BJCP Study Group – Session 3 – 2012 – Ron Smith – Beer MBA

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BJCP Study Group – Session 3 – 2012 – Ron Smith – Beer MBA

you covered gnashing muttering sparging and mashing step mashing temperatures times mash enzymes we talked about beta a malaise alpha-amylase proteolytic enzymes I said make sure you know all those make sure you know the different steps in the step mash make sure you know the temperatures and times on those talked about hops we talked about what affects utilization which is the degree by summarization gravity the word oil time or volume the bigger of the boil I notice about different competitions different styles of pops and then we got into styles so tonight pick up the extra styles so tonight we cover boiling as well as cooling and bindings and the yeast and fermentation you all flavors and flavors aromas and then get into some styles boiling no no all of these reasons super boiling there used to be a question on the legacy exam that was well one time it was always on the exam always on dating you had to know five of the eight reasons for boiling so it was that important at one time it’s going to continue to be so there they are listed I mean most of these you should know if you’re a brewer but the activate and destroy mash enzymes let’s just make sure we got those guys wiped out they’re not continuing to do any conversion of starches the big one the no-brainer kill unwanted microbes to kill off sanitize the word reduces the work ph by boiling chemically extract this is a huge one to extract top resins and I summarize the alpha acids that that was critical you can’t get the bittering agent out of the hops without boiling it so killing killing off microbes I summarizing cops to huge huge factors regulating proteins tannins and sulfur compounds in your hot break and cold break forming Mel annoyance and/or caramelizing sugars not necessarily desired in all styles but a good reason for boiling in lots of styles evaporate the water concentrate the worked as per your recipe recipes done right mash is done rides then get you down to where you eat meat volume wise should allow you to get ger your gravity and lastly to dissipate harsh pop oils and sulfur compounds ketones and esters think of the DMS that we boil them off that’s evaporating to effectively achieve these goals we need a rolling vigorous boil a great topic of discussion here we go watch five people brew at the same time everyone has a little different idea of what a vigorous rolling boil is it’s like well it’s turning over is it that’s a rolling boil right other people say no

I want to pop it out hit the ceiling with that they go throwing word everywhere that’s a vigorous boil not sure what the answer is there I would say somewhere in between I don’t think you should be exploding all over the room but at the same time if it’s just we barely rolling over might take it up a little bit and goes I would not call that nigger’s from any gentle goal so somewhere in between throwing it all over the room and a gentle roll is what I would consider it nice bigger spoil there’s a that note on ph that’s that’s one that a lot of people kind of go off reduce the work ph how’s that happen or ph will fall from 5.6 5.8 range at the start of oil to around five point two to five point four at the end of the oil primarily due to the precipitation of calcium phosphate and this this kind of gets into that Noma graph of John Palmer’s and talking about how you can adjust your pH by the addition of different salts into water so reducing the calcium phosphate group through precipitation allows the pH to come down a little bit demonstrates the importance of the calcium ions in the for this reason sometimes a good idea to add gypsum to the kettle and I used to see old recipes that hadn’t gypsum to every every year that was that was just a no-brainer you always add a little gypsum to recipe every time findings know what findings are Irish moss colloidal gels know the difference between findings and the other agents filtering agents that are added later findings are at it at the end of the boil and Isaac glass and gelatin things like that are added in the fermenter okay all right chillin chillin very very important in judging you know I feel like something we get a lot of beers now supposed to be used to but this is a problem that a lot of Brewers have especially beginning Brewers is they get their setup and they don’t have a good way to chill the words so they kind of have everything else they got their kettle and everything that they don’t have way to children word if you don’t have a good way to children where you’re going to get into some problems basically extending that time between the end of the boil of Chile allows the proteins to dissolve back into the word so what you just collected in your hop break and start to break apart and go back into the work and you’re still creating the dms character so the S method with iodine is still being created because it’s hot enough that that’s happening but it’s it’s not hot enough that it’s spoiling and it’s evaporating into the air so it’s just being created it’s being trapped in beer unless you’re dropping that temperature really really quick okay so those proteins dissolving back into the end of the word and the additional creation of things like bffs are a couple things that happen with those extended periods of time and then and then once you get a little a little cooler then you start becoming you know susceptible to bacterial contamination you get PA below 140 degrees under 20 degrees or so and now you’re at a temperature where bacteria could start to take hold and but you’re still not cool enough that you could add your East and start fermenting so got to get a chill we’ve got to get in children quickly we’ll talk about the cold break here two million in a minute but it kind of goes along with with chilling so I guess what we’ll come back to that in just a second the hot break the hot break how many people have had boil overs that went all over the room in the house stove and ruined everything in sight everybody bird outside that’s all it takes all it takes stop watching it for a second next thing you know it’ll go it’ll go crazy on you well that little time period when that happens when everything goes crazy that’s operating what is happening in that operate is that proteins and the

