Finches in Health and Disease – Hamish Baron BVSc (Hon)

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Finches in Health and Disease – Hamish Baron BVSc (Hon)

importantly it’s correct to have another onion you can everybody gets a quick sound so I would just introduce myself I’m Spanish I am originally from Brazil I’m still the answer about G society magazine and I’ve been involved in versa for a long long time and I moved to Australia after playing hockey in New Zealand for a three year period attempt to hit school in Queensland and I was studying the Queen sent and worked there for a little while before making my way down to New South Wales who are working at the moment if the enemy Air Hogs like pick on school at the University of Sydney some kind of problem the University of Quinn say I work there I’m the BOK Donnelly and so you guys will love it and then I made my way down here so how many city of it and I found exact same hospital and we work in conjunction with the Wildlife Conservation Center and so we see all sorts of different stuff in fact that’s where I am that’s where all the problems I don’t call it against with our Kiwi I guess excellent Oh chemistry I would say that my specialty is not benches one of the things that I did a fair amount about this health and disease so I figured that I’ll talk to you today about that because I think that it’s a little bit stupid preaching to the converted when you guys have been a pitcher’s for a long time so I can discuss what I know and if anyone has any questions I’m happy now so this now means the during the presentation at the end so let’s check and hang up okay so the presentation today is called pitches in health and disease and we’re going to talk about some of the common presentations as well as what you guys can do to keep your area birds healthy and especially how we get to the winter and at the end of the show season so so why do birds get sick that’s all we needed rest to start off with and the reason behind why woods gets because Romania very kind of is heaps of different reasons there’s lots of different diseases that we deal with on a daily basis but what we have to do a Miss to get doctors to find out every age every time sorry about that why the disease has come about now and whatever comes out before cancer disease is the result between interaction with the environment and with the good and with the pathogen okay no residue can be anything from viruses bacteria funky anything like that okay any sort of parasite can also cause this disease and so what we have to address first and foremost is what sort of defenses okay and so we have nonspecific defenses things like skin because of various of the ROO surface of the mouth any sort of popular services as well oral mucosal surfaces and they act to defend the body and actively it is a first-line against any sort of pathogen or disease then we have specific disease defenses okay and these are things like white blood cells and you can see here this is just the spear cover that I just took to put this presentation together and then we have a whole different range of blood cells associated these ones here just to itself and then these are all inflammatory cells so these are the sides here and intervals this one here and this one down here and refills so those are specific defenses that effectively form an ally against bacterial infections fungal infections and they first line all of the specific defense so once the any sort of pathogen gets through the nonspecific defenses skin mucosal barriers and becomes a systemic problem our white cells are the first to response okay the second thing that we have to our advantage or to the burbs advantages their antibodies and so this is the sort of thing that you develop once you have been exposed and antibodies come about as a result of exposure they development according to those activities remain in circulation for the period of time that that food is alive okay then somebody’s all that mean I’ve seen this before I know how to respond and I know how to respond quickly and so it’s not necessarily that they’re immune but it means that they night immunity that will help them to defend for quickly and have a list pathogenic effect on those boobs themselves so the fact is they were fake

these defenses this moment is general health of the verdict and you guys know you look at the anchor you see some great but fantastic really really good they’re not balding they’re looking fantastic North laugh that was sitting on the floor and then you look at another baby I think yourself that but it’s not doing very well okay and that’s basically want to make my general health and say you can look at these foods here pretty healthy looking birds right and as I notice if there’s people that have kids for a long time you are going to be the most important factor when determining whether or not your lives are in good shape on top the second thing that we deal with in my breakfast and one of the things that I get a little bit frustrated with with pit bull owners is nutrition okay nutrition in birds is something that we still have a lot to learn and especially with paper divers think that dirt see is the be-all and end-all of what we need to feed our boobs okay and one of the things that I find quite frustrating is when we get really big exciting parents that come into my clinic and they’re on a sunflower seed bed okay pretty much like going to the Father feeding Birds brick the same kind of old wives tales that have big picture ever through generations they’re good to do really well see especially some things like sunglasses just don’t work and don’t sit that well with me and you guys what I understand as good as anybody and then good nutrition leads to really good breeding success it leads to helping boots and it also leads to birds that live a little bit longer okay and so it is worth investing that little bit of money that it takes to have good quality food good quality life quality a biscuit mixes all that sort of thing they’re going to make a big difference when it comes to nutrition one of the other things that we do find affects the innate immunity of a bird more than most things is their age okay so as I’m really done