what is our distribution plan uh we’re working on having a zoom training this fall for a few groups that are interested to receive the insect and start rearing on potted plants specifically a team at cdfa in california the nes pierce insectary in idaho and the palisades and secretary in colorado so if you’re interested in participating in the zoom training in the fall which will be later in november go ahead and contact me otherwise our strategy is to try and get these out to the various states so the states can then multiply it on their own and do their own distribution plans feel free to contact me for further information thank you very much i’m dan bean colorado department of agriculture and i’m stationed at the palisade in secretary you can search palisade and sector if you have further questions reach us there i’m going to present a brief update on canada thistle and russian knapweed biocontrol both of them important for the state of colorado with canada thistle we have a rust fungus called punctiformis and russian knapweed we have two gall forming agents with punctiformis our agent is a root specific fungus a root fungus specific to canada thistle it’s parasitic lives underground the only part of its life cycle that appears above ground is the sexual part it’s best known by workers in the field from the showy appearance of aco spores in the late spring early summer they’re the rusty colored spores they don’t actually they’re not capable of initiating root infections you have to wait till later in the season and get telio spores which are much less showy difficult to locate but once you locate them you can make preparations that can be used to initiate infections as described by dana berner and colleagues in 2013 in the journal bio control teleo spores are two-celled distinguishing them from other sport types for this for this biocontrol agent our way of obtaining materials and getting it out just scout sites in mid to late summer collect leaves that are rich in antelia and teleo dry out all the leaves in paper bags grind in your favorite heavy duty blender store the coarse powder for use in the fall and inoculate rosettes in the fall the germinating teleospores enter the plants root systems as mycelial infections and they may remain there for a number of years before revealing themselves but they do cause the plants to go down in terms of vigor and stem density we’ve measured stem density on private locations where we’ve released spores and private landowners have allowed us to do this and we find that at 42 months we have about an average 60 decline in stem densities

one thing that we did notice with this work is that at some sites we have complete collapse of canada thistle where stem densities decline by 99 or 100 so we’re really working to figure out what what factors caused this because that would certainly make it much more efficacious bio control agent otherwise it’s a typical slow decline we were encouraged enough by this to develop a multi-state program under support from the bishop program are from the b chip funding our program involved production of telio’s poor bearing materials and shipping it out to 11 different states in the western u.s five of these states have currently recorded establishment of the fungus and certainly in a number of other states we expect establishment to occur soon for this project karen rosen is our colorado contact and she’s working with carol randall of the forest service we consider this a good large-scale successful redistribution effort second program is russian knapweed it’s also a major wheat in in colorado we have two gulf warming agents that were developed and tested by cabbie and we’re grateful for that because we didn’t really have any agents before the two agol farmers we received agents from our cooperators in the u.s and established agents in colorado japiella ivanakovi in 2011 that’s the shoot tip gallmidge and alicidia croptolonica 2016 that’s the stem gall wasp ivana kovi does well at sites that are relatively wet because they require fresh plant material throughout the season whereas croptolonica can survive over the summer in hardened galls where they die a pause until the next spring so we were more than happy to see establishment across colorado of acroptolonica and now we’ve released 200 000 wasps in 2020 and are encouraged by the signs that we could potentially have success with the wasp populations of the wasp are building at older release sites multiple galls been found on single plants so you can go out to some of our release sites and find plants like the one in the lower left corner that have multiple galls and they’re severely stunted both when both species are present you get we would probably expect a bigger impact we’re currently studying that plants are stunted especially at our older release sites and at one release site where we had uh good gold numbers in 2019 378 and 16 meters squared site but skyrocketed to over 27 000 and 2020. so we expect success we’re seeing decline and given the nature of russian napori and the problems with it we’d be very happy to see that thank sonya daily for this project because she’s currently the leader and director of it and joel and jess brought the project along from its beginnings and carol has been very helpful in getting it getting our project advertised to multi-state cooperators i think that’s the quick story please contact us if you have any further questions about the program thank you my name is patrick moran i’m a research entomologist at the usda agricultural research service invasive plant species pollinator health in albany california i’m going to talk a little bit about arundo and cape iv bio control projects and a new project on ice plant so for rondo i worked in the past with dr john goolsby who’s on this call to characterize these two bio control agents the shoot tip calling wasp tetramesa romana we demonstrated over the past five years in some publications that this wasp reduces biomass virundo 30 to 44 in the original release area in the lower rio grande basin of texas and mexico so i’ve been releasing it in northern california there’s also the arundo armored scale rhizospidiota stoneassess and a recent paper that we published suggested that the wasps plus scale together lead to a further reduction of up to an additional 50 percent of the live biomass in arundo so in california i brought wasps from texas and released them at a total of 11 sites so far in the central valley focusing on these critical watersheds that feed into the sacramento san joaquin delta essentially the water nexus for california so arundo is a major invader in this area and at nine of the sites that which were released in 2017 about a thousand wasps per site nine plots per site we went back and did surveys uh in 2018 2019 and 2020 and in the 2019 surveys at two of the nine sites we found presence of exit holes made by emerging glossberg gauls at 50 or more of the survey points these pictures down here show the most recent surveys in 2020 and the yellow points are