word are coagulated proteins and work are quietly that temperature and those proteins quite late it all happens pretty darn quick okay that’s why you have to be watching it and be prepared to turn the heat down knock it down with some water just don’t use chlorinated water using tap water for that curse of other good information there you should read that the hop break is is considered an important part of the boiling process in order to get those proteins and things bound up the cold break is much more debatable and arguable people do argue it the cold break is from the rapid you’re getting a good decent rapid chill more proteins and things loss of white glaze dropped to the to the bottom of the cattle if you’re using a work chiller an immersion type water chiller you can get those you can get a good cold break and get that stuff to quietly drop to the bottom but what if using a counterflow it’s chilling it route to the fermenter what did most commercial breweries do they don’t put a big giant immersive chiller and as a tank right so they’re chilling on the way to the fermenter so where’s all I cold break going going to the preventer right now it’s yeah it’s not being separated out is this going to the fermenter so most commercial breweries are not separating out there cold break because so you know in homebrew in home brewing it’s always been talked about it you know get a good cold break leave that stuff behind if you can’t leave it behind let it settle in your tank for a little while and then rack off of it to leave it behind so we go that’s an awful lot of trouble to go to when you consider all the craft brewers out there or not doing anything like that they’re sending that stuff right on in and then there’s a whole other school of thought that says no no those proteins in that cold break those are there still some good nutrients and stuff like that in there we want those in the per member so read whichever school of thought you choose to on that arguable topic just know that there is a discussion out there typically it’s been talked about getting a good cold break but it is a very debated topic all right not much to boiling there’s a real quick review on the subject moving on to east we will spend the next 23 hours hope you brought your sleeping bag talking about yeast and we still won’t finish we could both the big subject but you know I used to say I used to say this about yeast which is a gigantic subjective volumes have been written about it both books have been written about it but on the legacy exam there was only one major question about these lots of peripheral question that would involve east right but as far as tell me everything you know about yeast that was one question so if you looked at that old legacy exam and he said well it was you might get that was just a question you might get right so if you got that question about east I remember the timing i talked about on that old exam you had about 14 minutes to write whatever you were going to write you can’t write a book in 14 minutes so if you were asked to say everything you know about yeast in 14 minutes you can really only hit the key points so I think if your tea this but if you know the key points about yeast you should do okay OTT should so what are some of those key points of course the more you know the better always say that or you know but at least know some of these some of these P things a parent insinuation know what attenuation is most of you that are Brewers know what a situation is the extent to which yeast ferments all the sugars and work during fermentation commonly listed as a percent which numerator is the difference between the

final the original gravity denominator is zero gravity that’s density of ethanol is less than water when a hydrometer is used to measure the situation it will be measured the apparent continuation not the real continuation if the alcohol is replaced by water it’s a minor issue study up on it if you want to know the difference there but know what attenuation is now what flocculation is the extent to which the e settles out of the beer after the completion tation level flocculation vary significantly from yeast strain de strain optimal fermentation temperature though the optimal fermentation temperatures of ale yeast and lotteries know the scientific names for brewers yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae sacra my Cesar biscuit other things fell down there on page 68 is an extra high or something anyway ale yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae ideal fermentation temperature 55 to 75 degrees types of sugars fermented all the majors lager yeast saccharomyces Carl Carl for jens’s or berra berra 46 to 56 degrees ferments some different sugars so they’re not using our brokerage into sort of everything and I remember mean easy article Alliance guys remember reading the article on this okay all right subscribe that would be bad to know it still historically for the last 100 or so years that’s what we considered lager yeast so might not be imagining that might not be a bad thing to still know what that is because it just got changed in the last year so we’re living history right now all the history drug fortunes rename got renamed to historias a story no all three knows the brand new term that we’re using stories continuation and sugars fermented it’s important to know that that lager yeast also prevents that sugar called raffinose raffinose 20 modern vadra’s creates a little drier and generally create a dryer beer because they actually prevent more servers or types of sugars so there’s a broader range of sugars that lager yeast will prevent which helps create those dryer beers that’s important to know rap enosis part is partially fermented by baileys other types of yeast used middle page 69 for 10 mi seas that is a yeast a lot of people get confused to think that’s a bacteria tantalizes is not a bacteria it’s a yeast okay some of the bacteria that can get involved in presentations in that next bullet point like the bacillus acetobacter PG caucus etc we’ll talk a little bit more about those when we get into sour beers common byproducts produced by East esters bean alls you so alcohols diacetyl sulfur compounds talks a little about Esther’s already phenols we’ve talked about a little bit and will continue to you so alcohols are produced by the metabolism of amino acids tend to add harsh or solvent like tones to the beer you thought of calls are considered to be a contributor that hangovers generally not once it appears some people like me they give you an immediate headache to diacetyl we’ve talked about sulfur compounds so for compounds are very common some yeast throws off more than others fermentation stages know them know that at least the major fermentation stages of nochi sub-categories the lag phase during this time the East will adapt to the new environment there now and begin to make enzymes that they need to grow and ferment the work the growth phase he starts to / money to reach the optimal density necessary for true fermentation