but they can be exposed to all sorts of pathogens and quite often it knocks the ground at their butt and you’ll notice that when this things leave the nest they fledge they’re out in the big wide world and something they take a bit of a downturn okay and that’s because they’re being weighted but it’s also because they’re having to fight off defenses that they are no longer getting food from their parents no getting antibodies from their parents and you’ll notice that they do sometimes you have quite a mortality in those fledglings okay and then at the other end of the spectrum you get the older birds okay stresses things like putting them into the breeding cages and all of the things like winter changing temperature really cold snaps and evenings and you lose the top end of the angry because they just don’t have the same defenses as the younger healthier birds Comparative disease does play a big role you can see this but yeah so I have to the gory photos I did a presentation the other night and I forgot that not everybody looks at the inside of birds all day but this bit yeah you can see that there is very relaxed it’s quite hard I don’t know if everybody can see about who put this presentation for what you guys to have a read-through later on and it’s worth to start music you eye to the net across waters this is very equitable I can deliver should finish about you and you can see that’s a pretty mess awaits I like to deliver and this video was actually infected with polio virus come parenting with a whole lot of other different diseases and so that was quite an interesting finding in that prevalence parasites are one of the major things that we deal with on a daily basis as well you guys probably do too now I hear their conversation just before about whooping birds and whipping regimes and I think comment was made that one of the bits or two of the groups that actually passed away a couple of days after being worked and the fact was that the birds everywhere prior to that and so it is a hundred percent possible that those birds may have had quite a large parasite burden and treated all of them at once killing all of the workers at once could have ended up compromising those birds immune system appear but and so it is something that we can certainly address with our husbandry considerations and our prophylactic regimes making sure that we’re not putting stressors such as parasite burden on our boots that was a really really easy way that improved it out and the last thing that thing is the pins of that external stressors okay those are things that as far as our Averys are concerned we have the most amount of control over okay things like hygiene hygiene everybody will understand is very very important and there’s one of the things that we still see every day for some big issues Waterfalls not being clean and leaving a good biscuit mixing when it’s coming into the Sun and something it’s all all being disgusting and they wonder why the birds get sick all of that sort of thing definitely plays a role in our innate defenses and the last one that we have to always housing of course now housing plays a huge role especially in overcrowding there’s often in my opinion something

that happens with Finnish fancies and thought that the birds are really small so you can put more into a smaller space you end up with the manor compromised because those words if there is one that’s deciding the other birds you end up with a long pretty stressed words and one group that’s dominating the Avery in a really small space if they have so it is still important even though the house movements and you guys would know that plants and ivories provide shelter all of that sort of thing but when we come to shows when we’re putting Goods and sales pages we heard a chat before about making sure that they are inadequate space and especially when you hit roads back from sale when I’ve been in cramped conditions when I spent a weekend on the bench whatever all of those things they’re going to contribute to building up or to breaking down defenses and so it’s really important that they do get a period to settle after they’ve been in that sort of stressful environment this is another nice little picture now pathogens pathogens can be highly bacteria viruses fungi comitia is actually a bacteria Rickettsia our sites and so parasites we’ve talked a little bit the bacteria and viruses viruses are certainly something that’s pretty close to my heart we did a study last year at poliovirus and veggies and benches in New Zealand and we ended up finding a couple of really interesting things for one of them was a new polio virus that was present the budgies in New Zealand and so there’s currently five identify it was actually six now because we found that you might but it is the sort of thing that there is a whole lot of research going on behind the scenes and recently we’ve just started a new study at the University of Sydney looking to try and find a more effective treatment from a bacterial macaronis which is pretty exciting state it should hopefully if we find a good treatment and change the way we do things quite substantially will hopefully help us to improve the prognosis I suppose for goods that get infected with bigger bacteria so there’s something to watch certainly very interesting yes yes David David found that it was a yeast and so he has a whole lot of background research and then I started doing some working left with them super I think so it’s got to be probably a year-long study but hopefully by the end of it we’ll have some pretty cost-effective and hopefully effective treatments and so they won’t have to around but they’re certainly trying put certain things in the water should be good as far as antigens are consumed the virulence of pathogens you’ll hear this term thrown around the news affair but these days because the pathogens that we’re dealing with in very medicine but certainly human medicine are becoming more and more Berlin and virulence basically means how powerful or how destructive the pathogen is okay and they talk about low pathogenicity or high packaged olicity and so look at the diversity of things that we deal with every single day we’re exposed to it we clear it really