2013 Keynote eTeaching Day: Dr. Gardner Campbell

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2013 Keynote eTeaching Day: Dr. Gardner Campbell

I have the pleasant opportunity today to introduce Dr. Gardner Campbell, who is the director of professional development and innovative initiatives at Virginia Tech University. I was thinking this morning why do we do this ritual of the introductions? Why don’t we just have the guests come up? One reason at least is that it’s an opportunity to say complimentary things about the speaker, which in the case of Gardner Campbell is easy and a delightful thing to do. But I also thought if I were really being candid one of the key purposes of an introduction is to persuade the audience that the speaker really is worthy of your attention. And and then it occurred to me actually if that’s the case then I’m really redundant up here. As soon as Gardner Campbell begins to speak you will need no persuasion from me about why he is well worth listening to Those of you who may know Gardner Campbell’s keynote address at the open ad conference in Vancouver last October, already know his wit, and his flare, and his energy. But most importantly as penetrating analysis of the challenges of technology and education that lie before us. This isn’t surprising that the presentation had that character, given Campbell’s distinguished career as a founder and a leader of programs on innovation in teaching over the past two decades at the University of Richmond, University of San Diego, Baylor University, and now at Virginia Tech. Campbell has served on the program committee of Educause and on the advisory board of the National Institute for Technology in the liberal arts, and he is also on the editorial board of the Journal of Interactive Technology and Pedagogy and the Journal of Information Fluency What I find most persuasive, however, as a reason that Gardner Campbell is well worth listening to, is this in the current hype about the applications of technology to teaching the focus really has been heavily on instruction in the sciences, in math, and in engineering. I suspect that the number of MOOCs, for example, that have enrollments of 10,000 or more that are in math, science, or engineering, probably cannot be counted on multiple hands. So far as I know the number of MOOCs that have that kind of enrollment in a course on the humanities I think might be one. There is much skepticism in the midst of all of this, that technologies can provide much leverage in the teaching of the humanities, which are of course dear to the hearts especially of those of us who adhere to a core curriculum. So for me, what is most intriguing and persuasive is that Garder Campbell is not a professor of math, he is not a professor of electrical engineering. He is a professor of English, and a scholar of the writings of John Milton, and a life member of the Milton Society of America. Campbell is, in short, a prophet of our future from the realm of the human–of the humanities of the sort who can rivot our attention as he did in his keynote address at Vancouver with the teasing thematic line from T. S. Eliot’s The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock and I read the line here “That is not it at all. That is not what I meant at all.” It is a wonderfully poetic line that might be spoken to us not just by Campbell but also by these innovative technologies themselves calling us to be attentive so that we do not misunderstand our future Please welcome Gardner Campbell [Applause] (Gardner Campbell) So if anyone knows any songs or stories while we do the laptop switch over, I’m fine with that. I think a little entertainment during the scene shifting –let’s see if everything on? Never blow into a microphone, you will disrupt the diaphragm. I do have a small engineering background I was an audio engineer, or I like to say that I am when talking to my fellow engineers I know the difference between a cardioid an omnidirectional microphone for example. Thank you very much, it’s been great to be here. Yup, go ahead that’s perfect. And I found that I would remember the engineering data more if I actually did things with these cardioid omnidirectional microphones. The ship’s capsules whatever XLR connections that’s as far as I go. If I were actually recording music, right, it was very nice to be able to do my audio engineering in the context of let’s say the North Carolina symphony or Michel Petrucci, a jazz pianist with glass bones disease or even Doc Watson whose hand I got to shake about I guess 10 or 15 years ago. So, no quarrel with the scientists,

no quarrel with the mathematicians, a few quarrels with the humanities people but we’ll get over those Of the idea of context and having something that really was about making meaning thank you and about building stuff that’s what I was always always interested in. What I’d like to share with you today are a few things I’ve been working on some tinkering I’ve been doing with teaching, learning, and technology over the last six years I guess it’s been, or depending on how you count it, all of those decades that were referred to so kindly in that fantastic introduction, probably the most insightful introduction I’ve had, so the pressure’s really on. Thank goodness I I’ve had this already. If I could just get the last part of this. Bryan Blakely was very kind to take me to where the coffee was, and I saw that this was the brand and I tweeted it immediately because I’ve got some dear colleagues back at Virginia Tech who will now want this to be in our commissary, because one of the things we keep working on in what we call the learning revolution. It’s this idea that we want to make noise, stand up for what we believe in, work together to get our voices heard and that has to do with faculty, and with students, and with staff, and by staff I mean the senior administrators I mean the people who keep the building’s clean I mean everyone. One of the wonderful things about working in higher education is that people do that by and large because there’s something that draws them to the mission. It’s easy to forget that mission in the midst of all of the urgent tasks we have, but we forget it at our peril because I think there are plenty of places in society that would like to take what we have and turn it into something else. Partly for good reasons, we are a stubborn lot, or maybe I’m just projecting But also for some very bad reasons For some things that are maximized and not optimized. So my choice has always been to be in the conversation to seek optimization and times that is maximization as in Rabble Rouser Coffee and I’d just like to share a few of my thoughts with you today Have a chance to have some conversation as well, and hopefully entice you into a network which I will talk about in a little bit. But I thank you very much for having me here today and special thanks to Beth for the invitations. It’s a real privilege to be here and actually quite humbling on such an emotional day. So of course we need to start with Billy Joel. Actually, that’s out of date. No, want to start with Billy Joel. You see what changed? Alright, that’s just approved by quantitative literacy so work with me, alright? Right. So, up to 2,408,431 views. 14,886 likes. People insist the like is irrelevant, a trivial bit of information. You’ve never been on a dark and stormy night all alone then I guess. Likes can be very important in some contexts. [laughter] 324 dislikes These are people that you will never win over so that’s just– that’s just the cost of doing business when it comes to civilization. How many of you have seen this YouTube video? A few of you, good. And you know the story. You know, Louis Pasteur says chance favors the prepared mind And there was a prepared mind and some pretty good digits in the audience that day at Vanderbilt University when Billy Joel, Mr. Billy Joel. Ok, after Michael Jackson the top selling solo artist in the United States Mr. Billy Joel. He’s there, he’s doing a talk and this kid says in the Q&A I’ve been fortunate to play with your saxophone player and I love your music my favorite of your tunes is New York State of Mind Could I play that with you? And Billy’s–and the kid says I would like to accompany you. And Billy says sure. Now this is what we would call in my profession, an agile teaching moment. [laughter] If you can imagine it would be something on the order of this, which I would actually kind of welcome, although it might mess up the order of events If anyone here said Gardner I’ve seen some of your stuff on YouTube I actually know the whole T. S. Eliot bit, could I come up and do that, now? And I would go sure, because I am not Billy Joel, nor was meant to be. And that’s another quote from the same poem. Except the Billy Joel thing. That was Hamlet, that was then. So, here we are, this kid stands