the oxygen that was used to aerate the word visit Thorpe absorbed during that growth phase oxygens good up until then up until then aeration is good oxidations that so up until that point where the yeast starts absorbing it adding it in is good because he East needs it after the yeast gets past that stage and you start introducing oxygen now you’re not here rating anymore you’re oxidizing that’s why when you transfer from a primary to a secondary you don’t want to splash you don’t want to aerate it don’t want to add jatate it that’s a really bad time right there to start oxidizing your beer after the growth phase goes into the low poison base and Prime notice the big things the three big phases lag phase growth based primary fermentation within primary fermentation there’s kind of a low medium high troyzan stages during the low croydon stage these begins anaerobic metabolism because all the oxygen has been used up in aerobic metabolism because the oxygen has been used up our bhai koi bhi hai during this phase and they only spoke metabolized most of the sugars and have high choice of days on the other hand a lager yeast may still be in the growth phase while also reducing the extract by 94 points per day modric will be metabolizing most of the sugars during the high course of days late poison phase in lager yeast this can be very important since since it is during this time that the East begins to metabolize of the presentation by products that previously excreted during the poison face such as die a so so that year vassal rep days flocculation and conditioning don’t want to reintroduce air talks about that carbonation horse carbonation and natural carbonation talked about that after that we kind of get into just another discussion pulled from a different source pulling from John Palmer’s book and again just kind of talking about what yeast is how it works what it does a little bit better explanation of real attenuation versus a parent attenuation know that in important in uation high is considered 76 to 80 71-75 medium continuation sixty-five to seventy percent would be a low attenuation East attenuating least they’re talking about lag time yeast types these frames driving strains all this is in his book great book if you don’t have it nutrients in addition to sugar yeast also be nitrogen amino and fatty acids good thing to know amino fatty acids and nitrogen in addition to sugar and some o2 at the beginning calcium magnesium magnesium plays a vital role of cellular metabolism East nutrients diammonium phosphate oxygen just another discussion of aeration being good oxidation being had some misconceptions this kind of gets on page 77 gets into some just some deeper discussion about fermentation a great read whether you read here is book these are some different terms also on page 79 lag phase is also often called the adaptation phase because remember we said that’s where the ease is adapting to its new environment on top of page 79 so lag phase or adaptive phase primary phase is also sometimes called the continued to phase that’s where it’s insinuating out pretty common sense secondary or conditioning days conditioning process how many people use a secondary most of the time couple I mean no most fine everybody used to used to be the way to do it as far as homework so we

always transferred it I by I rarely did I yeah I mean I did it for a while than I thought and I’m just this is more risk than sport unless i’m going to leave unless i’m going to leave the beer sittin on it dying decays East you know which like you get up to the 21 day mark or something somebody would say the 14 day mark or fardale that you’re getting into that area where the East is starting to die off and starting to mutate and starting to italicize but I think you can push it a little bit more than that but definitely try to want to go over about 21 days so if you could be on more than 20 ish days if you do you’re in a risky territory during a risky territory when you start doing that I’ve done to you get away with it but you’re at that point where the yeast really is starting to die off and italicize so you can start to get some off flavors it’s going to be under that long take your risk transfer to the secondary and let it clarify from there as long as you can get it off sooner than that it is having a lot of risk for that clarity but these days you’re making competition here metals are won and lost by a point so that point or so that we used to say I that’s that’s a point for clarity who cares about that it’s a difference between a metal and not get one now because people think pretty good here these days depends on whether it’s just a drinker or a competition here what you’re trying to do how much alcohol will there be to chart there some other stuff about lager yeast some information there on atala still Turing agents added at any time or coke like when a yeast cell guys this is autologous when the ESL guides and ruptures releasing several all flavors in the beer when you have a large yeast mass at the bottom of the fermenter you have a large potential for all flavors due to a pollicis well I’ll tell you what I’ll tell you what it’s like in it beer I’ve done pollicis experiments many many times just getting lazy and letting it sit in the fermenter too long they turn into a tallest experiments I’ve let it sit for weeks and weeks and weeks and then I’ve looked for that that rubber inner tube tire burnt rubber shrimp all these descriptors that people use to describe autologous I’ve not ever had that stuff at my beer my beer so apparently my fears never been atala sized even leaving it in for weeks and weeks please but I did get some other funny stuff sometimes that would kind of bent off you know when I when I like the cake just set for a while and I’d go to it would have this kind of funky taste so I put some fresh co2 on it a bunch of times and then it kind of tastes good again and then if it’s set for a long time it doesn’t repeat itself and that smell was kind of like poop literally like baby diapers ok that’s a descriptor here sometimes literally like poop or sewer and that’s what it smelled like to I never ever ever heard of kahless’s described as that but I gotta see bowl I’ll flavor kid one time and on Thomas’s guess what it’s not like it’s not like rubber tires didn’t smell like inner tube tires didn’t smell like shrimp smelled like freakin sewer it’s like all I know that smell I’ve had that before my beers so i’m not sure where those misconception is on what at alice’s smells like but according to see bowl and according to my visa pollicis experiments it smells like sewer according to the guidelines and everything we read about it smells like shrimp or burnt rubber I rarely ever experienced appear the smells like shrimp or okay paint job kk h is sort of an overview remember we change the name on Carl’s pratensis or berim to Pastore anus but there’s there’s good bull the