easily okay hi pathogen isset II sort of things which we don’t often get exposed to or if we do get exposed to it cause it’s quite substantial disease and those are the ones that we really have to worry about because I think the ones that cause death especially in our small young or old birds okay and when you get high energetic pathogen of some description going through you angry you do end up losing quite a lot of stocking so we need to try and get on top of those guys pretty quickly the concentration of the pathogen one of the things they teach us at university is that the solution to pollution is dilution so that basically means that when we finish surgery if there is any sort of contamination you need to flush it okay in animal sense all that means is that if we do have a large amount sorry but imagine that the high concentration or a high density of any sort of pathogen in a small environment then we end up with credit disease and more destruction I suppose you could say and so what we end up suggesting as bits and as fancy as you guys can certainly spread the knowledge to all sorts of different people by words off you any really repent is that if you do have any sort of pathogen going through the Avery anything that’s causing disease any sort of viruses transmitted through the a dream that you think could be going on all you have to do to help to break that cycle this to the spread that birds out let them relax put them in less sonic density so if you’ve got them all the know we contagion you’ve got them all and a flight every outside see if you can spread them out a little bit and then will help to break down the amount of arsenic concentration of the disease in the angry and will mean that the birds might transmit so really between

each other okay so disease it’s the interaction of the host and the pathogen okay that may or may not result in disease and so when we see in terms of the disease it means that we have broken down our initial defenses the result of that interaction can a debate disease carrier steps or immunity they can immunity is what we talked about before where we end up having innate immunity where we know it’s a responsive carrier says is a difficult thing okay especially with viruses because you end up with first that can’t shake the disease still okay and as a carrier they are frustrating things I agree okay simply because you may not notice that that’s it and they probably won’t be sick but they will still into manipulation and disease at their stress and I’ll being sort of it that makes all the other birds and the flight without ever looking sick okay and so they are probably the most frustrating SAV culturist had to have in the flight and the ones that get disease are often as we talked about the young the odd or any of the weak ones war anything that’s had previous that we know compromise disease if this not yet I think he’s quite a intelligent character but he basically said that if people it was like over again he devoted to proving the germs safety net row hepatech which was diseased tissue rather than actually causing the disease in that tissue okay and that is very important for us to realize because the pathogens are there the kind that look there naturally sometimes they don’t they naturally but when they do become present they don’t actually cause disease what they’re doing is colonizing environments that are suitable for them okay and what we have to try and do is make environments unsuitable for them to grow and when we do that we’re going to end up with healthy groups and certainly help to prevent disease okay so how we’ve been disease that’s probably the major question that everybody gets that the prevention of disease revolves about keeping convinced in the best possible health identifying and ruining six minutes especially the sort of bits that are only slightly up the birds that maybe care disease in the apron reducing stress and that can be anything from reducing stocking density to making sure that you’ve got lots of shelter on cold winter’s night okay really really easy thing to do but it does make a big difference in the health of their lives preventing disease from entering your egg here’s another one of my little all-around great I find it really frustrating especially in the budget industry and I don’t know if many of you are familiar with it but budgies in Australia are very different deBakey’s in these hair babies in New Zealand if you bought a topic and you pay about $400 for whereas veggies in Australia if you went to the National realms a bit next couple weeks time now topics EMI $4,000 of tea at three and a half thousand dollars of year and to me that’s ridiculous money for one because they might die on the way home but if you want to spend that money and it’s mine but there’s no point in taking them over to your area where you don’t know the disease status of your flock because nobody does that actually seem to know what they have what they don’t have and you’re going to introduce effectively a small home loan and put them into the area without any sort of quiet team put them in a breeding cage next door to the riskier birds and I just find that it would be very sensible to spend a little bit of time and maybe a little bit of money not necessarily money but certainly time in quarantine those birds okay and it is the sort of thing that we do skip and I understand because I know how exciting it is to get new roads into the area you want to put the and justified by saying that they’re a little bit sicker because they got a couple of four centimeters between them on the other words but at the end of the day if you wanted for big disease coming into the I agree it is the best way to do it okay and what I recommend is normally about two months quarantine period because in that time you’re going to see the difference between the healthy good and unhealthy food and if you do have some goods at your place that aren’t so valuable or out that useful check them in there with them introduce them see if they get disease they’ll see a plan to use any disease to the birds that you’ll bring into the flock okay and that way you know does your phone have anything that your new birds may capture and those new growths that they may do to your flock and it’s a really really easy way to check to make sure that you don’t introduce anything to the X number of words in your avery and of course devastation and all tonight and I guess at the same time you’re going to be preventing and those birds being exposed on a massive scale into your birds okay so it knows amazing it’s the court of Sentinel and it works really well I don’t have a problem with it as long as you know where you better pay okay so