up, Billy Joel says sure. Billy Joel doesn’t know what’s gonna happen it could be an embarrassment for the kid. It could be an embarrassment for Billy Joel. It could go off the rails in any number of ways. including off the rails and being shared on YouTube and 2,408,431 people could see it go off the rails. But that’s not what happened. This young man had practiced. He knew his stuff. What he needed was the moment to be able to knit that into a network of practice He had some chutzpah as we say, and it turns out that Billy Joel apparently has chutzpah too. In fact some of you may remember his parting line when he was doing concerts in the seventies and eighties? Does anybody remember? He would say it at the end, well tweet it ok? Because if you know it, tweet it, that’s the rule. And the hashtag is bceteaching (Audience Member) Day. (Campbell) Actually, the day seems to have dropped off because people were jealous of the 140 character limit. So, you know This is this is [inaudible] hashtagging Ok. So he went up, and he got on the stage with Billy Joel. Billy Joel said what key do you play this in? And the kid said what key would you like me to play it in? And it just went up from there. And the kid was good the kid was really good he knew to play in a way that would put forward his own talents but not so much that it was all about him ‘Cause that ruins the network, right? So, when the student who asks for the agile teaching moment, then ruins the agility by making it all about that particular moment, that doesn’t work. When a faculty member ruins the agility of the moment that doesn’t work. You gotta keep the network alive. And if you keep the network alive, in this case the network of a cheeky young man and a cheeky man a little farther along in life’s journey, as I like to say. Something magical happened, and it got picked up by the bigger network, which is not different from the network of these two people. It is an electronic representation of what was happening within each mind and across these minds. I mean, of course Boing Boing which is the website for all sorts of remarkable things. This is a a wormhole you can go down. it’s a singularity box and you come out days later. Well, maybe again I’m projecting. So, there we go college student asks if he can play piano for Billy Joel and Joel says okay The results are fabulous. Now, how many faculty members in the whole? Come on, be brave. I know it’s the end of term, and you’re trying to go back and do your civies, but I see you. How many–how many students who have had courses with faculty members recently are in the whole? A few of you, ok. I see you, and your civies, that’s good. You know that the results can be terrible [laughter] Might as well admit it But the results here were fabulous And people, because it’s the internet, started talking and here’s how they talked. A college student, he may be, but that kid’s got some serious chops, the flight time shows. Has anyone got better hearing than mine? Did he say Michael Pollock or Michael Pollard? I want to remember the name. And then something very interesting happens Someone gives the information, but it’s not just a name. It’s a link. So here’s something to remember if the rest of it goes off the rails and the results from here are not fabulous today, I hope you have a great rest of the day The weather outside is delightful. Remember if your name is a link, you’re in the network. And one of the things I feel very strongly that we need to teach ourselves, all the learners whom we serve, all the learners we remain. How to make your name a link, not simply an identifier, but a bridge What was that young man’s name? Why, that’s his name. It’s a link. Chance favors the prepared mind. When the question comes up and someone says who was that guy who talked. Who was that guy who introduced the guy who talked. Who is that woman who’s at Harvard now Who’s the woman who introduced– Make your name a link It’s vital. That puts your identity in this network that we are building together. No one forced it upon us We made it. We made it because at a very deep core I believe our names are links. Unique identifiers that help us know and be known to each other. Here’s the site. Who was that young man? Well, he was Michael Pollack is Michael Pollack. He was ready

He was ready for the moment, he was ready with his name as a link he was ready with his presence online I don’t know how this happened. I don’t know if he had a faculty member who encouraged him, I hope so. He was at Vanderbilt University. There’s probably some good faculty there Most are in route today I understand, but there’s probably a few folks at Vanderbilt who are ok. I don’t know how this happened maybe he just picked it up. Young folks do that you know, they figure out the Internet, it happens. Sometimes they do that in ways that actually outstripped the bounds of insert new vendor solution here. That’s good. Obviously, the rabble-rousing is working. Here by contrast is how in my beloved Commonwealth of Virginia the other commonwealth the one that’s a little farther down the road. Here is how quite recently, perhaps it’s been revised but you’ll see in a moment why I doubt it. Here is how we are preparing seniors to enter higher education the place where you can turn your name into a link and start to see some immediate consequences. These are the Standards of Learning part of the–I get–What is it the race to leave children behind at the top or the bottom? I — [laughter] No child racing to be left behind at the top so this is a strand. Communications, speaking, listening, media, literacy, grade level . Look at that horrible thing at the top. Can you see it? Let me see if I can see it. Marked as final An author has marked this document as final to discourage editing. No kidding The student will make a formal oral presentation in a group or individually because we must specify what the student will do, to know what the student will do so that we can assess what the student has done and if we’re really good will design the assessment so that the results are already known simply by the elegance, clarity, and exhaustiveness of the rubric. You will see that item E if you’re good with eye charts or like me you have trifocals. Use grammatically correct language including vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose, and then shortly after that evaluate formal presentations including personal, digital, visual, textual, and technological. I am an adjective, I would like an noun to modify! [laughter] My daughter tells me that they don’t say epic fail anymore. Are there–are there young folks who can help me out with some of the hip youth lingo? Do you– Well I would say epic fail. That’s terrible, that’s terrible. It’s a mistake. Ok no problem. We make mistakes Let’s not lock the document to discourage further editing. We are needing to help each other. This is not a networked document. In fact, it’s not even a very good set of rubrics, in my view. Although a good set of rubrics may be an oxymoron. I don’t know Is there a rubric fan in the house? Have I–[laughter] I am so sorry Do you have a rubric for hissing? Because I would like to see–I would say that was about a on the scale That was pretty good. So, at least we got some metrics in today. I’m very happy about that. So, but anyway thank you, and let’s talk. Absolutely So here we go. The road to digital literacy from Adam’s five star schools Any Adam’s people in the house? Because I’m going to rabble the rouse now Ok This is about how we map out what it is we think we’re doing. Information literacy, locate information from a variety of sources including print and digital. I’m not going to read all this. You know how this goes You know this road, it’s a nowhere road. Information literacy, technology literacy, and then digital citizenship! Use technology and internet. Use internet [laughter] responsibly and safely. How many of you used internet today? [laughter] I brush my teeth with internet. [laughter] Do you imagine that that young man at Vanderbilt University has attained digital citizenship? I would say, it goes a lot farther than this. As my former boss and dear friend and mentor Chip German likes to say we’re looking through the wrong end of the telescope, really we are. And the people who are suffering are our students. We’re suffering too, but we like to think about the