survey points which had the wasp some evidence of the wasp so the wasp is widespread and dispersing at these sites and we’re seeing young main shoots gold in the understory which is a clear sign of a damaging wasp population we have baseline biomass data for these sites and we will be monitoring impact at some of these sites we did not get strong wasp establishment and we already knew from our 2017 studies that if we pre-treat the arundo plots with either ground cut or mowing at one meter height we get much higher densities of exit holes than if we just release wasps into plots that were not cut so at these sites which failed to establish in 2017 we instituted a double cut technique this year so this is could be considered integrated control so we ground cut the plots allow them to grow back for a couple of months then mowed them several times and then by september of this year we see this clear difference between plots that only got the initial ground cut versus plots that got the topping the plots with double cut much more suitable tissue for the wasp the wasp likes the side shoots the lateral shoots they will attack the main chutes but in terms of initial establishment what we’re looking for is lots of a vigorous arundo with side shoots so now we’ve released the wasps into these plots and we’re going to evaluate the success of this double cut technique in terms of the arundo armored scale the way we released this agent in 2017 and 2018 was to infest greenhouse micro plants we call them arundo in pots and then allow one generation which takes about six months in the greenhouse and then we put these potted plants out in the fields and we found so far at seven sites evidence one in two years after the release of reproductive females present at the sites on the resident arundos this is good evidence of establishment of the arundo armored scale it’s not going to disperse nearly as fast as the wasp but at least we have initial evidence of establishment we’ve also started some new studies this year to look at the different kinds of ways of releasing the armored scale in larger numbers and to see if we can get a result in terms of impact but it’s going to take several years to see if we actually see a widespread impact we also have a third agent for rondo the uh leaf minor lazy opera denasis that was permitted for release in north america based on the work that john goolsbee and his group did in texas but not yet released the problem is uh rearing it outside of quarantine this leaf miner works with this cosmopolitan fungus which provides a source of food there are ways to isolate the leaf miner from its european fungus and also from a nematode that infects it and we’ve been working starting to work with the bbca to refine the isolation and infestation techniques ship to our quarantine in albany and then find a california fungal isolate on arundo and pair it with the european leaf miner that’s the plan for the next few years ivy is another invasive weed in california mostly along the immediate coast and we’ve released the world’s first biocontrol agent of cape ivy which is also invasive in australia and new zealand and mediterranean europe the shoot tip calling to fritted fly we’ve released it at a total of 18 sites along the california coast this map here shows 10 sites and we are seeing now evidence of establishment the releases were started in 2018 and we’ve we’re now seeing a big increase in the density of galls at several of these sites total five sites so far we don’t have data on impact yet we will be monitoring that and again for these sites we do have some baseline data on the standing biomass and density of the cape ivy we also have a second agent for a cape ivy the leaf mining moth digit of alba delaria this moth can feed on several native sinisio species in quarantine and survive multiple in stars on this particular native sinister so we’re finishing up those tests right now we’re going to submit an addendum to the tag petition to tafis we’re collaborating with the csiro in australia we’ve actually provided them the pupates to start their own host range testing program using this moth and also we’re doing genetic studies with csiro to determine the invasive origins of cape ivy in various parts of the world the new project i want to briefly mention involves ice plant this is a collaborative project ice plant is a invasive plant along the coast especially in southern california and in the channel islands where it’s considered a major ecological invader a damaging invader there’s two species that we’re looking at and both of these plants are native to south africa and also parts of mediterranean europe so we’ve established we’ve gotten some extramural funding and we’ve established collaboration with dr ian patterson rhodes university in south africa to collect samples and do genetic origin analyses potential biocontrol agents and also with the bbca to collect samples and look at potential biocontrol agents

so that’s some of the projects we’re working on and thanks for your time good to see everybody today i’m down here in the very southern tip of texas patrick moran mentioned that we worked for many years together on arundo donax so the work here in texas on that has concluded and i’m working now on this invasive guinea grass and my collaborators to do the foreign exploration are massimo christopher with bbca and then there’s a lot of work that has been done on the genetics of this grass and i’ve been working closely with john gaskin and you can see the other collaborators there here in texas and in south africa this is a unique grass and that it creates what is called a pathogenic landscape this grass is so dense and covers all of the habitats in south texas urban areas natural areas agricultural areas like sugar cane and citrus but the reason that we’re particularly interested in it at usda is that it creates this environment that’s favorable for cattle fever ticket invasion and cattle fever tick is an exotic livestock pest that we keep eradicated from the u.s it keeps invading but what it does is it creates this habitat that reduces ground-dwelling predators like ants so that the tick has no really good natural predator and then also it it makes an environment that’s much more favorable much cooler more humid which allows for a greater survival of the tick so what it does is it facilitates the invasion of this tick which leads to lots of problems for usda and keeping it eradicated so it seems like a great target for biocontrol the other interesting problem with this grass is that there are two different forms the little and the big form and they there is no integration between the two you get one or the other it’s almost as if they are different species the big form is really common worldwide and in mexico and throughout the tropics but there’s only a small amount of it here in texas and northeastern mexico what we have is this little form that is more drought adapted the pity grass so it is 99.9 of the infestation so that’s the target we’re looking for an agent that will attack only the little guinea grass and not the big guinea grass so that’s a tall order but anyway we think we can do it so we have looked closely at the genetics because we need to find out where our little guinea grass comes from in africa and john gaskin has done a lot of work and found that the best match with south texas is south africa around durban so we have concentrated our field research in south africa looking at this genetic match site what we have done is we focused on mites because the mites are known to be highly specific especially these area fired bites and we have two of them in quarantine that we are testing and what we’re doing right now is just looking for something that only attacks the little guinea not the big guinea and then of course we’re testing the closest native relatives like switchgrass but we think that these both of these agents have a good chance of being specific enough and one of the other things that we’ll also have to do is determine how damaging they are to the plant but we really want an agent that is focused on just the invasive form of this guinea grass so i’ll end with the skinny grass is spreading all throughout texas even as far north as houston it’ll probably eventually go across the southeastern u.s so if any of the land managers that are on this call are interested in learning more about skinny grass please give me a call and especially if you’re from florida because there’s a lot of this grass spreading in central florida thank you very much thanks so much everyone that was a great update so we are going to move on to the the canada update so we will hand it over to you rob and john okay so i’m opening for canada here and what we have in this picture is the program in a slide okay so this is basically all of the in the center column here the weeds that are being targeted and what we’re doing okay taking it through seven stages which most of you in bio control are going to be very familiar with and these are the stages that each of these weeds are presently