I think that there is a trend towards medicated quite frequently in av culture at the moment and as long as we know what we’re treating before and that we’re treating correctly I don’t have a problem with it well I do have a little bit of an issue with this that we we have some medication in the cupboard and we’ve got given to us by making gave to us from somebody else and we’re not doing it correctly and I think that’s a little bit of waste of time but it’s also bad for bacteria that we’re going to then perpetuate bacteria that are resistant to the antibiotics and so it’s not necessarily that you may overdose the birds of cause they’re not because if you do that it’s kind of I guess you aren’t doing whereas if we under those the birds and we don’t treat them correctly then we end up with bacteria that if we do want to treat them correctly then they’re going to be resistant that drug okay they say but if you’re going to do it this make sure that you’re doing it for the right amount of time at the right concentration and the utilities then I don’t see a real reason why you don’t especially with antibiotics or renting candles or anything like that I mean reducing the concentration of pathogens that the birds can be exposed to it’s very easy in that perspective hiding okay and it’s basically making sure that the flaws of our areas of today grease get clean quite frequently okay they don’t have any way we’re parasites can sit there and basically look at the years and they’re doing it exposed to the Sun like every now and then so we can get UV light in there to try to confess that the decrease the pathogen low and it is again the sort of thing that takes a little bit of time but if we miss the time in it we do it not reaping the rewards so keeping your bids in the best possible health comes down to the first thing and I think this is one of the most important it’s selective stock and bungee people do this very important they select the biggest Scorpius but even though it doesn’t have a tail or any flight feathers and it is very skinny and they’ll put it at a rate of change because it’s the biggest of all is and so what I think is that you should always always select boots based on how everyone they are so are they really active are they privately happy how they do it well in the Avery okay that’s the book that I always go for and hybrid vigor is something that we talk about in all sorts of different term at different I guess industries mostly in the cattle industry where they cross two lines of cattle and they get something better at the end that both of the original line to pay so they take the group traits from either one and they get something better and it’s basically the opposite of line reading or ingredient okay so it’s sourcing in our crops that has different genetics different lines and then putting that into your lines and hopefully you end up with birds that are more healthy in hand take the best traits of both words and they may not necessarily be the visual traits but they’ll be the traits that are going to be good for the longevity and the well-being of that book selection of stock from your source and sources are really easy because you guys know each other pretty well you know how people look after the birds you know whether it’s time for actually you know what sort of genetics they have any angry okay and so that’s not so much of a big deal here the big time that comes about is if we find words an option or bind words of group sales okay and so we don’t really know too much about sellers there and I often just area especially good on it’s not necessarily people like us but bird owners buying goods for the pin industry buying goods from markets hit stores and that sort of stuff just because you don’t actually know where they’ve been you don’t know what they were living in before they came to the market and so in you buy something basically site at the scene you look at it looks alright you can pick it up you can look at it while you’re buying it and you end up buying something that you don’t really know anything about it so I think that selection of stock knowing your source and knowing the birds genetics how they can kind of looked after what they fit what the previous women regime has been what sort of things that being treated for previously it’s really really important if we’re going to be investing money or investing time in our own stuff the other two things died Osprey I thought this was a really nice image came off Google I haven’t seen this angry but it’s fairly fantastic I think yes I responded I agree it’s going pretty you know good way or something bill now what’s it good about you good for watching I think it would be nice to take advice so keeping you into the best possible

houses we’re talking about diet selection I have to stop okay and buy we pretty much as a be conscious we do a lot of things differently okay and what I always tell new people getting into any sort of the greeting is that you need to take everything that you get told with a grain of salt okay take the things that work for you and not work for somebody fifteen years ago because quite often what I find is that a lot of rumors and old wives tales get perpetuated through generations of bird keepers and some of the stuff that we’re doing is stuff that somebody did in the 1970s and it was a really good idea there but now we have better ways of doing stuff okay and so do what works for you don’t necessarily do or take everything that people tell you is gospel but certainly if there is somebody was a lot of experience and knows exactly what they’re doing and I’ve been doing it very well for a long time it’s certainly worth taking on board because you know everything cuz otherwise that lots and lots