people in our charge. And we should And they’re not gonna get there with this road to digital literacy. Now, I want to be very clear. I’m sure thoughtful people spent a long time putting this together. I know for a fact because earlier I was–many many years ago in discussions about things that were kind of proto standards of learning and I know people spent a lot of their finite days arguing over good rubrics. People need to know how are you going to assess me? What is it I need to do? People spend a lot of time coming up with infographics which is great. These things are not in themselves evidence of carelessness or thoughtlessness, but they are to me evidence that we simply don’t understand the scale of the change in civilization that we have built by building interactive personal networked computing that now is covering a significant part of the globe. We simply don’t understand what we have built. That’s a bug in us as a species. It’s also a feature Not understanding what we build is part of what let’s build beyond what we’ve been able to do before. It’s actually a very precious resource though risky, granted. Here’s one instance of risky beyond what you understand building. This of course you know as the Titanic. That was built beyond understanding that was something that incorporated a certain amount of recklessness. I assume that you’ve at least seen the most recent Titanic movie, so you know this does not end very well. (audience member) You spoiled it! [laughter] Alright, that’s true. If you watch it all the way to the end though, it’s complicated. Let’s just put it that way. So you can see there was a problem with the stuff on the left you know what those are? Lifeboats! And the problem had to do with the stuff on the right, those are deck chairs. People like to rearrange deck chairs, on the boats of sinking ships. on the-on the decks of sinking ships. That’s what we like to do because we understand deck chairs Lifeboats, it’s more complicated especially if you’re trying not to be conspicuous about the fact that we know it won’t sink. Sorry I did it again. If anybody didn’t get any of that, the Titanic sinks, ok? [laughter] This will make you stronger as you watch the movie, ok. So there it is. This is actually something that my wife the superstar librarian furnished to me as her want. This is from the Titanic real-time History Channel Twitter stream which also was a set of spoilers okay and the hashtag photographer just taken a picture of the public walking the deck I’m sure they will want some lasting memories Oh yeah, it was a night to remember. Looking through the wrong end of the telescope, rearranging deck chairs on the surface of the Titanic. These are things that can occupy us. Faculty committees, student organizations, vendors, and solutions Imagine the vendor of deck chair solutions for the Titanic. Lot of deck chairs, lot of time. Gotta have budgets. Gotta have metrics. Gotta have assessment. How many people can fit on the deck, etc. Unfortunately, the wrong end of the telescope not looking at the lifeboats. This keeps happening. How many of you have seen this commercial? Well you’re going to see it now. I will tell you it does not end well, but this will make you strong. Ok let’s see if I can make it go. Oh the spinning beachball of death. Here we go. I love that. That’s part of Apple’s little howdy-do I’m crashing. [laughter] (Man in commercial) I stand before you today, to apologize. The system has failed you. I have failed you I have failed to help you share your talent with the world, and the world needs talent more than ever. Yet, it’s being wasted everyday. By an educational system steeped in tradition and old ideas. It’s time for a new tradition. It’s time to realize talent isn’t just in schools like this one It’s everywhere. It’s time to use technology to rewrite the rules of education. To learn how you learn so we can teach you better. It’s time university adapted to you rather than you adapting to it. It’s time for a different kind of university. It’s your time

(Campbell) So where are the hisses now? Come on now. Thank you! I need some equal opportunity [inaudible] Ok, so, how many of you had seen that commercial? Ok a few of you right. How many of you saw it on YouTube? You just kind of saw it out in the wild? Ok. That’s cool First of all, I think there is value in listening to professor’s talk, obviously. [laughter] Good. Good Phew. Ok, so, I think that’s great I do not think that any learning revolution will consist of allowing you to watch professor’s talk on every mobile device you can imagine I just don’t think that’s the way, really I don’t. I think there is value, real but limited value So here’s this Kaplan commercial about hey hey hey. It’s your time. It’s your time to listen to me tell you that it’s your time. On the mobile device of your choice, wherever you want to be. So I will tell you again and again, it’s your time. I have failed you. That will be on the exam Did you get that? I have failed you, right, and it’s your time. So this as you can see is a commercial provider, with the great subdomain talent so somebody’s gonna get up there and register talent we need a top level domain for that and so there we are A different school of thought, not so much, and it went up on YouTube This is why this linking stuff is so important, because on YouTube, this commercial was outed. That’s not a real professor. It’s Uncle Phil from the Fresh Prince of Bel-Air [laughter] And you should see the comment stream. Wow Uncle Phil, you’ve lost weight, you look great. This is wonderful. No one in the comment stream said it’s my time, I get that now. My learning has been revolutionized I feel interactive and empowered and everything. They didn’t do that So Kaplan of course objected that you were using copyrighted content to out their inauthentic staged your time fail of education thing. And so it came down but not before I downloaded it. [laughter] So this is a problem. This is a real problem There are folks who know that we are looking through the wrong end of the telescope in higher ed and they are ready to step in to furnish us with a learning revolution that isn’t. And some of them I think mean well absolutely and I don’t mean that in a condescending sense. This is messy, this is hard. More potential neural connections than stars in the sky. That’s complicated. Really it’s complicated. Also you have a brain that can make your brain different ok got that. You hack into your own neural wetware, we call it living on a daily basis. In fact, just by seeing your expressions now, even those hisses those [inaudible] hisses, you hacked into my neural wetware As I am now hacking into yours.It’s what we do for each other. Seriously, that’s how civilization is built That’s an amazing thing to be a steward of. That’s a hard thing to fail at It’s a harder thing to succeed at This is tough stuff, so I don’t want to suggest that, oh, Kaplan’s the devil. We’ll just drive out. Done You know. Or, the learning management system here is the devil. We’ll drive that out. Done. None of that is necessarily true. People do try to work hard on these things. But I think we’re looking at the wrong end of the telescope We’re looking through the wrong end of the telescope. Seymour Papert puts it this way in The Children’s Machine in , which I cannot recommend highly enough to you it’s just an extraordinary book, “In my view almost all experiments purporting to implement progressive education have been disappointing because they simply did not go far enough in making the student the subject of the process rather than the object.” The Children’s Machine is a book about education in the age of computing. Pre-world wide web, pre-smartphones, and yet if you read it today you will see a couple of things. First of all Papert and prophet are kind of an interesting off rhyme. Papert understood something very deeply in part because of his work with Piaget. about the complexities and the sparkling promise of human cognition. And the other thing that will hit you if you read it, is that the change Papert called for, and the disastrous consequences of not embracing that change, the change hasn’t happened. The disastrous consequences