at in the development process and then the agents are listed here and then here we have the activities that go with those different stages so we start with determining whether or not we’re going to be able to justify a biocontrol program is it really needed that’s really doing economic analysis the distribution how big of a problem it is once it’s determined that there is a need for a program followed by overseas exploration done by colleagues at cabbie or bbca or other organizations then we do the biology and host range studies which is really the safety and impact testing we do some of that work here but much of that is also done overseas by colleagues followed by petitioning for release and then a lot of our work is really in the field release propagation stage five six and seven here which are field release assessing the establishment and impact and then followed by long-term monitoring and redistribution and you can see that we have weeds at all of those stages so this would be the activities associated with those so narrowing in on the weeds that i’m responsible for i’m talking first call colleagues rose to clerk float alec mcclay and chandra moffatt are going to speak to the weeds that they’re involved in so to begin with with flowering rush john i was really excited to hear that information that you guys have identified the genotype because we’re part of that consortium interested to know and better target it with bio control agents the weed is a problem in bc alberta and ontario and bc has the one of the worst uncommon genotypes but also has that genotype one we’re really looking forward to getting that agent but so far that’s we haven’t really done much on it we’re just waiting for the petitioning process himalayan balsam that’s one that we’re working on with cabbie in the uk looking at the rust pathogen that was released in the uk in 2015 i think it was the pathogen unfortunately is very specific and i say that because it doesn’t necessarily affect the genotypes that they have there and we have the same genotypes present in bc that they have in the uk we’re looking at going back with that one and hopefully finding a more genotype from the point of origin and to match it better with the with the genotypes that we have in the field but again that’s still at a stage of doing the host range testing it’s very specific almost too specific in this case which is a common thing with a lot of the pathogens then moving on to looking at stage five in terms of field release and propagation others have already mentioned two that we have relatively recent permitting for common reed there’s the two species in this case it says archanera one of them has actually been moved into another genus linisa but it’s the two species of moths that have been referred to these have been permitted for release in canada in 2019 and the first release was done that year in a cage looking at releases of adults and we’re really at a question at the stage with both of these of asking questions about how best to get them out is it better to release eggs is it better to release adults the life cycle of the insect really dictates that and we’ve done we’re in the process of doing testing to see which of those works best that is with colleagues already mentioned at cabbie and group at cornell and lisa tewksbury university of rhode island so basically all we’ve done with that so far is is try a couple of different methods the insects are definitely not established and we’re just getting going with cage releases uh garlic mustard similar early stage project we’re releasing the weevil the root crown weevil that harriet mentioned sudarinka and we have it was first released in 2018 with colleagues from the university of minnesota this is an interesting insect because it has a quiescence basically during the summer which is a bit strange for a lot of the insects that we work with and it’s not has a relatively complicated life cycle that genie kotovic and roger becker and others have worked out the methods to rear it the encouraging news again the question is whether we release adults or whether we release attack plants that contain larvae and eggs the adult weevils have to go through a generation of rearing before release because there’s a parasitoid that can emerge from adult weevils at least in the literature and it has been observed in europe we either have to rear them a generation as adults to get a new f1 to release or else

releasing the attack plants that they lay their eggs in the encouraging news most recently is that we’re seeing what we think might be feeding damage in the field from some of that early release it’s still not confirmed and we haven’t found any adults so we have a ways to go with it but it is looking uh promising moving on to the knotweeds many people have mentioned aphilera already we’ve done releases with it since 2014 and basically we’ve been able to get establishment and we have been able to get over wintering populations that are found in the spring and we have been able to get populations where we can detect them all the way through the summer but we have not been able to get populations that are found continuously at the same site so it isn’t established yet we’re encouraged because we’re now working with this new uh line that was collected in japan in 2019 by colleagues at cabbie which is hopefully not gone through all the genetic bottlenecks that the lab populations that we have been releasing have gone through and so that’s the one that we’re working with to release right now to date the field data that we have shows that it may prefer older plants or does better on older plants than it does on younger plants the concern was is that the populations that were of the previous that previously were released had been selected in the laboratory for young soft succulent plants by our rearing process so that when you put them out in the field you got lots of eggs but then the nymphs would die because they cannot feed on the tougher knotweed plants so that’s a story that’s still to be continued but it looks promising finally moving on to stage six the dog strangling buying project we have hypina established at a couple of locations in ontario the populations are are building in terms of spreading out from the original release point but we’re still at a very slow growth point in that we can find them the defoliation can be quite high it was very high in 2019 but seemed to go back down again in 2020 there’s still an awful it’s got i think that’s going to be a slow process but we do have the insect established so i’m now just going to pass it over that’s the end of the ones that i’m dealing with and i’m just going to pass it over to rose to clerk floating hello i’m rose the clerk float i’m at the same research center as uh rock with agriculture and agri-food canada working in classical weed biological control i’ll carry on with the projects i’m involved with again uh following the the seven stages of our programs and i’ll yeah i’ll just be touching on all of these but but they’ll make first dalmatian toad flax messiness peter harris i is a new agent that’s being tested for host specificity right now by cabbie specifically evo josofsky who’s in serbia and the reason why we’re testing this species is that we needed something that was more adapted to our colder areas or climates and this species is found in montane areas of macedonia and greece and we think it fits the bill and it’s not also a very host specific agent this will complement uh messiness yeah pharmacist was released on dalmatian towflax in the early 1990s and has done quite well in the more southern warmer interior climates in british columbia moving on to the hawk wheats at this stage we have all the city of pilisili which is a leaf-galling wasp that forms a small pea-sized galls along the mid-rib of the leaves and on the stems of the plant it is currently being reared by us and containment it hasn’t been petitioned yet but post-specificity testing is ongoing by cabbie in switzerland we have in lothbridge six different populations that we’ve been rearing since 2012 using materials shipped to us by cabbie and these are genetically fall into two different biotypes or different groupings based on their host range and their biology chandra moffat who will be speaking coming up actually did our masters on this species and we’re continuing looking at the impact of all acidic pilisili on the different invasive pilisilla hawkweed species and it shows i think it shows some promise moving on to our petitions i’m currently involved with two co-petitions with the u.s one for asseria agual mite syria angustifolia for russian olive which is a fairly new project for canada