list is numb to to work on all flavors or flavors very quickly alcoholic ethanol took me a long time but you can actually smell ethanol you can smell it you can taste it it has a flavor it has an aroma and it’s this is not an odorless and tasteless substance in the beer you can certainly taste this at times here it says flavor may be detected of these ic- character hi few souls are a little different and ethanol should not be you know to solvent t use alcohol to be produced by excessive amounts of East or whether you sits too long on the true too high a fermentation temperature and it start to create few souls higher alcohols oxidation also solvent characters page 91 top under pitching fermenting on the truth contamination by wild yeast those are a lot of things and create those higher solvent effusive alcohols sherry light is an oxidation usually a good epoxidation more of an oxidation of Melanesians we’re truly tastes sherry live or port light dark fruit notes hazelnut almond raising golden rays and kids sometimes acetaldehyde and seed outta high is different than cidery you should not get those two mixed up one tastes like apple cider okay apple cider does not taste like the green apples so make sure you don’t get them mixed up see how tides a precursor to ethanol if you let the beer finish its fermentation that green apple will go away as everything gets converted cidery flavors are different I have experienced ivory flavors where you used too much sugar in kind of experimental beers you just use like table sugar and ferment that gets rarely cidery cidery flavors are encouraged by warmer than normal temperatures can be decreased by lottery because by a co-factor seat aldehydes only reduced ethanol by east during the secondary fermentation but oxidation of the finished beer may reverse this process converting ethanol back to acetaldehyde so sometimes if the beer is not quite done you got that acetaldehyde character other times if the pair’s really old some peers will revert back for that alcohol will start to taste like acetaldehyde Sam Smith products often will do that something about their yeast and their process for those beers it’ll will see that light soft almost always present in those beers but as those beers get old really comes out esters we’ve talked about that produced by yeast and general higher fermentation temperatures produce more asker’s and especially high fermentation temperatures early in the fermentation poor head retention promoted by several factors including ICU loans by original gravity alcohol content dextrans the levels of high medium molecular weight proteins as well as adequate carbonation and increase the protein content by adjusting the length and temperature of the protein rest and using ad jokes such as plate and eat barley fatty acids carried over from the true as well as unclean glassware or both detrimental to head stability fatty acids carried over from the true detrimental to fatty acids can build up your yeasts you’re East too long so something good sewer like mercaptan that was one that I had Tala sighs yeast and smell like year of an old tire or an inner tube or if its pelt sewer like sulfur rotten eggs or burning matches a lot of East produce

that a lot of lager yeast produce that hydrogen sulfide if you let it go usually it will go away but sometimes it’s still in there at least when you first open the beer soapy soapy not something you see that often but every once in a while you do come across the beer that’s so P if you leave them here the primary fermenter for a relatively long period of time after primary fermentation is over Sophie flavors can result from the breakdown of fatty acids of the truth so is by definite definition the salt of a fatty acid so you are we make mean so if you do that yeasty pretty apparent with what causes that there’s a you know healthy yeasty flavor that you can get in and they provide sins and things then there’s that bad ec flavor from tolerances right he read over all that stuff study it make sure you understand what causes it is technical as you want but at least at least know the basics of what causes it what it tastes like how to get rid of it if it’s ever appropriate styles dive into some styles Scottish Scottish beers out of fears never mix Scott shales and scottish ales scottish ales are the small ones cocktail to the bacons it’s got a shales characterized by one thing that’s always talked about whenever you talk about scottish ales what bell boy now kind of but not over ah kettle carmelization yes not melodies not mill annoyance no noise are those complex really complex caramelized Labor’s kettle carmelization is a really simple caramel really simple pump just doesn’t have the depth doesn’t have a character better mellanie life fertilization so these beers are pretty straightforward there’s three of them they just get bigger the Scottish light 60 is about 3% beer two and a half and 3.2 the heavy that’s a big one that’s 3.2 to 3.9 and the export a huge one at three point nine to five massive beaters basically the big one is still pretty average here the smaller ones are just really really sessionable during it to 25 cent beer big ones hydrate with that ingredients Scottish or English pale base malt small amounts of roasted barley at color and flavor and lend a dry slightly roasting finish characteristic of the style is that slight roast finish just a dryness shouldn’t get Prost necessarily but you should get the dryness that comes from it clean party English hops please relatively unattended to eat ale yeast some commercial Brewers add small amounts of crystal amber elite bolts and that junk such as sugar the optional p earthy and or smoky character comes from traditional yeast and from the local malt and water rather than using smoked malts that should be changed but you have to remember what it says here because that’s what you’re tested on because everyone here I think knows I’ve told the story that I’ve had email conversations with Brewer belhaven and and I met Gregor Minsk inning Scottish guide was very close to the brewery met him at the hofbrauhaus of music and their water tastes like water it doesn’t take tastes like peat moss they’re not using any kind of funky crazy East you know the theory was that the water is