are all around us. I don’t think it’s too late. We have to recognize the scale. So here it seems to me is the end of the telescope to look through. The stored program computer is conceived by Alan Turing, oh so sixty or seventy years ago, not that long ago. And delivered by John von Neumann broke the distinction between numbers that mean things and numbers that do things. Our universe would never be the same. What we have invented as symbols, as representations, out of our consciousness, out of our cognition, can now actually do work within the world. Well we always knew that. Any library worth its salt is stunning evidence that the things that mean, and the things that do, have this marvelous and fragile relationship in civilization The computer was built to do that very rapidly. But of course, just as if you don’t understand about books in writing, and you go into a library all the books are mute Or you do one of those term papers where you go to find the person who said the thing that you need the person to have said. That you can cite in the paper by MLA or Chicago or Turabian or whatever. And you put it in there and you begin for hundreds of thousands of years men and women all over the world, and your instructor’s face goes down into the plate of spaghetti because you killed him. It’s all over. You know, everything dead. Everything inert. You need to be able to understand this relationship between meaning and doing with language before you can use a library well. Same thing with the computer, maybe on steroids Don’t take it from me, take it from Alan Kay, who actually invented this idea of what he called the dynabook, which is actually something like a laptop, something like a smartphone, something like an iPad, let’s say, although he hates to hear people say that, because the iPad is a rough crude approximation of the kind of computing environment that Alan Kay imagined. Oh, and in or , ok. He’s working with Adele Goldberg at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, and now, fast foward all these years later, This is something that Alan Kay said at the National Institute for Technology and Liberal Education at the keynote address he gave just last spring in 2012, and you will see that he has had whatever the coffee is that I’m having [laughter] (audio recording) Because people only value those things the way they value their TV sets (Dr. Campbell) He’s pointing to a computer. (audio recording) It’s not a question about whether they can afford it or not. It’s a question of value. People have multiple cars etc. etc. They know what a car is good for. They have no idea–this thing is just a convenient way of dealing with stuff they’re already familiar with. Most people never do anything remotely like what I was showing you today on the computer They just use it for the fact that it can represent descriptions of anything. Alright, so, so, so, in fact, we are actually in a more dangerous condition now than we were 30 years ago. It’s exactly the opposite, in my opinion. And the reason is, is that the reason–for instance these things are being sold in many places, particularly iPads, are being sold as textbook’s replacement. We don’t want to replace textbooks. They suck! I was showing you a textbook. The textbook of the future is something where you’re not shown something, you’re given advice on how to create a model for yourself of this knowledge So we couldn’t be in worse shape now, than we were. The iPad, because of Apple’s restrictions, Apple doesn’t want it’s App Store to be overdone So if you give iPads out to students, you’re giving them something in which nobody can do one of these projects, put it out on the internet, and download These projects that the children did cannot be shared with each other over the internet on an iPad. Apple forbids it. You gotta look at what’s actually–you know, McLuen. Forget about, just you know, first order heuristic, whatever I think is going on isn’t going on. What is going on? So the answer is, well maybe I should go look and see what people back in the sixties and seventies were doing. If I take a look at what Englebart, the inventor of the mouse, was doing in the sixties. Compare it to the world wide web and you’ll go… Because Englebart’s conception was cosmic and superior and we don’t have it yet (Dr. Campbell) Doug Englebart’s conception was cosmic and superior and we don’t have it yet. People look at computers as if they’re really rapid electric typewriters with memory, and fins

And you can play Angry Birds on your smart phone. These are all fine These are all fine. Wrong end of the telescope. Alan Kay was there when they were building computers Changing the way our world was going to be, moving forward. And we haven’t caught up to that. We don’t even recognize it and this is enormously frustrating. As somebody who did a lot with faculty development continued to do a lot with faculty development I just got increasingly puzzled why this was so difficult. What was the conceptual framework that wasn’t there to be able to understand some part of this. And I got lucky for my sins I was made an administrator, which meant I started reading different things than I would ordinarily read One day I was reading, believe it or not, Info World Magazine because I was evaluating vendor solutions and there is in this universal force for good, because I turned to an article that mentioned Doug Englebart, whose name I had never heard before And a fellow named Vannevar Bush, who used to work just down the road, whose name I had never heard before He was FDR’s science adviser. It was someone who shepherded the Manhattan Project which was a very fraught project as you may remember. But he was someone who fought very hard about the state of civilization And as I read these things, it was a little sidebar in this article, there were links so I could go and read some of these documents on the world wide web at as I read them I began to think, oh, first of all I had a liberal arts education Wake Forest University yes Demon Deacons I hope that’s caught on tape somewhere Yeah alright! Now that’s fine [Sneeze in audience] We’re good [laughter] And bless you. I take that as an approbation, it was probably a sneeze So– nobody had me read Augmenting Human Intellect A Conceptual Framework 1962. A document that led directly to the Internet. To interactive computing To this idea of online collaboration Directly. It’s out on the web. You’ve got a computer. It’s fine check it out and start reading it now. It’s better than anything I could say about it. Except, to say go read it. As we may think, Vannevar Bush’s founding document of what you might think of as a kind of general education in information science. It’s out there, it’s on the web. As we may think, he posits something very interesting what if we got everyone together to work on something as exciting, unifying, extraordinary, in peacetime as we were able to do what we were racing the Germans to build an atomic bomb. What would that be like? Because in Los Alamos there were lots of shady things going on there was also an atmosphere in which it didn’t matter who you were where you came from. If you had a good idea, in we go! Because, there was some urgency in the air. and Bush says, what if we were able to do this during peacetime what we’ve got all these great minds together and there was something exciting there. What would that be like? Oh, it could be like as human beings we produce interesting things faster than we can make use use of them. Many vital things go unnoticed because we can’t find our way back to them. What could we do if we made a machine that would help us with this discovery? and I made that the founding document of a course called Eventually Cognition Learning and the Internet and that’s what I’d like to share with you now. Vannevar Bush observed in 1945, in the day of vacuum tubes or valves from the folks from the UK, “The world has arrived at an age of cheap complex devices of great reliability; and something is bound to come of it.” Yeah this is one of them. Ok, so thankfully I was able to find my way to the drop off point by emerging–by enlarging in the PDF that actually had the information on it that I missed earlier So, that worked out ok. All here, right. You’ve heard all of the stats, you know how this is times more powerful than getting to the moon’s computer and all–it’s in your pocket Alright High-definition video in your pocket So, Bush’s thing about this back in 1945 and he’s analyzing it at a conceptual level and he invents this device he calls them Memex. Short for memory extender. And the idea is what if you could build a record of your thinking as you went through a field of information in which you want not just to be able to remember it but also find your way back and crucially share your path with other people Because we learn not just information we learn other people’s courses through information. We learn from each other’s cognition. There’s something very