and also one for dalmatian toadflex rhinosa herrera which is a stem calling weevil the russian olive petition was mentioned by harriet at the very beginning of the meeting and as she mentioned it’s in the process of being petitioned and there’s some back and forth going on with the review on the canadian side but i think we’re developing a strong case for its release in canada so that’ll be coming up uh hopefully in the next few months dalmatian toeflex with the rhinocerora it it looks like another promising agent and it’ll be petitioned together with charlene singh this winter it but the test so far or the work that’s been done by cabbie and specifically evo to tozzowski again in serbia has found that it’s very host specific and the gauls severely stunt dalmatian towflex shoots again it may be able to fit into these open areas where we’re not getting effective dalmatian proflex control and moving on to field release and propagation propagation so again the hawk wheats we had an agent colossia urbana which is a root mining hoverfly i think it was mentioned by harriet that it’s very difficult to rear we cannot rear through a full generation in the lab so that so thus we have been receiving eggs it was approved for release in 2017 but we’ve been receiving eggs from cabbie and transferring them to potted plants and and then rearing them through to the pupil stage over wintering them in artificial conditions or taking them out in their pots like with their potted plants and sinking them into the ground in the fall and that was how we made our first release in british columbia we also tried transferring the eggs directly outdoors at release sites onto plants here we’re targeting orange and meadow hawk weeds and then also we tried releasing adults that emerged from our potted plants in the spring that we took out a cold storage we’re still not 100 sure if we’ve had establishment it’s really hard to tell but one of the bc folks did see a black hoverfly that looked a lot like colossia a couple of springs ago we’re hopeful we’ll keep trying next the hawk weeds for assessment establishment and field impact all the cydia subterminalis was released some time ago in 2011 in british columbia we’ve been targeting whiplash hogweed although its main host really is mousey or hawkweed but whiplash is very closely uh related like it derives ancestrally from a hybrid between mossier and meadow hawkweed so that’s why the insect which calls the tips of the stolens i i guess it recognizes something in whiplash as a host releases were made at a number of sites in the okanagan area of british columbia and they’ve been just sitting there like present but not in high numbers and not increasing until this year some monitoring is showing there’s some promise being shown at a couple of the release sites so we’re hoping that it can increase and have impact the yellow toeflax agent is where i’ve been putting the bulk of my efforts of late rhinosa pylosa a weevil it forms a rather nice large fleshy gull on the stems that really sucks up a lot of water and nutrients from yellow toe flax we’ve been rearing and learning how to rear it for over 10 years now first in containment and now just in our regular lab space at lothbridge and so we can get the numbers quite high during the summer rearing this year we had the rear in our backyard it just made it easier so myself and my two technicians managed to get a few thousand reared but the first releases were made in 2014 it was again a co-petition this one with charlene singh and we quickly went to field release we released it in seven provinces from coast to coast and our following establishment there seems to be some differentiation and and the preference of climate types it seems to be doing quite well and it really is taking off in some some of our western sites at higher elevations in nbc and in southern alberta and i think it’s showing a lot of promise next we’re going to be looking at the effects of moisture on the landscape we think there might be a relationship there with its establishment success and the level of moisture available especially in the spring when the gulls are rapidly forming we’re all also looking at the effect of insect genetics we have different genetic lines that we obtained from evo

to the sovsky and serbia and we’re rearing them separately and we’re going to see which genotypes are going to work in our different environments and finally long-term monitoring and redistribution for a yellow towflex this is an old project in this the antennas it was released together unknowingly with a messness the anthraniformis in the early 1990s turns out that they are cryptic species and you can’t tell them apart visually but genetically you can or molecularly you can so we’ve been going back to our old release sites for mass misty anthony’s on yellowtow flags they separate by hosts too by the way the two species but the messness anthony’s releases made in alberta saskatchewan and nova scotia in the early 1990s and early 2000s have been revisited alec mcclay helped on these as well and we got some patterns it doesn’t do well in more northern uh reaches of our country but it certainly has established and it’s showing some promises some of the southern release sites in canada i’m alec mcclay i’m an independent consultant in biological control and i’ve been uh coordinating a couple of these projects for the last number of years on on commandancy and oxide daisy these are both joint u.s canadian projects and the work on the agents is being done that cabbie and sonia strutz has been doing the testing on these agents in recent years colin tanzi this has been quite a long haul break was started back in 2006 and what has slowed us down is that there is although common tension is quite well isolated taxonomically from most north american native species there is one or a couple of native tannicetum species one or a couple depending on which botanists you follow and quite a lot of our agents have accepted these native towns these species fairly readily and have had to be thrown out because of that we do now have a stem boring weevil microplantus malifolii which is looking quite promising in open field choice tests it appears to show a lot very much lower level of attack on the native candidates than it does on common tendency this work is being done in collaboration with the russian academy of sciences and petersburg because it’s proved to be difficult to transport the insects to switzerland and rear them there so it’s mostly being done in petersburg testing is very close to complete on this one as i say it looks to have a promising level of specificity and measurable impact on common tanza hopefully within a year or so we should be able