trickling down through these peep BOTS in Scotland and it’s picking up some sort of earthy p laver that you’ve heard with it and comes through in play so it’s a traditional flavor what what what I’ve learned is that what we call p or earthy at belhaven they call it nutty they use a calendar e of boiler system this calendar your boiler system has what was kind of described as thin tubes that recirculate the work from the bottom to the top and kind of describe those tubes get pretty red hot so what’s happening is it’s actually scorching just a little bit ever so slight scorch on that they call it nutty somehow we came up with the idea that their water tastes like peat moss not sure how that ever happened but it is that’s what’s in the book that’s what you have to know for now until it gets changed or explain otherwise the other the other part of where that flavor comes from is and this is not listed here while they do use a little bit of roasted barley tell dry out the finish it’s not listed here but belhaven also uses a little bit of black mold they use a little bit of black in there so again that’s going to add that little bit too burnt for that little hint of smoke that we get out of that beer bottom line is if you’re trying to make a clone of belhaven which is what everyone seems to think Noah Scottish needs to taste like if that smoke gets beyond a trace amount you’re in the wrong category it should be a smoked beer go and smoke beer category it should be nothing more than a hint when home brewers make the style they read this guideline they read that note and the next thing you know they’re putting a bunch of smoked malt in their recipe and they’re just giving way to smoke they should not judge well as a solution about Belle Haven is the traditional beer that we’re talking about it uses a little bit of black mold and it’s a little bit of scorching going on in the boiler system that’s what it is that’s what’s creating the flame that little int of what we what we pick up us as PE or earthy or slightly smoky they just call it nutty and it’s coming from their boiler system the use and the use of a little bit of black mold that no one seems to know about but they put it in so that little bit of black mole bind with their boiler systems you’re going to get that little hint of Moscow but it’s just a hint it’s so faint most people don’t even pick it up to be honest so when you get over that tiny little threshold of smoke in these beers your way over time and most home brewers way over do it as good judges we need to tell them that don’t expect these beers to be smoking turn it no that’d explain that hopefully with the next iteration of guidelines this will be changed I have explained all of this I’ve explained my discussions I’ve sent my discussions to the BJCP and hopefully this will be changed and this backwards old myth will be gone the next time this gets revised because it’s just a backwards myth but we take the test you’re tested on exactly what the guidelines say today so know the difference know what the guidelines say today but no the truth is well according to the BJCP guidelines its characteristic of the style you know but also know that you know it should be very light should be very life it even says you know you get above you get above that that restrained character use the use of peat smoke ball to replicate the PE character should be restrained overly smoky beer should be entered other severe category rather than here so you keep that in mind what else we got overall impressions cleanly multi with a drying finish perhaps a few esters an occasion on occasion a faint bit of pd earthiness or smoke most peers finish barely dry considering the relatively sweet palate and as such have a different balance than the strong scott JS which much richer and sweeter flavor malt is a primary flavor but