recursive and wonderful about it And Bush says “The human mind…operates by association. With one item in its grasp it snaps instantly to the next that is suggested by the association of thoughts, in accordance with some intricate web of trails carried by the cells of the brain.” That intricate web of trails, it’s a reason that we’ve invented a worldwide web. It looks like a brain. It is a brain But a decentralized brain. Sort of like our brain, oh dear, yeah, this is what we do. We build things as Rodney Brooks has observed that are life-like so that we begin to understand life a little more. So this is 1945, ok. And, what Bush maps out is something that looks a lot like what would end up being computers in the world wide web, and there were experiments in computing going on at this time so he wasn’t operating completely in the dark, but he got to the conceptual level. And has a great statement of hope at the end of the essay because something like this presumably if man is better able to review his shady past he will actually be able to learn from it, which is the gamble The gamble we’re all taking if we actually devote ourselves to better reviewing our shady past, can we make it better? I don’t know. we’ll have to wait and see I suppose. But if you don’t think you can make it better, I don’t know why you’d be in education. I guess to kind of preserve the uneasy status quo, but there’s not fun in that. Can we actually gain some ground? Could we actually build a better world? Because, we had better, and if we don’t the world just goes away. Because we poisoned the planet and it’s all done. Bush understood that there might be a way to invent a machine to amplify our intellects. So that we would have a fighting chance of ingenuity outstripping destruction. . This is why we have computers. This is what they’re supposed to be for And the people who invented the computing world that we are in today had this in mind, and that was a revelation to me J. C. R. Licklider, who invented the ARPANET. “No one knows what it would do to a creative brain to think creatively continuously. Perhaps the brain like the heart must devote most of its time to rest between beats, but I hope–but I doubt that this is true. I hope it is not, because interactive computers can give us our first look at unfettered thought.” Not undisciplined thought, not random thought, we can’t really do random anyway. Our brains don’t do random, we have to build machines to do random Because our brains are always making meaning out of things. But unfettered thought stuff not limited by accidence of time or space or ideally birth, geographic region. We haven’t built that world yet but computers were imagined to help us build that world Computers represent a yearning for something like what Licklider is outlining here. And this is in a book called Computers in the World of the Future. . And I wonder if J. C. R. Licklider were among us today would he think we were closer to thinking creatively continuously? I don’t know. And this is Doug Englebart You heard Alan Kay talk about Doug Englebart. Doug Englebart is known primarily today is the inventor of the mouse. He did invent the mouse It is true that Leonardo DaVinci did a few quick sketches in a book as well. Not true enough though Englebart understood what might happen if we could equip people to think together, at scale, in ways that we hadn’t before. This was his dream “We do not speak of isolated clever tricks that help in particular situations We refer to a way of life in an integrated domain where hunches, cut-and-try, intangibles, and the human ‘feel for a situation’ usefully co-exist with powerful concepts, streamlined terminology and notation, sophisticated methods, and high-powered electronic aids” In short, civilization inventing ways to make civilization better And we can disagree on what better might mean. If we’re in the humanities that’s a lot of what we do for a living. Is disagree on better. But I think we can at least have some benchmarks. Fewer people dying because of impure water. That works. More people having access to the means by which they may augment their own intellect in community with others That works. For people able to reach across boundaries of physical disability, for example, to be able to fulfill the potential they may have. That works. And Doug Englebart believed that if we could augment human intellect by means of these things that we now carry out our pockets, which would take some careful thought, doesn’t happen automatically. That we might actually be able to build

a better world together. And Alan Kay whom you’ve already heard from, went even farther and said the computer is an instrument, who’s music is ideas. I’m convinced if in higher education we can begin to get our heads around this statement, We will begin to do things that are something other than rearranging deck chairs on the Titanic. And I’m trying to do that in a number of ways. One of them involves analog technology In fact in this one– held together with duct tape, which is the ultimate analog technology I ah–I see there are some users in the room. Full disclosure I don’t get anything from the duct tape people for hawking their products. Nor will I get anything from the people who put together the new media reader for hawking their product. But how many of you seen this volume the new media reader? Ok a few of you. Yes! We have some wonderful ringers in the house and I will I will call them up to be completely unstaged confederates to be sawed in half here in just a moment. This book actually contains an extraordinary, interdisciplinary, historically rich, conceptually diverse, set of writings about what’s called new media, which really is another name for the digitally saturated world of communicative expertise and symbolic representation. And it’s all there. Between hardcovers from the MIT Press. Your assurance of quality with duct tape and a CD-rom in the back. Remember that? Yeah! Okay, yes Scott says, “CD-Rom!” [laughter] Alright, Remember, back in the day, you could actually hold it in your hand. None of this connectivity stuff Laser discs too, ok. Sorry I’m going to digress with Scott, we’re going to have some geeking-out. Old-school So– this is the book that I use in my class, and let me say a little bit about this class to you. I have, over time, successfully misbehaved in all the areas of university life using this particular course. It’s a course called from Memex to YouTube Everyone knows what YouTube is, they don’t know what the Memex is. Good, alright. I got a little sphere of inquiry here. Good. And, I now have a faculty staff development seminar that has graduate students in it as well and in fact we have someone right down front today who offer a survivor’s testimony of being in such a group. Bringing together librarians, people from–can you imagine–central IT and professors from all over the university. I’ve branched out significantly into the engineering culture not that I’m at Virginia Tech, because one must, and so I’ve got those engineering colleagues in there as well and it’s great, you know the librarians find out that the quality assurance people in IT are actually pretty smart and imaginative and the quality assurance people in IT are high-fiving the physics professors, because finally they can come to a meeting of the minds about force concepts. And it just goes on and on. And every now and then, you see a humanities person in there too. And that works. Absolutely We get together. And this is a class that is also offered for credit as a cross listed upper-level honors class as well as a graduate level preparing the future professoriate class, there at Virginia Tech. It’s also network which is where the pitch is gonna come so hang on This is the syllabus This is an exploration of what’s the resonance frequency among all of these writers, all of these visionaries. And I lead about the first three sessions, and after that it’s presentation time so people must carry the class forward. And it becomes a class about learning A class about learning in the digital age. A class about communicating classes about learning in the digital age. It just gets more and more recursive that way. We do social bookmarking sharing stuff up to delicious delicious let’s just kind of jump the shark so if anybody’s going to social bookmarking site that you really wanna, you know, pitch to me that would be great I know about Diigo already, that’s cool. I thought about Pinterest, I’m not sure. We have to talk about this. Because all this stuff breaks None of it lasts. That’s ok. It’s like people, you know, It’s great It’s no problem. We use Twitter in all of these circumstances, especially with the undergrads because they’re a little more flexible than the faculty in this regard, typically. Nevertheless, I continue to hold out hope and we have an embedded librarian in the Twitter stream So that, when students are tweeting about cognition, learning, and the internet, They’re using the internet to tweet about cognition, learning, and the internet, and there’s a cognition learning and internet specialist,called a librarian, who is off in library world across the campus, watching the Twitter stream united by the class hashtag and every now and–every now and then doing what my wonderful partner in crime at Baylor called librarian jazz And what Ellen meant by that, I believe, Ellen correct me if I’m wrong she’ll