to start drafting the position on this one oxide daisy i should mention these are both joint u.s canadian projects funding have been coming from minnesota in the early days through common tansy also from saskatchewan bc montana and some federal canadian programs and some smaller funders on oxide daisy we’re looking at a root-balling fly outside the nebulosa which is still in the screening process looking hopeful so far also an oxidase there’s a root-mining moth dichlorentha eratana i should mention one the critical non-target we have to keep in mind peroxidase is not a native plant there are no native lucanthimum species but it’s the cultivated shasta daisy which is a very popular ornamental and is a hybrid of several different mechanism species that’s the one that we have to be watching out for the moth the duck around for eritana shows very low levels of attack and performance on shasta daisy and otherwise seems to be very specific to oxlade-az the petition for this one is in the final stages of drafting and hopefully we should be submitting this for consideration this winter and that’s pretty much all i have to say on those so i will hand over now to chandra for her part good afternoon everyone i’m a research scientist with agriculture and agri-food canada based in british columbia and i’ll be presenting some work that myself and my colleague dr dave ensign have been working on so the majority of our work here in bc focuses on long-term monitoring and redistribution or as we like to call it contemporary ecology of historical biological control programs we’ve also recently started working on stage one which is weed impact and biocontrol feasibility so dave in collaboration with philip wheel at cabbie they’re working on parrots feather and so dave’s work is reviewing the canadian distribution and focusing on some niche modeling to examine the feasibility of development of biocontrol for parrots feather here in bc so there’s quite a number of agents or two agents available potentially a leaf feeding beetle and a stem binding weevil and those have been used for biocontrol of parrots feather in other regions and so assessing if either of these two agents will be suitable for bowel control of parrots feather here in western north america or if further agents would be required we’re also in the early stages of examining the feasibility of biocontrol for tree of heaven

here in the pacific northwest being with agriculture canada tree of heaven in particular is not only known for its impacts but also as a focal and preferred host plant of the highly invasive brown warm rooted stink bug which has impacts here in okanagan as well as as of course in other regions of north america and the world so bbca is leading the work on development of biocontrol of tree of heaven and right now we’re in early stages of developing a test plant list for western north america so our work really focuses like i mentioned on the long-term monitoring and redistribution and so we have a large project funded by the bc ministry of forests and range in collaboration with rose and rob at lethbridge where we’re reevaluating the establishment and efficacy of several agents released against spotted athlete in british columbia so our work over the last couple of years has taken us to around 25 field sites across southern british columbia where we’re conducting long-term monitoring we’re going to sites where there has been long-term monitoring and collecting new data to look at the impacts of biological control on spotted knackweed across landscapes in british columbia so this work has us collecting many different knapweed individuals from each population looking at the impact and distribution of different biocontrol agents and the overall population impacts these agents have on napweeds across southern bc we also are just beginning work to conduct a similar project for st john’s wort so st john’s wort is a weed that has been under biological control of course for a number of decades since the 1950s in western north america and biocontrol has been very successful we do see populations of st john’s wort like this one that can have a very high density and broad distribution so this site alone is more than 15 hectares so we’re beginning the process to reevaluate the efficacy of biological control of st john’s wort here in bc and collaboration with partners in the u.s at cabbie to determine if biocontrol the agents that have been released are still effective look at some climatic variables to see if the agents or the weeds are changing their behavior under changing climates or to better understand why st john’s wort is becoming more prolific at high elevations so of course this work is highly collaborative in nature a lot of our funding comes from the british columbia ministry of forest and range we work very closely with our colleague peter mason in ottawa his technicians in the quarantine facility alec and in the picture here members of the bc ministry of forest range agriculture and agri-food canada and in blue there in the middle is a phd student kaylee nielsen who’s working on using biological control systems in a number of ways focusing on spotted knackweed and also knotweeds so that’s all i had to share thank you so i’ve been asked to give a brief update on biocontrol monitoring specifically the standardized impact monitoring protocol this is i’ve given derivatives of this speech numerous times but it’s the integral part and chandra gave me a great segue to get going on this so what i’m going to talk about very briefly because we only have a few minutes here is the standards impact monitoring protocol what we’re trying to do is compare apples to apples we’re trying to bring sim the protocol i’m talking about into the 21st century and the folks that kind of put this together wanted me to talk about the app for that and then potential uses and analyses that we can get from the stem process and i’ve heard a couple people mention it so far today and it’s something that’s been widely applicable for a variety of users and this can be done with both research and site-specific information to help guide land managers and then lastly future uses for example what we can use this protocol for going forward so who came up with it i was charged when i came onto the blm in this capacity back in 2005 with finding holes in biocontrol and how we’re using it within the us and in 2006 i came together after a field season under my belt with a group of folks and we figured out that really figuring out what was going on with biocontrol was the big issue and so we came up with the this whole protocol and what we decided to do was make it simple the acronym just came as a result of that but it’s a user-friendly protocol it has educational two-page leaflets it’s designed to be a simple monitoring form citizen science friendly we wanted it to be the lowest common denominator is kids or kid groups and that’s what we’ve achieved it was originally designed to take 45 minutes one time per year ideally with biocontrol you have dedicated folks that go out there and look at it and actually do the monitoring and run through all that but with bio control in general monitoring always tends to fall on the back burner and it’s the lowest common denominator so we wanted to make this something that somebody could do on their way back from another location or things like that we put together some trainings and workshops and then we’re off to the races but the thing that we found as we progress through the years was the biggest impediment to actually getting some good solid data was the