isn’t overly strong the initial multi sweetness is usually situated by low to moderate kettle carmelization sometimes accompanied by a low diacetyl coming so little diacetyl is okay here fruity esters may be moderate to none hop bitterness low to moderate balance will always be towards the malt hop flavors load to none a low to moderate PD character is optional and they optional and maybe receive this earthy or smoky generally has a grainy dry finish due to the small amounts of unmalted roasted barley okay a very clear description of those beers just uh unfortunately home brewers always overdo it seems like when it comes to the smokiness and it just just over do it so you need to explain that that needs to be a really load the Irish read this this little nondescript beer gets thrown in here with these Scottish beers because there’s no other place board as you can see from the description there’s not a whole lot to say about about the little irish bred it’s it’s a free average little fear sometimes brewed as a lager that’s important to know that the irish bred a son of them are lagers and some of them are are slightly s three males there is a slight roast character in these as well ingredients may contain some add jumps corn rice or sugar although excessive adjunct use will harm the character of the beer generally has a bit of roasted barley to provide a reddish color and a dry roasted finish that’s the one thing has in common with the Scottish beers isn’t use of the little roasted barley to dry out the finish you would think put in you know roasted barley of these exam rooms small and Revere’s so realizes there know that it’s there to help triumphant finish overall impression and easy drinking pint multiple is with an initial mall sweetness and a roasted dryness it would finish flavor moderate caramel malt flavor and sweetness occasionally with a buttered toast or coffee life quality finishes with a light taste of roasted corn which lends a characteristic dryness to the finish a part of roasted grain which lends a characteristic brightest to the finish generally no flavor cops although some examples may have a light because topically medium to low hop bitterness really just balance PST use of light use of roasted grades may increase the perception of bitterness increase the perception of bitterness and not the actual bitterness clean smooth lot of versions can be very smooth says no esters in the flavor quite clean mentioned in aroma but it is mentioned but it is listed under failed average sized beers I be used really just enough to dry things out and balance and if you know the Irish red you almost know the English file is if you flipped over to the English mild minor differences in the mild is just a little bit more of a nutty nutty character would be evident but they really are very similar ingredients for the English mild pale English baseball’s some crystal some darker malls compromise comprise touch with wrist maybe sugar at jons English hop varieties 2.8 to four and a half it’s a kind of broad range but still the sessionable beer I be used about the same 10 to 25 just enough to drive things out the overall impression reads almost the same as the Irish a light flavored malt accentuated beer that is readily suited to drinking in quantity refreshing yet flavorful some versions may seem like lower gravity ground quarters a little more Esther character on the mild whereas the Reds are pretty clean just remember it could be loggers they’re back clean but you know one of those beers you come to the other wants us to little make a little more s create a little more nutty talking by Jerry then the strong scotch ale so getting back to to Scotland strong scotch ale big range on these piers a BB six and a half to ten that’s a huge range right on these on the lead heavens heavies ingredients well modified pale malt with up to three percent roasted barley the same thing in common all the Irish and Scottish beers little roasted barley in the finish

helps dry them out historically the story is they didn’t get a lot of hops from England Scott’s in the English didn’t always have the best relationship in the world Scotland doesn’t grow hops and grow to the south of England but you don’t like each other it’s hard to get so you learn to make beer without using a lot of hops right crystal malt same thing crystal balls in English malt so use pale malt cat will caramelize it give your dryness from spro stood barley and just a little use of Hopsin dry it out the balance the strong scottdale those kind of like the Scottish on on Big Time steroids while modified pale malt roasted barley some crystal ball for color adjustment sweetness user comes not from crystal balls but rather from low hoppy hi mash temperatures and kettle carmelization so hi max temperatures Ron ISM hot body right hi mash temperatures body to get more body to get want fermentable sugars kettle carmelization small proportion of smoked malt may add depth though a PD characters sometimes perceived as Earth your smoky may also really will be used to know that it up so same story there is on the Scottish overall impression rich malty usually sweet which can be suggestive of a desert complex secondary male vers prevent a one-dimensional impression although they still don’t have a lot of dimensions these are not topple box they don’t have that kind of character strengthen multi this could bury mouthfeel medium folds a full body these are very rich beers just think of some some examples that chewy viscosity smooth alcoholic warm rich multi with kettle carmelization often parent especially in stronger version hints of roasted malt or smoky flavor may be present as mason nutty character all which may last into the finish top players of bitterness are low to medium low Alton pression should dominate diacetyl acceptable is low to none so realize it a little bit of basle in these beers carmelization is sometimes mistaken for Diana low to moderate esters esters may suggest plums razors right food fruit how is usually fold sweet but the finish may be sweet to medium fry let’s also talk about the southern English and the northern English let’s talk about those then we’ll go to the american beers we already talked about the english mild so we talked about southern english and northern English what was my autism on those two I meant throwing that one out yes sweet southern sweet southern New Castle northern good way to help you remember which ones which the southern name was Braun hard to find it’s rare there’s only one company making it man’s and I heard they were getting ready to stop making it said extremely sweet beer with lots of rich coffee and licorice and all kinds of flavors in it I think everyone feels it it’s pretty much back sweetman’s but I can’t recall if it actually says that it is but it is a very sweet beer most of people that make them they’re not what if you make something that that reads by the guidelines it’s nothing like man’s man’s is kind of way over the top the actual sweet southern English brown most of the homework versions are not that not that sweet ingredients he was pale malt as a base with a health healthy proportion of darker caramel walls of the dark caramel malts often some roasted black multi wheat malt moderate to high carbonation neelesh hop varieties are most authentic lo flavor and bitterness almost any type to be used increasingly rare man’s has over ninety percent of the market share in Britain some considered a bottle version