of stuff that we do that science hasn’t caught up with you it hasn’t been research into it but it’s still effective and I think that all of that stuff has merit and some of the things that were actually looking at in the mecca renders try the things that absurd you know why don’t you try this all the produced in the last ten years and it’s worked well and so we thought we might as well try give it a crack see if it works and if it does fantastic and we could actually prove that it works rather than just having ESA as our basis for what we do and who our collective treatments here we go now prophylactic treatments as we’ve already said are a little bit controversial but certainly I think prophylactic what regimes are very buddy especially in IVs that have popped in pools because there is a very very easy life cycle that goes through those ivories then if we don’t break through that life cycle every now and then we end up with words that are riddled with parasites and they do don’t do that well okay as far as prophylactic treatment for that period I think that if we have a reason to do it and we can do it but then it becomes not really prophylactic okay so prophylactic means that we’re preventing disease by treating okay the fact of the matter is that we don’t have disease there’s no point in training okay and it is quite expensive extra minutes especially with some of the antibiotics that we use and so I think that as far as financially and help with your birds wise it’s a really good idea to make sure that even if it just uses a couple of birds that we find out what we have before we go ahead and staff senior identifying or amusing things as bill was releasing so identify everything six participants basically act as two things that behavior you thank you they act as sources for disease okay and they act to infect all the other words while they’re sitting there definitely angry aerosolizing disease in the Avery ending up increasing the pathogen low and then making your goods more susceptible to disease and so we have two options how many versus diagnosis and county basically means that you get rid of it okay and everybody has their own way of doing that and we get total always if it’s cool to use or to get rid of boots but I know that it’s not always financially affordable to go back templates to get them euthanize would leave the barber there so you need to find a way that and you’re comfortable doing if it is involving with it that that’s no problem the alternative which we often I guess suggest is diagnosis and so for one of the things that is very brief since the woman my opinion is if you didn’t have seen birds and you have secrets with more than a couple of weeks then it’s worth finding out what’s causing the illness okay I quite often get pigeon fanciers that comes to the clinic and they say now I’ve been treating this bit for what I call for the last four months hasn’t got better now all the other birds have got would have been really easy in the first week treated see if it gets better if it didn’t get better bring it to us and if we can ever look find out what’s going Starkiller and it just sakes treating the whole clock and it also saves coming and show season erasing season and breeding season interrupted by having to treat with antibiotics ancient fungus or and in there are suicides in the water okay and so diagnosis quite often is very simple in a new culture because all we need is a dead bird and you can take a different you can find out everything from okay we can do post mortems we can take scrapings from the inside I’ve got to make sure that we know what parasites what sort of bacteria and everything goes and then we can also do this technology which basically means that we take the tissue we look inside the tissue under the microscope and we find out what sort of viruses on here and having those okay and the viruses quite

often don’t need too many intense Diagnostics because we know what it effects the species that we’re dealing and every scene acquiring inclusions under the microscope that we can make a pretty good case as to what the cause okay and so Diagnostics realistically if you bought two groups to the bit clinic proposed wanna me an apology so then instead of apologies the expensive part because we have to send out but you probably be looking at about 350 or 400 dollars for two birds okay and at the end of the day if you don’t treat them and you end up losing 10 birds there’s you’ve only done okay and so it to me it makes good sense financially but it also makes good sense quite epically okay because you know that you’ve taken care of the birds that are in your chart and if they’re going to be healthy okay and so that just means that you gave up reading more birds but you’re also going to have less kids and so you won’t have to miss um planning and buying new stock yes good question is a haunted little formed directly plan rather than free school or airplane making the free Georgia student what so what we always want as fresh as possible okay so even if you have birds that almost like this that are still on the bench you can bring those struts and they’ve the best if you find a bit before put it in a brown paper bag with it down before you put it and then put it in the fridge and get it to us as soon as you can no freezing because freezing damages the tissues and so if we can get it for than 12 hours perfect if you get more than 24 then that’s still good anytime after that the tissue starts to break down and so when we look at it under the microscope it basically looks like everything in spec and that’s because it started to otherwise it break down itself when you say wait again was it under the house when it down and then just so if it is it’s mostly with freshly neighborhoods and that’s just because it cools them down quicker but it also just helps to maintain moisture in the tissues and instead of having it dry out of the fridge and they come in all crusty and gross thanks my job they’re reducing stress we’ve already talked about a couple of stress reducing techniques overcrowding and getting rid of it incompatible species are individuals and if you guys don’t know about it compatible species but incompatible individuals and