probably tweet a correction shortly so watch the hashtag. What that means is inferring from the Twitter stream what the heck Dr. C is doing this day and how the students are going in all sorts of different directions, and popping in key little prompts Like, oh we have a journal you might be interested in. Or, oh you just learn what Oneirology is, oh that’s interesting we have an encyclopedia of dreams did you know that? Link And there you go. Now, here’s a partner in crime at Virginia Tech the talented Rebecca K. Miller who is also egging people on which librarians do. I married one for that very reason Julie Hesaltine. She’s kind of abovo at this point, that’s my Latin for the day. She hasn’t quite got an avatar. And so really liking this discussion which I didn’t see while the class was going on but was very happy to see afterwards. And she uses the class hashtag. One of the other students in the class– what’s the best, most interesting part for you personally? That’s because Jake was on the meta team. I’ll get to that. And then the librarian chimes in and yeah tell me tell me And then Julie says this is connecting all the dots! Ah learning. As I’m looking at Nelson, Ted Nelson, computer live, dream machines. I’m thinking back to what we’ve talked about in past classes. Always a good learning technique There it is. So essentially all the learners are ganging up on each other In the most beautiful communal way, in real time, with the Twitter stream, which I can then make an image of and share with you today. And then there’s blogging. There is in the blogging entries like this from lissikane Deeper Yet Again, which is always a blog title to make a teacher feel good. Yes. Not just deeper. Deeper yet again. “After first reading McCloud, I was pleased that we had such a straightfoward and easy to understand piece”– it’s a comic, ok, if you’ve read understanding comics, you know about Scott McCloud –“to ease us back from spring break. Boy was I wrong!”– yes there was a little bit of teacher stealth there, I confess–“Once we started discussing it in class Tuesday, I realized how extrememly complex and weird the piece was.”–Weird is good, complex is even better Weird starts the learning, complex students are kind of like oh I need to take a lot of notes but weird, you know, when the going gets weird, the weird sign up for this class And that’s great. And I can see that this is happening. The class see that it’s happening. The world sees that it’s happening. All this stuff is out on the open web. And the students knew it was going there. I mentioned the meta team. It’s a class called Cognition, Learning, and the Internet So we need to display cognition, advanced learning, and internet the internet, while we’re doing this class. How do you internet the internet? You create more networks within the network. That’s how you do that So the meta team–and I told them you gotta be on the meta team. I need volunteers. It’s an anagram And they just looked at me. And then I said, Google it. And then I got some people–they were signed up and that was good. So the people on the meta team were assigned to make a rich complex digital representation of the cognition, and learning, and internetting that had happened during the course called Cognition, Learning, and the Internet. So the good news was they had a final project about a third of the way through the course And that’s always a moment of, you know, the students are like final project, but they’re clear sailing The bad news was they had to give an account of the whole course to the course publicly on the Internet as a result of the cognition and learning and the Internet. It was meta team a meta project. And this is what they made. They made a website, which had wordles, very simple and effective kind of data visualization Collecting the activity of their fellow students across all of the blogging, all of the Tweeting, all of the other final projects through the whole semester. You get the recursion here? Constantly make for yourselves representations of the things that you’re constantly making for yourself If you can get hold of that, you can make that happen with whatever you’re learning. And it will actually help your learning. You narrate your learning to yourself. So they built this. This was one page. This was the who page. What they did was take the blogs that they had written during each of the essayists that were assigned for that week. And had done a search across all of the blogs and made a Wordle out of the words used across the class during each of those particular essayists. And if this were live and on the web, which it is live on the web, if you want to go see it there’s a URL there I’ll be happy to send that to anyone who would like to see it. But what happens is you click on the visualization You click on these wordles, and up

comes the worldle and there are links within the wordles to blog posts, to information sites, to things that we have read, to stuff that was uploaded to delicious. Linking back, linking out, linking to the linkings. And you can go to the ‘What’and this is a thematic search across all of the students blog posts in the semester Revealing things that they were surprised by. They said well when we made a Wordle out of, for example, media People…was bigger than video. Why yes it was. Yes we are. Oh that’s interesting. Then, on the why, they wrote their essay, in which they very carefully mapped out what they understood to be the purpose of the final project and of the class itself and the wonderful part is it at this point, I got it too. It’s like the old joke of the physicist who was teaching quantum mechanics. He taught it once, students didn’t understand Taught it again, students still didn’t understand Taught it a third time, he finally understood. [laughter] Now, this was a great moment because they presented this to the class and it was wonderful kind of–you know it was like the video that you made for Beth. It was for the class a gift of the class to itself and they had co-conspired with the librarian– not the librarian, sorry our librarian The one who had been our guardian librarian the whole time. And they had put all of this together, and they also left a little spot for other folks to contribute as well Now had we but world enough, and time–there’s another poem for you I would show you more. because it keeps happening. It happens in the faculty staff development seminar It happens in the undergraduate/graduate seminar. In fact, this year The folks taking the course for credit kept asking me Dr. C can we go to the adult class? [laughter] And then they thought they sounded kind of funny, and they said we don’t mean like a XXX class, we mean where the grown-ups are. Then that kind of sounded funny too because they knew I was there and that didn’t make any sense at all. So I said yeah, we could work this out. And then, there was a stroke of good fortune and chance favors the prepared mind or to put it another way, when the student is ready, the teacher appears, and I was ready, so my students appeared You got that right? [laughter] So, there was a day that one of my colleagues was supposed to facilitate the discussion in the new media faculty staff development seminar, which is networked by the way. That means that you could do it here and be part of the network Just saying. I’d be happy to–I have a small form for you to sign at the end of–no so they–my colleague was not able to facilitate the day we were doing. Sherry Turkle’s essay on video games and computer holding power. It’s an essay from the s, in which she explores what it is that so–gets us into these gaming worlds and holds us there. Some of the things are not so good that hold us there. Some things are actually quite fascinating that hold us there And this is a gaming generation in ways that are sometimes difficult for folks a little farther along in life’s journey like myself to fully appreciate. So, my colleague she was going out of town she wasn’t able to do the day she signed up for. And I thought well great, I’ll facilitate it. I love to facilitate, you can tell that. And then I said no, no, no, no, no. This is the day they come to the adult class. Oh yeah. So, I gave my students the assignment and they didn’t ask about extra credit, which was one indication that maybe this was working okay I said why don’t you come and lead the adult–don’t just come to the adult class, come and lead the adult class. And I wish you could have been there. They lead the adult class They turned one configurable classroom where everything moves and there’s no obvious reset. No obvious front of room. They turned the whole room into a game. From tic-tac-toe and sudoku to stuff going on with Connect and the Xbox . Card tricks at one table, but the trick was if you sat down to get a card trick that was an immediate cue for them to take you, level up. It was a little Easter egg card trick–it was hard to follow So, they would take you to the other section, where you would either do who’s got the hat– anybody played who’s got the hat in here before? I will not spoil that for you. You’re welcome. And if you didn’t play that it would be what’s behind the green glass door. Has anybody played what’s behind the green glass door? I’m–oh–I’m not going to spoil that for you So–but play it sometime ’cause it’s great. and so here were two freshmen,