of a dark mild but the style is sweeter than virtually all modern examples of mile English brown ales or dare we split into 2 into sub Styles along geographic lines southern English or London style brown ales are darker sweeter and lower gravity look at the gravity only goes up to 4.1 on a southern only goes to 4 lower gravity than their northern cousins developed as a bottle product of the early 20th century of reaction against finest batted Porter and often unpalatable file well suited to London’s water supply overall impression a luscious malt oriented brown ale with a caramel dark root complexity of malt flavor may see someone like a small version of a sweet stout or a sweet version of a dark mild small version of a sweet stout have a good way to say this although it should be as prostie labor deep caramel or talking like multi sweetness on the palate lasting into the finish pens a biscuit and coffee are common they have a moderate dark fruit complexity low hop bitterness hop flavors low to non-existent little or no perceivable roast equal bitter black multi flavor little or no perceivable roasty or bitter black multi player okay so kind of like a sweet a small sweet style but not resting okay moderately sweet finished with a smooth multi aftertaste low to no diacetyl little now we’ll look at the northern again a very very short description English mild ale or pale ale won’t base with caramel malts Betsy breeds may also have small amounts of darker balls such as chocolate to provide color and a nutty character English top of righties average ABV writing that four and a half five percent range I’d be used 20 to 30 so similar to other multi beers like oktoberfests and the Irish and the Scottish just enough to help dry out the finish they’re still there more mulch focused beers or actually this one’s fairly balanced the northern is fairly balanced between medium lied to me your body overall impression drier and more hop oriented than the southern drier and more pop-oriented with a nutty character rather than Ronald nutty flavor gentle to moderate malt sweetness with a nutty lightly caramel character remember the nutty matter of fact i’m going to add that to my ron ism right now nutty nor there newcastle right three ends may have a toasted biscuity or talking like character medium to be low bitterness multi-hop balance is nearly even with hop flavor low to none UK rides some fruity esters can be present low diacetyl always little little gas hose okay newcastle has it always remember that especially butterscotch optional but acceptable American pale ale American amber ale American brown ale pretty simple beers can study them together these are not they’re just they’re not complex beers look at the ABD all of them four and a half six point two four and a half 6.2 4.3 26.2 so four and a half to six is the range for these three America nails all of these are using pale malt as a base the the pale ale I think a lot of people are they a lot of people try to do too much with pale ales and Sierra Nevada freakin nailed it they nail it you know it’s a simple beer it’s a simple grain bill it’s a bunch of ops and I think people try so hard to differentiate themselves and make something that is uniquely theirs that sometimes they lose the spirit of the denial and I understand wanting to be unique and want to do your

they but it gets hard people start putting biscuit malta and they start putting way too much crystal malt in and starts turning amber in color and all these things i think it’s losing the spirit of a pale ale but there is a color range and a little bit a little bit of specialty malt is okay it’s okay to do that but let’s read it so Sierra Nevada classic example 30 to 45 ibus I say they’re generally higher you know in that higher range of 35 to 45 even towards the height of that overall impression refreshing and hoppy yet with sufficient supporting vault ingredients pale ale wall typically American to row American pops often but not always once with citrusy character but doesn’t have to have that citrusy character but sure seems to make the plastic the more classic example american ale yeast water can vary and sulfate content with carbon content should be relatively low specialty grains make add character and complexity but generally make up a relatively small portion of the grist grains that add multiplier and richness like sweetness and toasty or bready notes are often used along with hops to differentiate brains okay we look at flavor usually a moderate to high hop flavor often showing showing a citrusy American hop character often grapefruit e type of citrus other hop varieties may be used loads moderately high clean bulk character supports the hop presentation may optionally show small amounts of special team all characters small amounts of specialty home character ready toasty biscuity the balance is typically towards the late hops and bitterness but the mall presence could be substantial caramel flavors are usually restrained or absent everyone understand what I just said carmly– flavors are usually restrained or absent that means barely there or not there at all and how many people you know how many of you guys when you make that of american ale ale but have pound of the crystallinity to give character a lot of people do that everybody seems to want to do that when I stopped doing it I made my best pale ales they don’t need it Maris Otter Tail ball it’s all you need a bunch of hops makes a really good beer they’re making up if you pay if you put too much carb over there you know just put a little more in make an Amber that’s my phone so when you’re judging these beers be careful when they start getting too amber in color they start getting too much car whole character they’re really outside the style if you’ve got a demon for that you just have to no diacetyl dry hopping mad grassy nose although this character should not be excessive aroma usually moderate to strong hop aroma from dry hopping or late petal additions for American hop varieties a citrusy hop character is very common but not required low to moderate maltiness supports the hot presentation and may optionally shows small amounts of specialty mall character I need ready toasty biscuity no mention caramel fruity esters vary from moderate to not know dazzled dry hopping if you stay aggressive as well mobloc they’ll golden to but then here’s the rub with me here’s the rub pale golden to deep amber I know this is this to me this is messed up it’s just messed up are you going to get a deep amber pale ale but far too often these beers are to calmly if you look all through the notes here you’re looking at a beer that should be very low in should be very low in color and amber yet under appearance it says they can go too deep amber and under SRM it says they can go to 40 alright so now now let’s go quickly to the American amber pale ale mall typically to row and plus some medium to dark crystal balls okay so now we start adding the crystal balls make me also contains of specialty grains which add character and uniqueness hops are often