something that we often don’t think about so those are the four teens in the accurate they’re ones that chase everybody else without person say we’re going off when they’re sitting on eggs if you’re doing any sort of quality rating but certainly individuals that disrupt the flow in the Avery areas everybody else are quite a big source of stress and creditors are the last thing and if we deal with these guys quite regularly as well and its beauty of being a wildlife clinic we do see quite a number of races but managing that was not too difficult as far as agriculture is concerned okay it’s as simple as having quite a student very funny and having something on the outside of the area that means that if the birds do come try and fly to what they have something between them okay whether it’s a double-a admission that helps to keep a little bit of distance whether it’s lots of them ages around the outside the average is to shield the birds on the inside for any sort of stressful it is all about planning that’s our planet and you Amy it’s worth investing some time thinking about predators as well and predators that necessarily have to be aggressive right that could be things like mice rats or that sort of thing okay and like a promising security we understand the importance of that so preventing disease entering your ivories find sources of sin without like fighting for markets and quarantine so this is a quarantine facility I won’t be anywhere near expressions of Cybermen all I have in mind I agree mine is that I end to my I agree on one side of the gap next door on the other side of the yard I’ve got another angry which is much smaller and I use that for sale stock and I also use that as my quarantine facility okay and so they’re not necessarily completely I miss quarantine but it’s a practical way of doing it to make sure that I treat these guys last so the quarantine birds and the sale stop they get fit last they get what at last and make sure that I go from my important moves to the ones that I was going to sell or the ones that introduced okay and that’s the quite a sensible way to do it because it means you don’t track stuff from your marketing birds back into your flights and it also means that you can accent on the birds in that fly connector signals for disease introduction okay the traffic control this is actually Tommy’s partner and she is feeding or chicken which it’s actually in the nest and I’ve got a couple of paradigm result enormous so you just have to be careful as far as traffic is concerned just mentioned going for one of the other languages that we got in the right direction all the time hygiene we’ve discussed making sure that they’re clean and making sure that the

floors are clean all of that sort of thing is just basically common sense but using a really good disinfectant it’s also a very good way to keep hydrogen doesn’t victims as far as effectiveness is concerned am I like if Tim you guys were a good bit maybe yeah if 10 if 10 is a product yeah Baroness is also good f10 is something that we use fairly heavily in the veterinary industry and it’s called a continuous see we’re part of the clinic is Carol are the suppliers over as well but it’s Sally freedom company it’s a really really good product and you buy another bottle of it that’s quite concentrated in you dilute it and it makes something ridiculous like 250 liters out of you and so use it as a spray model which is one of the greatest things about their context is find I think that it works really well the most important thing was work on axes that we just make sure you wear gloves when we use it because it can cause some pretty severe problems with us down the track and so just be careful with that and make sure that when you’re mixing up the palette that you go to a line actual powder form of it so that’s just a little no action instinct mode Oh actually yes you know I just use toothpicks yeah insecticide yeah it is priority do you find that it works well Oh excellent yes good at this I guess that the only thing that it doesn’t trade is fire sauce and so you just have to be aware out but that’s really good and as I say you’ve got a fine alerts me and if it works then keep doing our thing – so they know I ever seen anything anything know who we use it everywhere in all the cages we dip you eyes with it so we actually aerosolize them so they breathe it in I mean it works very very well and it’s been proven to actually when it’s aerosolized to treat some extra july sensations as well as bacterial infection and so it’s quite a very effective without being very caustic so if you couldn’t want to take them if we’re go somewhere is under supplies if you just google it and they website has a list of this supply so you can find ways clashes people but it’s a very very good product essentially with chemicals PTY ltd yeah I think that’s a I think that’s yeah I see I forget company and Australia yes they are flowing through enormous hole yes I think that it’s absolutely it breaks the cycle and it changes the makeup of the soil are supposed to make it less habitable for bacteria and as well as pathogens is that sort of thing that they’re going to be endoparasites immense I think there’s nothing wrong with doing that as long as we’re able to the soil once we’ve done instead just spread it around where the good thing going here it’s supposed to it topically there isn’t too many promoters one thing it’s supposed to open if you gave rise to high levels are what we have set couple of issues so I always just say no regulatory soil wet it down for people to know there’s been a hydrate a time with no yes insect control this is a Bush taking it down here yeah good I haven’t seen any in the hospital once I don’t know but in Queens that leave a massive problem we just have a misting in the backyard and they pour lice and mites and all sorts of disgusting stuff and so that’s quite an important thing huelga is also gonna be a problem as far as the disease control as well as mosquitoes and so mosquitoes one of the things that might study in New Zealand found was that a lot of the birds have what’s called alien malaria and next transferred and the other thing that’s very important is pox virus is transmitted