monitoring form itself inevitably it ended up in you know somebody’s drawer somewhere or something like that and we never got it and also as this thing started to progress it started to snowball a little bit in in that process it was pretty cumbersome to put these monitoring forms in manually so we started to come up with another way and this is that way we came up with an app and when i say we we had a consulting firm mia consulting with becca winston put this thing together on the fly and it was designed to go on your iphone or your android device or whatever and it was designed to be very easy to use and it took a bunch of the required monitoring data that we might need it took it automatically so it wasn’t necessary for the folks that were taking the data to actually put those data in themselves it was automatically generated what does it look like um this is the interface it is very sleek very simple and i just took some screenshots today to show you guys what it looks like that’s my house if you guys want to stop by i can give you a rundown um but it has some basic information and it answers a lot of the stuff for you and then you get into the um specifics for the veg on site and we’re not asking folks to really know necessarily what plants are looking at what grasses they’re looking at down to the species level what we’re asking them to be able to do is differentiate so that looks like this so we’ve got target weed we’ve got other weed we’ve got forb shrub perennial grass bare ground all the way down through here and then it adds it up right here and as you can see it must add up to 100 where it gives you an error message this keeps folks honest and it also allows us to make sure that all the data points that we need to have entered are indeed entered so throughout that process we get a really good indication of what those sites look like as far as vegetation is concerned and then we’ve got the biocontrol specific information which is really the crux of a biocontrol program and that looks at insect counts whether they be ten sweeps or six time counts we also have another version of this for cut stems or dug up roots or things like that and then you put that information in here and over time you start to get a pretty good picture of what’s going on your respective site so where is this happening we’ve got currently these eight systems that we have formal simp processes in place for and we’ve got pre-release for these four down here we begin in 2006 with 80 sites and in 2019 i haven’t looked at all of the 20 data yet because it’s still coming in with canada thistle but you can see we’ve got a lot of sites to look at this is blown up a little bit and i know some folks are using these data and actually having them be private so this map actually looks a little bit more filled in but in idaho we’re using it almost extensively for monitoring especially these eight systems right here so what are we doing with the data because the other big argument we we hear is i’ll collect the data but then just goes in a black hole and when that happens it doesn’t really benefit anybody what we’re doing with the data is providing it to anybody who wants it it provides evidence of bio control impact both long term and varying by scale roughly whether it be local or regional we can also look at other environmental factors like plant community composition precipitation elevation and see what processes or what factors are actually affecting the weed and one of their factors influence weed dynamics is impact locally variable our change is desirable and this is the big one when it comes to land managers we always see that ideal bio control results graph and you see that damage threshold and if it’s below that we can walk away but if it’s above that then the changes are not yet desirable and the idea is to enhance integrated weed management and improve the understanding of bio control and really whether or not it’s working and adapt release strategies and control measures accordingly so that we can achieve desired results so what does that look like going forward we have put together a much more powerful website and i say much more powerful website knowing that some of you folks have probably ever never even seen the original website but we’re looking at ways to compare multiple sites the ability to combine sites for comparison whether it be watershed level or geographical boundaries we can actually look and compare not just with pictures before and after but also with hard data we can select different years the power of the data obviously with a 45-minute time commitment isn’t in what’s collected in let’s say 2020 but it is in what’s been collected from 2007 to 2020 in those 14 years of data that we can actually go back and pour through and run some numbers on that are all built into the website now and then we wanted to be able to develop and integrate help videos and that’s never been more important than times like this when we can’t really get together for training for obvious reasons we’ve also put together some qr codes to link sites with built-in gps directions and this is really nice if you’re handing your program over to somebody else and you want to ensure the continuity of the monitoring that’s already taking place then you wanted to give folks the ability to download the database on their own so they could tease out the data whether that be an arcmap or some other way that they want to look at the data themselves they can do that and simp has now been folded into ibiocontrol.org and i know chuck’s going

to talk about this here in a second and it’s having it embedded in that means we now have a clearing house for all things bio control which also includes the monitoring information you guys are taking ideally we also want to apply the pre-release data to the new system to assess impact and we can use these data for a cost benefited analysis to really help us be able to fund bio control going forward because the cost benefit analysis that’s been done with accurately taken data shows that for every dollar you spent with biocontrol you get thousands on the return and that just continues to build year after year as you maintain control and we just want to go beyond before and after pictures and with the brief amount of time that i have that’s all that i have you want to acknowledge some of the cooperators that i’ve had throughout this whole process and with that i will stop sharing and hand it over to chuck so i’m going to follow up joey and talk about the biocontrol.org website and where we are and where we’re going with it so if you haven’t been to the website recently the website was just redone in the last few months and it is a lot more modern than it has been before and it integrates a bunch of different tools including some that we’re continuing to build so the url’s ibocontrol.org and i’m just going to go through and show you and highlight a few of the features of the website first of all there’s a new section that is getting started with bio control and it goes through what classical biological control of weeds is as well as how to implement a bio control program where to get agents from how to release agents and then you move into the sim data reporting you can go in it has a map of where the sent data is located and has some of the video help guides and videos that have been developed as well as a qr code to download the app through the survey123 platform another thing that is really one of one of the most powerful tools on our bio control is the biological control catalog so the catalog that was a couple of publications that were done back in the 80s and then have been updated more recently is completely data based and completely available through the ibio control website so you can go in search for an agent search for a weed and then view all the information related to that release in that country at that point in time and this has been updated so you can you know quickly to filter the results and get exactly what you’re looking for as quick as possible you can also download the publication as well as an excel spreadsheet of the the data and then here’s what once you go to one of the releases what