citrusy but don’t have to be color 10 to 17 now that’s what I expect in a pale flavor moderate to high hop flavor of America hop varieties which often iOS citrusy quality multipliers are moderate to strong usually show an initial multi sweetness followed by a moderate caramel flavor and sometimes other character malls and lesser amounts IE visted and stuff like that multan hop bitterness are usually balanced to call this the Goldilocks beer because everything is just right balance mutually supportive for the answers can be modern to none caramel sweetness of hoppy flavor / bitterness could linger somewhat into the medium to full finish and no diacetyl we bought up to the American Brown while modified pale Walt either American or continental plus crystal and darker balls should complete the malt bill American hops are typical but UK or noble house can now be used in these labor medium to high multi flavors often with caramel toasty and or chocolate flavors medium to medium-high bitterness the medium to medium dry finish provides an aftertaste having both malted hops hop flavor can be light to moderate so I always say these three beers are kind of inverse proportional when it comes to malt and hops the pale should really be a simple grain bill it should be all about the hops the brown on the other end is the hops can start to be diminished and start playing much more supportable and it’s really about more of a nutty and caramel malt character with a supporting role of the hops so it’s more featuring the vault the Goldilocks beer a beautiful wonderful West Coast style amber right there middle has a wonderful balance of a caramel malt and an American hop character that balance well if you look at the American amber you see that the IBU range is 25 to 40 so yeah 25 and that’s not a that’s not a bitter bitter bitter at all and I think I’ve mentioned this in other classes there’s a lot of I think a lot of brew pubs and people make American Amber’s and they don’t want to go overboard with the hops they usually have a pale ale the use of have an IPA they don’t need another copy here they need a sweet caramel tea beer which is a great gateway here people trying to move it to graph here so a lot of brew pubs and stuff will make that that beer more of a speeder it’s still within range but West Coast IPA is just tend to say heck with that these beers should be american beers have American hop character out a nice level and should be bitter and all that so alright so that’s kind of it on those three styles a general note about judging I think I’ve mentioned yet is this power to understand but it’s hard to understand because as judges we’re trying to be critical and we’re trying to find any pulse in the beer so you’re trying to look at it intensely right but do that with caution do that with caution because if you look too hard you can find something that’s not there let’s stuff you kind of hit you in the face a little bit right you got to look too hard board it’s not there if something’s evident and it’s off to you you’re going to notice it it’s going to be there then you maybe have to figure out what it is that’s that’s disturbing you but don’t look so hard for the bolts that you find stuff that’s not there that’s a very common judge mistake learning the judge the steak is a little too hard for stuff find stuff that’s not there and just kind of be overly critical you’ll know when stuffs off look for that stuff look for the stuff that’s really there its prominent it’s in your face if it’s not probably not there let it go maybe it’s a good beer I always kind of finish up my judging when I finished up the score sheet right

I do each section as we’ve talked about then I come up with my final score then I look at that final score and see and compare it to the chart make sure I agree with myself that yep that’s about where i should be on the sphere or where did I how did I come up with that and maybe make some adjustments so that I hadn’t come into agreement with myself and then after I’ve kind of done all that I just kind of go back to the beer and and stop judging for a second stop thinking about the scoresheet something but everything it’s done put it away and then just think okay marriage is brown so I like that is that a good American brown ale without being critical at all just take a break and say you I like is that a good beer on the style right that’s kind of way to sum it up to me that’s my way to summon because then I can go back and look at my school and again make sure I agree with myself sometimes when you’re being overly critical and you’re trying to look for those faults you know you’re blinded little things and nitpicking the hell out of stuff and blah blah blah maybe you’ve overdone and then you go back and just drink it go actually that’s pretty darn good Peter or that’s not as good a beer why did I get us into high school just kind of give it that last drink at some point and just kind of stopped being a judge for a second and just picture yourself in a pub and you just order American brown whatever that style is you’re judging just take a drink of it and see what you think about it’s not the side it’s very unfortunate because you have to you have to score it as the style is inner and then in your comments explain that ya next time or put the spirit of different category it happened to actually a mark it does happen alive and sometimes it’s a mistake and the other thing that happens the other thing that happens a lot is people set out to brew a certain style they set out to brew style and they have it in her mind that that’s what that style is and it never changes even after they taste it and still in their mind and I set out to brew I set out to brew this that’s what it is never named your beer till you taste the finished product because sometimes you go back you taste that finished profit it’s like well that’s not what I meant to brew that’s a pretty good beer of a different style so slide it into that different style and be done with it you