about mosquitoes as well okay parks viruses are very important for Canaries but also important for our black and white native species in Australia they do get some quite substantial pox lesions as well and so controlling mosquitoes is very difficult especially controlling them into the eye just getting into the wire the angry but one of the really easy ways to control it is that one of the studies that came out of Japan a couple years ago found that the mosquitoes didn’t fly more than three hundred meters from where they walk or from where they have a blood meal to introduce pathogens okay and so what I just do at my place I want to suggest to all my clients is that if you have a problem with mosquitoes just get rid of all of the sources where they could nest in your property you can’t really do anything about the neighbors but the likelihood have been introducing the things from goods outside your property is going to be pretty slim and so if you’re taking care of the nesting sites or the breeding areas the water and that sort of stuff on your mat then that will help to decrease the good decrease the likelihood of them fighting and

introducing what parasites your good vermin control is a very important thing and we want to have it and I agree suspicions when you know using too much bait I used to work for Henry George as a very cleaner when I first met Chris Riley and he’s a quite a well my budget breeder and he used to go and drop the rats in his little carriers that he caught H and I can catch a lot but as I agree was magnificent but there’s still a big problem anywhere where you’ve got saved goods and droppings to get ahead over to rats and mice every now and then and it’s just a matter of managing them when they come along I haven’t found them to me I don’t think that there’s any sort of evidence to say that they have but I suppose to a high concentration and very inteligentz okay so if we do anything right I’m good to have you know compromise but even if they are if we’re doing the things right to prevent them to being exposed for very good pathogens then we won’t and probable disease okay and so all of the things that I’ve talked about today going to contribute to making sure that our going to stay healthy they can fight disease if they are exposed to it and if they’re exposed to incredibly early pathogens like this one here if we have where’s the you know competence rather than immuno they should be able to fight that disease themselves okay and we can help them to do that some of them won’t make it and those are going to be the week in the siclari or the carriers but the majority of the will if we feed them correctly if we keep them nice and warm we make them safe and we provide them the good nutrition these guys should be pretty well you ain’t supposed to pretty much anything and so that’s the moral of the story if we do the ground work correctly no matter what we expose them to down the track we should be able to mount an effective immune response and fight off pretty well most of the diseases that we deal with on a daily basis so therefore disease prevention resolves around keeping ill but it’s healthy and preventing Pepa the teacher who I heard again we already discussed ways to do that the fish anyone has these questions it’s anything from the bottom of sink dishes or food also a profit wouldn’t it was boarded a ship yeah I don’t have a problem with I think that if they’re eating it and all of them are eating it then it’s probably something that we’re missing in their diet maybe feeling it because they’re getting nutrients from it and that is too quickly especially if it’s in a flowing water system and you’ve got like a natural flowing versus in the goes through yeah and the likelihood is that that algae is actually helping to keep that core system healthy the problem that I would have is that if you got stainless steel bowls or bird baths that are basically statement and there that Energy’s not going to be any good at all I can so if we get into the bottom of the statement water and the birds are starting to be to start off there I would definitely discourage it but certainly if you’ve got a nice white one system that’s circulating it’s got filters on it that sort of thing in 78 Benny you’ll sign it and we cider vinegar or just spinning a pan yeah it is something that it has a little bit of science behind the idea is that we also the got pH and so the pH changes and provides basically a less ideal environment for some yeast and some bacteria okay and mostly people recommend apple cider vinegar for macro revenue sort the guest Omega bacteria and we know that mega bacteria grows very well at a really low pH okay so they grow between three and four yet and if we had an apple cider vinegar that’s going to alter it out of that balance okay and so there is some science behind it it is quite effective as far as treatment is concerned but it’s not as effective as some other things so it’s more of a preventative thing rather than a cure to think about City I think that is near yes yes once those thought of metal pan that episode vinegar is the worst I’m like yeah humans can get a couple of conditions

one of them that people are fairly quite commonly referred keepers on and I actually get quite badly if they require crunchiness as well as proper two dozen and it’s basically the filler data that comes off there and there’s two conditions one of them is cornea cephalic one disease and so eosinophils are our response to allergens okay and so it’s a one of our white cells and it becomes kind of like a hyper immune response so instead of reacting normally where how here so that goes counter Authority invaded they basically send a thousand when they only need to send him and so that’s the sort of thing where you I have really great trouble breathing long-term they get exposed to it coughing that sort of stuff absolutely and the other reason that’s really important is because that’s one of the ways that the video is transmitted okay and so familiar silica is a very important thing for all of us but most importantly for anyone who’s have been compromised as well so anyone who’s pregnant of really done or has any sort of really compromised disease that’s making