it looks like all the information that’s available moving on to some of the other sections and all of this is powered by the edmaps and bugwood image database system you can go in look at different agents view pictures of that agent they’re going to be converting the fact sheets and having those available for these agents as well so when you go to it you will have full information about the agent as well as the pictures that are available of that agent and you can do similar for the host plants that are focused on the site where you can go in view resources for the agent view pictures from the bugwood image database of the agent as well as the nmaps distribution map and other information the next section is a combination of those two so it’s the agent released on a particular host plant and what the distribution at a county level of that looks like and we’ll continue to continuing to pull data from as many sources as we can get to fill in this information of where the known releases known occurrences of the agents have been found so then there’s a section on apps joey talked about the sim app there’s also the ibo control app and i’m going to talk about in a second but we’re going to be integrating bio control releases bio control and bio control observations into the main ad maps in admap’s pro apps so right now there’s links to quickly download the simp the diabolo control app as well as the nmaps pro app will be adding the nmaps app to this and if you’re not familiar we’re in the process of taking all the nmaps regional apps and combining them into a single edmaps app that will have all the field guides you’ll go in you’ll choose the the state that you’re in and then it will download the species you also can report anything through a search interface through the new app and this app is actually is available for both iphone and android in the stores now and

we’re going to slowly make that migration from the regional apps into the the coin maps out about control also has a large amount of publications any publication that we can link through it is available um both through the publications tab as well as through the ibio control vault this is a database of a whole lot of publications that you can go through do some searches and pull up the different publications and we’re going to continue to grow this and increase the searchability and power of that something else is on the site is the proceedings of the international symposia on biological control of weeds all of the proceedings back to 1969 are all available on the site and they have been indexed up to the last few by agent by host target and by lead author and so as you can see in the picture they have been scanned all the old proceedings were scanned a few years ago and all the pdfs of all those scans are made available on the website there’s also links to the biological control in your backyard project that carla hoops is working on and with that i just want to thank the different partners especially the forest service and m.i.a consulting who have helped to fund and develop this site as well as thanking my group at the university what’s coming next i mentioned already the edmaps and edmaps pro smartphone apps are going to incorporate bio control reporting we’re not going to do the cent protocol at this point we’re just going to focus on releases and and observations in the field and maybe even collections there’s a couple of different ways to report the data we’re also going to be updating the ibio control website to include an expert database so there will be a resource there where you can go and search you’ll go in build your profile for the folks involved on this today build your profile of what species you’re working on or have worked on and be able to search for people and and find collaborators that way i’m also going to include project fact sheets for projects that have been funded through the forest service b chip program and try to continue to increase the number of pictures of biological control agents available through the bugwood image system and thus through the eyeball control website so i want to thank my team with the university for making all this possible and thanks for including me on this and there’s the website address and my email address if you have any questions and with that we can go on to carol hi everyone my name is carol randall i’m with the u.s forest service a weed bio-control specialist and i work with five western states helping folks on the ground implement biological control programs and to end things off what we wanted to talk about was how can we create a more cohesive biocontrol community and one of the first things i wanted to talk about was a good way to create cohesion is to actually know who’s doing what in classical weibo control and when i started working with my collaborators in the west a lot of the folks i worked with at the state level were like hey we’ve got these suites we really want to facilitate developing biocontrol programs can you give us information on who we should be talking to and my familiarity with how weed biocontrol programs got developed was in the west a lot of times we have consortia which are basically just groups that form and raise funds to send off for foreign exploration for a specific target weed and so i started putting together just this list of consortia and when i started out i really only had 12 consortia that i was familiar with but then i started reaching out to others i knew in the biocontrol community and asked for edits and inputs and my list of consortia soon morphed into a much more comprehensive list of classical weed biocontrol research programs and once i compiled everything it actually became the north american weed classical bio control research and development program directory and contacts it’s one of the resources that is available on the ibiocontrol.org website that chuck just visited with us about the first version came out in february of 2018 and documented 50 target leads with ongoing biocontrol research and development programs and of those i still only had 12 consortia so bio control research is happening in a lot of different ways and i think it’s helpful for everybody who’s interested in bio control just to get familiar with who’s doing what so one of the ways that we can facilitate cohesion is by keeping up a resource that talks about who’s doing what and a lot of the work that chuck’s talking about

doing through the ibio control website and you know kind of maintaining these networks is going to be key to that i am working on an update to the directory it’s collateral duties for me so i keep having the best of intentions of getting it done i’m still hoping to get it done by spring 2020 but i like the idea that we’re starting to come up with these other opportunities um to share information and just keep in contact so another way to create cohesion is through professional coordination and communication and i’m going to talk here specifically about what we’re doing in the west which is a number of our states in the western us have identified biocontrol coordinators oftentimes they’re associated with the state department of agriculture sometimes not but as states identified individuals who could be a state contact for weed bio control efforts we had an opportunity to do some more coordination and so what we started to do was pull together actually start scheduling conference calls so that the state biocontrol coordinators could communicate between the states and share information talk about collection days and redistribution efforts and just facilitate the flow of biocontrol agents and ensuring that all the proper permits were in place between the states and as we continued to do this scheduled and coordinated communication efforts we really started seeing that technology transfer was happening much more rapidly all of a sudden we were able to