one sophomore who says he’s got a senior’s level credit bank for architecture I don’t understand how that works Credit hours confuse me. And two graduate students, a mechanical engineer and an electrical engineer, leading the adult class through an exploration of experiential gaming in an entire room, that then led into a beautiful discussion of the Sherry Turkle essay on video games and computer holding power. And they all blogged about it The freshmen, the sophomore, the graduate students, the faculty, the staff And they reinforced this thing that Sherry Turkle writes in that very essay. “Things that give us a sense of contact with the infinite are held apart as privileged. They become charged with emotion. The feeling can be evoked by a sunset, a mountain, a sea. It can be evoked by mathematical experiences, the idea of the infinite sequence of decimals of pi….and these feelings are evoked by the computer” Now if it were an SAT test, which it isn’t but if it were, and I said which one doesn’t belong, sunset, mountain, computer. That’d be pretty easy Except it isn’t….It isn’t. We invented computing out of a sense of contact with the infinite. Both the inside that’s bigger than the outside, inside our own heads, and the infinite potential we have in community together. We don’t always use it that way. What’s new! We don’t use language that way, all the time. We don’t even use families that way, or churches that way, or governments that way, but at their best, they can give that feeling, charged with emotion, a sense of contact with the infinite, held apart as privileged. Or a synonym for held apart as privileged, holding. Held back as something that’s extraordinary Janet Murray writes, “How long will it take before we see the gift for what it is- a single new medium of representation, the digital medium, formed by the braided interplay of technical invention and cultural expression at the end of the the 20th century?” Seeing the gift for what it is, means looking through the right end of the telescope. I’ve given you one example of how I’ve tried to do that, but it’s only one. There are many many others out there. We’ve seen some of them today. We need more, we don’t have nearly enough. Uncle Phil is great. I don’t want him being the sage on the stage. I don’t want that. Where we can keep watching people simply talking, over and over on a myriad portable devices. But it’s hard, it’s hard. Don’t take it from me, take it from Captian Jean Luc Picard. Ok, I know that’s a trump card and I’m playing it [laughter] How many of you remember this episode? [laughter] It ends well! Captain Picard has had a very bad brush with technology just before this moment. He’s been turned into a machine which is part of what we fear these technologies will do He’s been turned into a member of the board collective and given the assignment of killing his dearest friends. He survives. He’s rehabilitated, he becomes human and he continues to be in love with what ingenuity can do to further human reach, exploration, and communication. His brother doesn’t agree. His brother runs a vineyard in France, where Jean-Luc has gone to be reunited with his family and to try to come back to a sense of what it means to be human in a context that’s very removed from what the Borg did to him. But Jean-Luc is a man of comprehensive vision. His brother has his own comprehensive vision and I want to watch this clip with you. And I’m setting it up at some length because this conversation is a difficult one. And you will see how Captain Jean-Luc Picard tries to navigate this difficult and essential conversation (Video playing) (Captain Jean-Luc Picard) So Is this fourty-six? (Robert) Fourty-seven you’ve been drinking too much of that artificial stuff. What do you call it Synthehol

It spoiled you. Ruined your palate (Jean-Luc) On the contrary. I think that synthehol heightens one’s appreciation for the genuine art of it (Robert) Mmmmmhm. Delicious Marie (Jean-Luc) Leave it to Robert to find the best cook in France And marry her (Robert) Sadly, cooking isn’t going [inaudible] (Marie) Robert and I have had more than a few discussions about getting a replicator in the house. (Jean-Luc) I remember you said discussion during mother and father (Robert) [inaudible] better than anybody else. Danger of losing those values which we hold most precious (Jean-Luc) I don’t see that you have to lose anything, just by adding a convenience (Robert) But we would. We might Life is already too convenient [laughter] (Marie) this is a very old argument. (Robert) It is (Dr. Campbell) This is a very old argument. But I hope with at least with some of the things we have built for ourselves, used wisely in a community of learners, which is what we are privileged to be among That we can take this old argument and if not come to the end of it, at least make it better Thanks very much [Applause] So you’ve got something else scheduled I’m sure, but if there’s any time, I’m happy to field questions, or– happy to speak with folks before I head out again. What’s next is it 2 o’clock? 10, 15 minutes, okay. Alright. Stinging rebuttals. Go. (audience member) How is bench-marking of the better different from creating rubrics? (Dr. Campbell) That’s an excellent question. How is bench-marking of the better different from creating rubrics. Rubrics are not haunting, in my experience. Or maybe like nightmare haunting. Where in the rubric is the part that says all rubrics are necessarily incomplete? Fill in a standard by which you want to be judged here. Rubrics don’t usually do that because that would be the place–it would be like asking the genie for three more wishes at the end of three wishes. It takes the thing that is contained and defined and explodes it again. I think if we can’t do that we’re not actually gonna have an authentic measure, we’re not gonna have a formative kind of assessment. So, I choose the word haunting for a reason. There is in the– either the latest or next to latest New Yorker, a great story about a physician in Brooklyn a Dr. Lieber at a hospital where they see people from all over, every disease that you can imagine. Mostly, these are folks who are poor and don’t have access to, you know, some of the more elite health care. And this fella has been there for, I don’t know, 30 years or so. He actually went to medical school in Guadalajara because he wasn’t able to get into medical schools in the U.S. so there he is. It turns out he really was a genius so there was a fail there Something didn’t work out with the assessment for medical school. but anyway in there it talks about him as a teacher. And it says that as a teacher Dr. Lieber is haunting Meaning that the way he steers the particular parameters of the conversation always will leave some part of the conversation puzzling and open. In ways that caused the students to continue to mull things over So that’s my answer to your extremely good and reasonable question. When rubrics say here is what we want. Here is what you must do. Having done it, here is how you will be judged. That’s necessary but not sufficient. The part that then just makes all of that open again. And gives us what Argyris calls double loop learning We’re in the midst of our progress we actually figure out what it was that we were trying to get to as we began. That part needs to be in there and and if there are rubrics