them less able to fight bacteria then silicosis is definitely something that we need to keep on our radar now when I’m in the area I actually wear a mask a pizza respirator just because I think that it makes me be able to breathe for one but it also means that whatever pathogens in the air are exposing myself to less in them than I normally would be and so I think that if you do have issues when you go in the area you feel congested and we do have trouble breathing it’s a really sensible way to go and it’s pretty easy to do pizza mask by the probiotics and big boxes like 6 bucks or something and it’s great fatherhood what you’re gonna fix it inside for me to say is I’m trying the medicine but I said you know people to happy but if you wear masks each time you go to the ivory you’re gonna gently decrease the likelihood of becoming too badly affected it does sometimes come a point in you to keep the box where they do get ionization or they have keepers anymore that have to get rid of them and helping them to wear masks that some stuff without prevent that and so I think that it is something that I’m definitely citizen and it’s something that I do myself so yeah yes the dust some of them it does I think but I think that because they are living with it it’s from there as long as it’s not built up in such massive amounts that you can strain it off the floor and it sits on your finger then I think that they can handle that sort of like it’s all about just having good it works information if you don’t have good circulation it cleans the air is a very very good idea whether it just be a really cheap humidifier or dehumidifier that just collects the dust or if you’ve got a really fancy air cleaning system that you can have been stolen those not too big rooms that rich people can afford yeah but yeah definitely I think that if he hits it in this environment that you do get a much higher incidence of psittacosis because they have decreased immune compromised immunocompetence and so they most simply will be getting infected with this aids differently yeah is that what his team’s forward ahead of unsubscribe when you actually hold it up in the end yeah you know effectively take care of the aerosol eyes bacteria and business we’re in a profession you the questions that our average waiting time by not one of my buddies isn’t and I think that the goods really like in at that sniper reason why I group because they like my friends and they consider and so I think that’s fine as long as you’ve got a really good rating for women so they’re any of the wall goods don’t introduce any parasites to the angry then I don’t have a problem with it if you do never talk with predators 273 degrees for in a lot of things especially because if you’ve got Al’s and that sort of stuff landing on the roof yeah well the time I find that you end up with birds in the morning of broken necks because they got a probably taken off that man so I will proof those entries but if you don’t have a problem with it and I think that certainly if the boots like it I think that it’s provide that which is pretty natural and it’s something they enjoy and so I like to give them some of those things could increase is my pleasure to keeping the

business website and I think Michaels incorporated your eyes gonna be different because it’s good to have fun tonight reason I think I think that providing in a shelter is a really sensible thing and it’s also pretty nice if you’ve got really nicely producing some people do not get if you had an option concrete floors are going to be better every time much easy to clean and it really is into 19 men we need is a host Washington out so that’s what our technical assistance you’re going to be building a new fly or a new cougar conquering it incorporated to the point where it’s at one direction and what you can actually build it to the wall of the I agree it’s just a little flap and so when you have housing off into shoes the hydration hose are good or anything like that and then you can just unlatch in click it up and it goes down into a drains back off you can just shovel it out if you’ve got that sort of design capacitive and I think yes yes there would be if they spend a lot of time on the concrete floor but if you build and I agree with the floor that’s relatively smooth that’s not because at all and you have good stood out over way then floor rock basically has a number of things first one is that you have to have a package a native Sabbath and so you may need to make sure that battery stays clean the floors and it’s clean the second thing is that it needs to have in the normal defenses and so that means the skin has to be compromised okay and the most common reason is like that everywhere so great that Synod put too much pressure on one area of this book okay the second reason we say it is the distal extremities all right now by the name of it gets infected because there is basically it’s to death okay and so that compromises the immune system as well and so the bacteria take hold and if you look right and so for quail the quails I think quails don’t seem to have a problem never seen it quite well to be honest you guys probably have but in my agrees and it sometimes you have been I’m saying on the floor for the quails brother out and you’ve got something for them tonight that I wouldn’t have a problem with keeping them on a concrete floor my cows are in my quarantine I agree and exit off concrete it’s actually planted and said I’ve got a stake in all sorts of fun stuff to run around them and hide their eggs and then the end up with 20 quid on so yeah I mean I wouldn’t problem with keeping the appropriate floors as long as you make sure that the floor is clean it’s not going to be a real of max and build up the feces it’s not going to be dead but if it could be sitting and waiting with huh yes I’m also like the gentleman on the side yep I always kick few branches on the ground if the young birds can pop up and play like to grab ahold that’s exactly right yeah yeah any shelter is important as well if you’re gonna have a ground dwelling species make sure that somebody decided to get up all to the ground yeah good stuff except well thank you for having me in addition dingoes you