have access to a lot more bio-control agents as we started accessing collections that were going on in neighboring states and then the other thing is as we were having these conversations we were able to start doing some regional planning and actually start coming up with topics that we wanted to discuss at a national level working with groups like in the west we do this with quarterly conference calls and then we take very detailed minutes of the conference calls and then we make those minutes available to anybody who’s interested in it and the way we’ve been able to keep that going is there is one person who is committed to ensuring that we schedule a call every three months and that the minutes are taken and routed and it’s really worked well for us nationally we can do this through regularly scheduled summits like the one that we’re just concluding which the nasa bio control subcommittee went ahead and organized for us so i think that this just doing these summits on a regular basis might be one good way that we can increase cohesion as a biocontrol community another way to create cohesion is having all of us in biocontrol using similar methods doing some crowdsourcing and data sharing and joey talked about our shared vegetation and read biocontrol agent monitoring protocol simp chuck’s been talking about bio control and some of the tools that we have available now on the web and with these apps once we have these methods that kind of go across jurisdictional boundaries and once we have these applications or online platforms where we can be sharing our data all of a sudden the jurisdictional boundaries disappear and we as bio control enthusiasts have an opportunity to really work and do much more interesting collaborative work and in the west as a group most of the states that i work with have been working with chuck bargeron and ed’s maps for years and then as joey has gotten on board and got the survey 123 app and running for simp they’ve been using those as a group chuck has been really good about developing online training and we also have our bio control specialists our state contacts and those of us who work for federal agencies we’re really focusing on training the trainers and so by being able to transfer fairly straightforward monitoring protocols to land managers who can then pass it on to other folks we’re really able to you know increase the cadre of folks out there that are doing monitoring and are doing mapping with the data in online databases we can easily share that data with our partners and with researchers and we’re really excited by some of the things that we’re finding and we’re really making some rapid progress in some of these things another way that we can really help our bio control community is by creating advocacy by engaging with kind of those larger groups the weed groups and the invasive species groups and we as we bio-control folks if we can reach out and start engaging with some of these invasive species groups like nasma and to start addressing some of their needs we have an opportunity to recruit these folks who are have a demonstrated concern with invasive plants or invasive species we can recruit them as weed bio-control advocates and in the west we have cooperative weed

management areas i know that on the east coast there are prisms our partnerships for regional invasive species managements the more that we have an opportunity to engage with these folks and just let them know what’s going on with biocontrol and sharing information with them teaching them how to monitor the better off we are because they’re familiar with what we do and they’re more likely to advocate for us another thing that we’ve really been successful with here in the west is there are a number of us who work in biocontrol who work with state weed control associations in the west we have a western weed coordination committee and those folks are generous enough to let us come in and give them bio control updates on a pretty annual basis and then again naysma is sponsoring this summit and there’s also a federal interagency committee for the management of noxious and exotic weeds that we’ll engage with again just keeping us on the radar for folks who are engaged with weed management might not think of bio control right off the bat another thing about engaging these local groups and these folks who are land managers is that when there’s a need for a new or improved bio control program if we can be engaging these land managers to be vocalizing the need for additional bio controls that’s going to help us especially if they’re consistent in the request to their legislators to make sure that support for biocontrol research and development is happening at the state level as well as at the federal level and then really we bio controls best hope moving forward was to continue to focus on coordinating between biocontrol folks and with our clients the land managers on the ground and making sure that by communicating with each other and communicating with those who are in a position to help us financially or just for the support that we need to get through some of these processes i think that’s the best way that we can support ourselves and come up with a cohesive bio control community and so with that thank you very much great thanks so much carol and thank you for everyone in that session we have reached the end of our summit i think it was um pretty successful we had a lot of people here i think it topped out at 430 attendees so that’s pretty phenomenal i’m both terry and i are gonna have a few things to say but i wanted to thank all of our speakers for making time to share your interesting work and also thank you for keeping on time i know it’s really hard to talk about all you do in five minutes thank you again to the bureau of land management and wyoming weed and pest council for sponsoring the summit and to the night staff for running it so smoothly finally thank you to all the participants for your interest this summit has been recorded and will be available on nai’s youtube channel i think that’s what you would call it for later viewing if you aren’t already a member please join naisma and if you’re interested you’re also welcome to join our bio control uh committee i did want to mention really quickly the poll results we had a variable distribution so most people came from the western us but we did have representation from pretty much everywhere we asked how is weed biocontrol related to your work and 47 indicated that biocontrol is being part used as part of their invasive species management work and i think what’s interesting for us as biocontrol researchers and practitioners is that 31 said that they aren’t using it but they would like to learn more so that demonstrates to me that we have an opportunity to grow our partnerships and then finally we asked why people were attending and we gave people the option to respond to a variety of different things so that they didn’t have to choose just one and we looked at the biggest thing was 55 said they just wanted to learn more about biocontrol in general but we see some variability on all of this so it seems to me we’re reaching new audiences as well i’ll just wrap up my section and then kerry can jump in we are seeking as for the biocontrol community and naisma to grow and strengthen the bio control committee and the community thanks jen and i just wanted to second gen thanks to everybody who made this possible and to all the participants for sticking with us for a long day with few breaks it was really great to learn more about everybody’s program and i also just wanted to remind any presenters who are still on the line there are some open questions in the q a chat box so if you could take a look in there and see if there’s any questions directed towards you and respond to them that would be great and it’s been a really great day so thank you all