that have that, I would welcome that Because that’s kind of the secret sauce if can be about poetry again for a moment you know lines and the ends of lines have meaning and yet Milton loved to do what he called sense variously drawn out. Which doesn’t work unless there are ends of lines. It also doesn’t work unless you transgress the ends of lines, and if you do both of those at once–now I’m talking about Paridise Lost so we really will be here all afternoon but that’s an essential part of the way poetry plays with time. And would love to see rubrics and assessment play with that as well. But thank you for that question. It was very good Other questions? Yes! (audience member) I was here for your talk [inaudible] of ideas (Dr. Campbell) Yes (audience member) [inaudible] were better and it’s also clear that some ideas were better than others (Dr. Campbell) Yes (audience member) Right, so, what perplexes me is how do you filter ideas and what sort of selection processes are going to separate the good from the bad? Or are we allowed to say that some ideas are good and some are bad (Dr. Campbell) Oh, I think we should say some ideas are good and some ideas are bad. I think it’s– we all have to make those distinctions If we say we don’t, I think we’re not being very candid. But now we’re in the process of judgement. How do you exercise judgement? Well now we’re into the second keynote that I will give this afternoon. Which has to do with–actually I’m only joking a little bit I’m not gonna–alright–first prize was one keynote. Second prize is two keynotes [laughter] Although, I would love to. I actually, believe it or not, I gave a talk about this yesterday And it has to do with wisdom Wisdom having to do with the arts of judgment over a life span. And developing that in a digital age where the ideas are apparently infinitely accessible. and because they’re ideas, doggone them anyway, if they’re really good ideas, they’ll be generative as well as substanive. That is the idea will not be just something you just say oh I vote fo that forever that’s it. It gives you another idea So that things just keep multiplying like little bunnies in your mind, right. How do you distinguish? How do you discriminate? How do you judge? How can you be wise? How can you do that? I like, first of all, Ms Frizzle’s advice in Magic School Bus. [laughter] Take chances, get messy. As a researcher, I couldn’t do anything other than that, right so a willingness to be wrong has to precede the effort to be right and that can have disastrous consequences That’s the cost of doing business But the other thing is none of us has to do this alone. So if you see people, and this is kind of the wisdom thing too, if you see people who seem to be able to live creatively, robustly, well. What are the ideas they’re interested in? What are they reading? What are they listening to? And there should be more than one. Some should be living ascetic lives. Some should be living Rabelaisian lives. Just to get the extremes of the continuum going, right. Seriously Absolutely, you know, don’t choose one approach and for heaven’s sakes don’t listen to me saying don’t choose one approach, etc. Right. Keep it stirred, keep it going. be wide-ranging in your curiosit. Read things that stimulate curiosity. Never be satisfied without curiosity, at the same time Ponder, reflect, mull, at the same time. Drink rabble rouser. You have to do all of those, right? So, in the end, I don’t have a cookbook for that. If I did, you shouldn’t be trusting that either. It has to do with a very strange and recursive process. There’s an essay that I love very much by a writer named Walker Percy. called the la–anybody, Walker Percy readers in here? Yeah Yes! Alright, but you like it, right? Ok, alright. Well, I didn’t hear anything so–ok He writes an essay called the Loss of the Creature, which is in essence about some of the dilemmas that you’re outlining there. And he doesn’t have a recipe, which is why I love to assign it as the first essay that my freshman composition students would write on. Because they believed A. we’re in college so now we’re gonna learn which ideas are right and which are wrong and B. they simply needed to track that, and be able to give it back on cue. And Percy just messed all of that up completely messed it all up. But in ways that were useful to keep that process of thinking going. So, I do not have an answer for you, except to say that I believe in wisdom, I believe in the pursuit of wisdom, and I believe there are

many ways to get there, and I try to find people who, to me, either ascetically or Rabelaisian-esquly or by other means. Digitally, CD-roms, analog, unschooled, seemed to be moving in an interesting direction And I try be in conversation with that, and I can do that now, even if I’m not living with them physically I can do that worldwide. That’s what I try to do. So I don’t have an answer. I’m sorry. Yes! Ok one more (Audience member) Quick follow up (Dr. Campbell) Yes (Audience member) As I understand it, it’s about the journey of finding these representations. And you just said when you arrive at wisdom. Do you ever arrive? (Dr. Campbell) Hah Do you ever arrive? So, there are two answers to that question. [inaudible audience voice] Yeah I know. I’ve never had an academic try to catch me before. [laughter] Alright that’s the only lie I’ve told today [laughter] and like any good grad student who’s been piled high and deep, which is what I understand that the degree stands for. I will catch you right back, my friend. So– if I say you can’t arrive at wisdom, then that means that I cannot say anyone is truly wise. But I have met people along my journey whom I think are truly wise. (Audience member) Did they think they were wise? (Dr. Campbell) No. They did not think they were wise. And, frankly if they did, it might not be wise. On the other hand, there’s another wrinkle to that I know some wise people, and I believe they know they’re wise, but they would never say that of themselves But I think it’s important to know, and maybe this is another way to not answer your very good question, I have many ways of evading it, because I’m in the humanities, I have many ways of evading questions. All of them articulate. [laughter] So, um– One of the things that matters to me, and I think–I’ve heard–well I know, I’ve heard a lot of interviewers that do this with people who are wise. You want to know, do you understand the magnitude of what it is that that your contributing? One of the things I love to do is going thank people for the magnitude of what they’ve contributed to me And I want them to understand it. They will say humble things back to me, but I hope inside of them, they know somehow that the bruises that have bruises. The stuff they had to go through to get where they are, ’cause the journey is never easy and intermittently pleasant but nobody comes to shake your hand for trying to go along the hard path of wisdom. They really don’t, despite what you see at all the conferences where they hand out prizes and stuff that’s no–uh-uh–no No wise people are almost inevitably disruptive, simply because they’re wise. I hope in their heart of hearts that they do feel they’ve gotten somewhere. Because I want them to receive my thanks, you know. I want them to believe that. Because it’s hard. One of the best things that ever happened to me in graduate school and it may be too Milton-us doggone it Was when my teacher said to me, I believe we practice biographical criticism, and I was waiting for it, so we can debunk the whatever bad group you belong to, right. Or we can critique whatever psychological disruption resulted in the art of John Milton which we could talk about, because he was a psychologically interesting person. But he didn’t say that, what my teacher said to me was we practiced biographical criticism because we want to know who to thank. So I hope even though the wise people will never say yes, that’s right I’m wise, because that would be kind of a bad, awkward moment for everyone. I hope that there is also some sense of having arrived at some powers of discrimination if you have made that contribution to other people. So that at least you can take some solace in the effort that you’ve made. I hope that that’s true. and there is actually a moment on YouTube where you can see me in a very effusive and demonstrative moment, telling one of my teachers publicly that I loved her while holding up the last paper I wrote for her which is covered in red ink. Which I say I cannot tell from my life’s blood anymore. This was the woman at Wake Forest, who made me into an English major. I believe she was wise. And she would never have claimed that, she was far too salty, and weird, ever to say anything like that. But she was. And I got to thank her, and I put it up on YouTube and she couldn’t stop me. [laughter] So thank you all very much [applause]